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Network Design (IP Address dan Subnetting). Tujuan Mengenal IP Address, bisa mengidentifikasinya dan bisa menggunakannya dalam membangun jaringan. Bisa.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Network Design (IP Address dan Subnetting). Tujuan Mengenal IP Address, bisa mengidentifikasinya dan bisa menggunakannya dalam membangun jaringan. Bisa."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Network Design (IP Address dan Subnetting)

2 Tujuan Mengenal IP Address, bisa mengidentifikasinya dan bisa menggunakannya dalam membangun jaringan. Bisa memperbanyak network address dengan melakukan subnetting. Bisa mengetahui block IP sebuah subnet dengan membaca sebuah CIDR notation.

3 IP Address An IP address is a number that uniquely identifies every host on an IP network. IPv4, menggunakan 4 byte (32 bit) alamatberupa32 String binary bits. IPv6, menggunakan 16 byte (128 bit). Supaya IP address lebih mudah dibaca, dotted decimal notation digunakan untuk membagi address dalam 4 bytes terpisah dengan format W.X.Y.Z Contoh :

4 IP Address IP stands for Internet Protocol, and its primary purpose is to enable communications between networks. a 32-bit IP address actually consists of two parts: The network ID (or network address): Identifies the network on which a host computer can be found. The host ID (or host address): Identifies a specific device on the network indicated by the network ID.

5 Peraturan-Peraturan IP Address Angka 127 dioktet pertama digunakan untuk loopback. Angka dikenal sebagai localhost Network ID tidak boleh semuanya terdiri dari angka 0 atau 1 Host ID tidak boleh semuanya terdiri dari angka 0 atau 1. BilasemuaNetwork ID atauHost ID semuanya berupa angka biner 1, sehingga dapat ditulis menjadi, maka alamat ini disebut flooded broadcast.

6 Pembagian Kelas IP Address Menggunakan metode yang disebut dengan istilah IP Address Classes. The IP protocol defines five different address classes: A, B, C, D, and E. The first three classes, A through C, each use a different size for the network ID and host ID portion of the address. Class D is for a special type of address called a multicast address. Class E is an experimental address class that isn’t used.

7 Pembagian Kelas IP Address The first four bits of the IP address are used to determine into which class a particular address fits, as follows: If the first bit is a zero, the address is a Class A address. If the first bit is one and if the second bit is zero, the address is a Class B address. If the first two bits are both one and if the third bit is zero, the address is a Class C address. If the first three bits are all one and if the fourth bit is zero, the address is a Class D address. If the first four bits are all one, the address is a Class E address.

8 Pembagian Kelas IP Address


10 KelasA Network ID = W, Host ID = X.Y.Z Default Subnet Mask = Range 1 S/d. 126 Jumlah Network = 126, Jumlah Host = 16777214 Oktet Pertama dimulai dengan angka biner 0

11 Pembagian Kelas IP Address KelasB Network ID = W.X, Host ID = Y.Z Default Subnet Mask = Range 128 S/d. 191 Jumlah Network = 16384, Jumlah Host = 65534 Oktet pertama dimulai dengan angka biner 10

12 Pembagian Kelas IP Address KelasC Network ID = W.X.Y, Host ID = Z Default Subnet Mask = Range 192 S/d. 223 Jumlah Network = 2097152 Jumlah Host = 254 Oktet pertama dimulai dengan angka biner 110

13 Pembagian Kelas IP Address KelasD KhususuntuktujuanMulticasting Oktetpertamadimulaidenganangkabiner1110 KelasE Reserved dantidakdipakaiuntukumum Oktetpertamadimulaidenganangkabiner1111

14 Network Prefix Notation Network prefix notation is also called classless interdomain routing notation, or just CIDR for short, because it provides a way of indicating which portion of an address is the network ID and which is the host ID without relying on standard address classes.

15 Subnetting Subnetting is a technique that lets network administrators use the 32 bits available in an IP address more efficiently by creating networks that aren’t limited to the scales provided by Class A, B, and C IP addresses. With subnetting, you can create networks with more realistic host limits. Subnetting provides a more flexible way to designate which portion of an IP address represents the network ID and which portion represents the host ID. With standard IP address classes, only three possible network ID sizes exist: 8 bits for Class A, 16 bits for Class B, and 24 bits for Class C. Subnetting lets you select an arbitrary number of bits to use for the network ID.

16 Private and Public IP Address Any host with a direct connection to the Internet must have a globally unique IP address. However, not all hosts are connected directly to the Internet. Some are on networks that are not connected to the Internet. Some hosts are hidden behind firewalls, so their Internet connection is indirect.

17 Subnetting Two reasons compel people to use subnetting: is to allocate the limited IP address space more efficiently. For performance reasons. Network ID dapat diperbanyak dengan cara mengorbankan sebagian Host ID disebut dengan Subnetting.

18 Subnetting

19 Sebuah IP Address yang berada pada kelas B dengan nomor Network ID, subnet mask dapat diperbanyak sesuai dengan kebutuhan subnet yang ingin dibuat dengan perhitungan sebagai berikut: Jumlah Subnet = 2 n - 2 di mana n merupakan jumlah bit Host ID yang ingin dikorbankan. Berarti jika n = 3, maka jumlah subnet yang didapat adalah 6. selanjutnya IP Address ini diterjemahkan dulu ke biner sebagai berikut: 10001010.01011000.00000000.00000000 di mana 000 merupakan tiga bit Host ID teratas yang ingin dikorbankan.

20 Subnetting Dari tiga bit tersebut didapat delapan buah kombinasi sebagai berikut: 000  tidak digunakan karena menyatakan alamat jaringan 001 010 011 100 101 110 111  t idak digunakan karena menyatakan alamat broadcast

21 Subnetting Dengan demikian hanya terdapat 6 kelompok IP yang bisa digunakan sebagai berikut: Kelompok 001 10001010.01011000.00100000.00000001( s/d 10001010.01011000.00111111.11111110( Kelompok 010 10001010.01011000.01000000.00000001( s/d 10001010.01011000.01011111.11111110(

22 Subnetting Kelompok 011 10001010.01011000.01100000.00000001( s/d 10001010.01011000.01111111.11111110( Kelompok 100 10001010.01011000.10000000.00000001( s/d 10001010.01011000.10011111.11111110(

23 Subnetting Kelompok 101 10001010.01011000.10100000.00000001( s/d 10001010.01011000.10111111.11111110( Kelompok 110 10001010.01011000.11000000.00000001( s/d 10001010.01011000.11011111.11111110(

24 Subnetting Subnet Mask setelah Subnetting adalah : 11111111.11111111.11100000.00000000 (

25 Subnetting a few additional restrictions that are placed on subnets and subnet masks. In particular: The minimum number of network ID bits is eight. As a result, the first octet of a subnet mask is always 255. The maximum number of network ID bits is 30. You have to leave at least two bits for the host ID portion of the address to allow for at least two hosts. If you used all 32 bits for the network ID, that would leave no bits for the host ID. Obviously, that won’t work. Leaving just one bit for the host ID won’t work, either. That’s because a host ID of all ones is reserved for a broadcast address and all zeros refers to the network itself. Thus, if you used 31 bits for the network ID and left only one for the host ID, host ID 1 would be used for the broadcast address and host ID 0 would be the network itself, leaving no room for actual hosts. That’s why the maximum network ID size is 30 bits.

26 Subnetting Because the network ID portion of a subnet mask is always composed of consecutive bits set to 1, only nine values are possible for each octet of a subnet mask: 0, 128, 192, 224, 248, 252, 254, and 255. A subnet address can’t be all zeros or all ones. Thus, the number of unique subnet addresses is two less than two raised to the number of subnet address bits. For example, with three subnet address bits, six unique subnet addresses are possible (23 - 2 = 6). This implies that you must have at least two subnet bits. (If a single-bit subnet mask were allowed, it would violate the “can’t be all zeros or all ones” rule because the only two allowed values would be 0 or 1.)

27 IP block parties A subnet can be thought of as a range or block of IP addresses that have a common network ID. For example, the CIDR represents the following block of 14 IP addresses:

28 IP Block Parties Given an IP address in CIDR notation, it’s useful to be able to determine the range of actual IP addresses that the CIDR represents. This matter is straightforward when the octet within which the network ID mask ends happens to be 0, as in the preceding example. You just determine how many host IDs are allowed based on the size of the network ID and count them off.

29 IP Block Parties For example, what are the valid IP addresses for when the subnet mask is In that case, the calculation is a little harder. The first step is to determine the actual network ID. You can do that by converting both the IP address and the subnet mask to binary and then extracting the network ID as in this example:

30 IP Block Parties Next, determine the number of allowable hosts in the subnet based on the network prefix. You can calculate this by subtracting the last octet of the subnet mask from 254. In this case, the number of allowable hosts is 14. To determine the first IP address in the block, add 1 to the network ID. Thus, the first IP address in my example is To determine the last IP address in the block, add the number of hosts to the network ID. In my example, the last IP address is As a result, the with subnet mask designates the following block of IP addresses:

31 IP Block Parties

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