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Ekonomi dan Kerja. Apa itu Ekonomi? The economy operates in a predictable manner. The economy operates in a predictable manner. Goods: Commodities ranging.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Ekonomi dan Kerja. Apa itu Ekonomi? The economy operates in a predictable manner. The economy operates in a predictable manner. Goods: Commodities ranging."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Ekonomi dan Kerja

2 Apa itu Ekonomi? The economy operates in a predictable manner. The economy operates in a predictable manner. Goods: Commodities ranging from necessities to luxury items Goods: Commodities ranging from necessities to luxury items Services: Activities that benefit others Services: Activities that benefit others The economies of modern high-income nations are the result of centuries of social change. The economies of modern high-income nations are the result of centuries of social change. Institusi sosial yang mengatur proses produksi,distribusi dan konsumsi barang dan jasa dalam sebuah masyarakat

3 Agricultural Revolution Masyarakat mula-mula adalah para pemburu dan gatherers dan tidak ada perbedaan ekonomi. Masyarakat mula-mula adalah para pemburu dan gatherers dan tidak ada perbedaan ekonomi. Faktor yang membedakan ekonomi dengan institusi sosial adalah : Faktor yang membedakan ekonomi dengan institusi sosial adalah : –Tehnologi pertanian –Spesialisasi kerja –Permanent settlements –Perdagangan

4 The Industrial Revolution New sources of energies New sources of energies –Steam-fueled machine operation Centralization of work in factories Centralization of work in factories –Impersonal factories replaced cottage industries. Manufacturing and mass production Manufacturing and mass production –Turning raw materials into a wide range of products

5 The Industrial Revolution Specialization Specialization –Diverse division of labor and lower overall skill requirements Wage labor Wage labor –Working for strangers with intense supervision

6 The Information Revolution and Postindustrial Society Postindustrial economy– Sebuah sistem produksi berdasarkan sektor jasa dan teknologi tinggi Postindustrial economy– Sebuah sistem produksi berdasarkan sektor jasa dan teknologi tinggi The information revolution has altered the fundamental character of work in three ways: The information revolution has altered the fundamental character of work in three ways: –From tangible products to intangible ideas –From mechanical skills to literacy skills –From factories to almost anywhere

7 Sectors of the Economy Primary sector Primary sector –Generates raw materials from the environment Secondary sector Secondary sector –Transforms raw materials into manufactured goods Tertiary sector Tertiary sector –Generates services rather than goods

8 The Global Economy Global economy– memperluas aktivitas ekonomi dengan sedikit Expanding economic activity with little regard to national borders Global economy– memperluas aktivitas ekonomi dengan sedikit Expanding economic activity with little regard to national borders This activity has four major consequences: This activity has four major consequences: –Pembagian kerja secara global –Barang tersebar di berbagai negara –Pemerintah Pusat tidak lagi mengendalikan aktivitas perekonomian walau dalam batasa negara mereka. –Beberapa kelompok usaha memiliki kontrol terhadap tingkat kekayaan dunia.

9 Capitalism “Justice” in a capitalist system amounts to marketplace freedom. “Justice” in a capitalist system amounts to marketplace freedom. Three distinct features: Three distinct features: –Private ownership of property –Pursuit of personal profit –Competition and consumer choice An economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are privately owned

10 Socialism “Justice” in a socialist context means meeting everyone’s basic needs in a roughly equal manner. “Justice” in a socialist context means meeting everyone’s basic needs in a roughly equal manner. Three distinct features: Three distinct features: –Collective ownership of property –Pursuit of collective goals –Government control of the economy An economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are collectively owned

11 Alternative Systems Communism–A hypothetical economic and political system in which all members of a society are socially equal Communism–A hypothetical economic and political system in which all members of a society are socially equal Welfare capitalism–An economic and political system that combines a mostly market-based economy with extensive social welfare programs Welfare capitalism–An economic and political system that combines a mostly market-based economy with extensive social welfare programs State capitalism–An economic and political system in which companies are privately owned but cooperate closely with the government State capitalism–An economic and political system in which companies are privately owned but cooperate closely with the government

12 Tahapan sistem ekonomi Indonesia Era pra-kemerdekaan adalah masa di mana kapitalisme mencengkeram erat Indonesia, dalam bentuk yang paling ekstrim. Pada masa ini, Belanda sebagai agen kapitalisme benar-benar mengisi tiap sudut tubuh bangsa Indonesia dengan ide-ide kapitalisme dari Eropa. Dengan ide kapitalisme itu, seharusnya bangsa Indonesia bisa berada dalam kelas pemilik modal. Tetapi, sebagai pemilik, bangsa Indonesia dirampok hak-haknya. Sebuah bangsa yang seharusnya menjadi tuan di tanahnya sendiri, harus menjadi budak dari sebuah bangsa asing (KOLONIALIS) Era pra-kemerdekaan adalah masa di mana kapitalisme mencengkeram erat Indonesia, dalam bentuk yang paling ekstrim. Pada masa ini, Belanda sebagai agen kapitalisme benar-benar mengisi tiap sudut tubuh bangsa Indonesia dengan ide-ide kapitalisme dari Eropa. Dengan ide kapitalisme itu, seharusnya bangsa Indonesia bisa berada dalam kelas pemilik modal. Tetapi, sebagai pemilik, bangsa Indonesia dirampok hak-haknya. Sebuah bangsa yang seharusnya menjadi tuan di tanahnya sendiri, harus menjadi budak dari sebuah bangsa asing (KOLONIALIS) Era sesudah kemerdekaan sistem perekonomian Indonesia berdasarkan asas kekeluargaan. Asas ini lekat sekali dengan ide-ide Pak Hatta, mengenai sebuah bentuk perekonomian yang oleh beliau dianggap paling sesuai dengan masyarakat Indonesia. Dengan ide inilah Pak Hatta menggagas satu badan ekonomi Indonesia yang di kenal dengan “koperasi”. Era sesudah kemerdekaan sistem perekonomian Indonesia berdasarkan asas kekeluargaan. Asas ini lekat sekali dengan ide-ide Pak Hatta, mengenai sebuah bentuk perekonomian yang oleh beliau dianggap paling sesuai dengan masyarakat Indonesia. Dengan ide inilah Pak Hatta menggagas satu badan ekonomi Indonesia yang di kenal dengan “koperasi”. Era Orde baru dan reformasi sistem ekonomi Indonesia adalah sintesa antara kapitalisme dan sosialisme. Era Orde baru dan reformasi sistem ekonomi Indonesia adalah sintesa antara kapitalisme dan sosialisme.

13 Sistem Ekonomi Indonesia (Kompas,2009) Untuk menjadi suatu bangunan yang utuh, pasal-pasal dalam konstitusi tidak seharusnya ditafsirkan secara parsial. Empat komponen sistem ekonomi yang harus ada dalam sistem ekonomi Indonesia adalah tatanan tentang kepemilikan, tatanan mengenai pelaku atau agen ekonomi, tatanan tentang penyelenggaraan kegiatan ekonomi, dan tatanan tentang kesejahteraan masyarakat. Untuk menjadi suatu bangunan yang utuh, pasal-pasal dalam konstitusi tidak seharusnya ditafsirkan secara parsial. Empat komponen sistem ekonomi yang harus ada dalam sistem ekonomi Indonesia adalah tatanan tentang kepemilikan, tatanan mengenai pelaku atau agen ekonomi, tatanan tentang penyelenggaraan kegiatan ekonomi, dan tatanan tentang kesejahteraan masyarakat.

14 Capitalism vs. Socialism Economic productivity Economic productivity –GDP is $13,500 Economic equality Economic equality –More income disparity Personal freedom Personal freedom –Emphasizes freedom to pursue personal self-interest Economic productivity Economic productivity –GDP is $5,000 Economic equality Economic equality –Less income disparity Personal freedom Personal freedom –Emphasizes freedom from basic want No system has yet been able to offer both political freedom and economic equality

15 Work in the Postindustrial Economy The dual labor market The dual labor market –Primary labor market–Jobs that provide extensive benefits to workers –Secondary labor market–Jobs that provide minimal benefits to workers Labor unions–Organizations of workers that seek to improve wages and working conditions through various strategies Labor unions–Organizations of workers that seek to improve wages and working conditions through various strategies Decline of unions Decline of unions –Shrinking industrial sector –Service jobs are unlikely to be unionized.

16 Professions Theoretical knowledge Theoretical knowledge Self-regulated practice Self-regulated practice Authority over clients Authority over clients Orientation to community rather than self- interest Orientation to community rather than self- interest Prestigious white-collar occupations that require extensive formal education

17 Self-Employment, Unemployment, and Underemployment Self-employment–Earning a living without being on the payroll of a large organization Self-employment–Earning a living without being on the payroll of a large organization Every society has some unemployment. Every society has some unemployment. Jobs disappear as: Jobs disappear as: –occupations become obsolete. –businesses change the way they do business. –companies downsize or close.

18 Underemployment: Lower salaries, fewer benefits, and reduced/no pensions Underemployment: Lower salaries, fewer benefits, and reduced/no pensions Many workers agree to cuts in pay and/or benefits. Many workers agree to cuts in pay and/or benefits. Self-Employment, Unemployment, and Underemployment

19 The Underground Economy Most of us occasionally participate in the underground economy in small ways. Most of us occasionally participate in the underground economy in small ways. Much of the underground economy is due to criminal activity. Much of the underground economy is due to criminal activity. The largest segment is people who fail to report legally earned income on their tax returns. The largest segment is people who fail to report legally earned income on their tax returns. Economic activity involving income not reported to the government as required by law

20 Race and Gender in the Workplace In the past, white men have been the mainstay of the US labor force. In the past, white men have been the mainstay of the US labor force. In the future, more workers will be women and minorities. In the future, more workers will be women and minorities. The workplace must develop programs and policies that meet the needs of a socially diverse workforce and encourage everyone to work together effectively and respectfully. The workplace must develop programs and policies that meet the needs of a socially diverse workforce and encourage everyone to work together effectively and respectfully.

21 New Information Technology and Work Computers are de-skilling labor. Computers are de-skilling labor. Computers are making work more abstract. Computers are making work more abstract. Computers limit workplace interaction. Computers limit workplace interaction. Computers increase employers' control of workers. Computers increase employers' control of workers. Computers allow companies to relocate work. Computers allow companies to relocate work.

22 Corporations A few large corporations dominate the US economy. A few large corporations dominate the US economy. Economic concentration has created the conglomerate, a giant corporation comprising many smaller corporations. Economic concentration has created the conglomerate, a giant corporation comprising many smaller corporations. Federal law forbids monopoly, the domination of a market by a single producer. Federal law forbids monopoly, the domination of a market by a single producer. Oligopoly, the domination of a market by a few producers, is legal and common. Oligopoly, the domination of a market by a few producers, is legal and common. Organizations with a legal existence, including rights and liabilities, apart from those of its members


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