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Calista Dyah Amalia13/345256/SP/25526 Eni Fatihatun khasanah12/328720/SP/25095 Annisa Nur Rahmatika13/349888/SP/25868 Ananda Kumba Bhakti13/348439/SP/25778.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Calista Dyah Amalia13/345256/SP/25526 Eni Fatihatun khasanah12/328720/SP/25095 Annisa Nur Rahmatika13/349888/SP/25868 Ananda Kumba Bhakti13/348439/SP/25778."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Calista Dyah Amalia13/345256/SP/25526 Eni Fatihatun khasanah12/328720/SP/25095 Annisa Nur Rahmatika13/349888/SP/25868 Ananda Kumba Bhakti13/348439/SP/25778 Febi Rachmadewi12/328768/SP/25143 Agung Priambodo13/349980/SP/25909

2   Sugimoto, Y., An Introduction to Japanese Society Third Edition, Cambridge University Press, New York,  Hendry, J., Understanding Japanese Society Second Edition, Routledge, New York,  Fukuoka, Y. & Tsujiyama, Y. (translation: Russel, J.G.), ‘MINTOHREN: Young Koreans Against Ethnic Discrimination in Japan,’ The Bulletin of Chiba College of Health Science, vol.10, no.2, 1992, pp. 147–62.  Fukuoka, Y., Lives of Young Koreans in Japan, Trans Pacific Press, Melbourne, 2000, pp  The Immigration Bureau of Japan Referensi

3   Japan has a uniquely homogeneous society both racially and ethnically and it’s define as the mono-ethnic Japanese society.  Japanese society has a doctrine of wakon y¯osai (Japanese spirit and Western technology) which assumes that the spiritual, moral, and cultural life of the Japanese should not be corrupted by foreign influences.  But globalization have been made Japan society to more tolerant and free from bigotry. Contemporary Japanese society is caught between the contradictory forces of narrow ethnocentrism and open internationalization.  On 2009 Japan’s Institute of Statistical Mathematics made a survey with a research question: “Do you think the Japanese are superior or inferior to Westerners?” and the generally result is told that Japanese society is superior to Westerners, but in each era has a different perceptions about Westerners. I. Japanese Ethnocentrism and Globalization

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5   Japan has a variety of minority issues, ethnic and otherwise. Some 5% of the Japanese population can be classified as members of minority groups. The minority issues are the ura and uchi realities of contemporary Japanese society.  Minority groups in Japan are Burakumin, Resident Koreans Ainu, and Foreign workers. These minority groups bring to the fore the fundamental question of who the Japanese (Nihonjin) really are. II. Deconstructing the ‘Japanese’

6   There are 7 aspects of Japaneseness: nationality, ethnic language competence, place of birth, current residence, subjective identity, and level of cultural literacy.

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8   Tanabe classifies all respondents in terms of the extent to which: (1)They are inclusive or exclusive in defining who the Japanese are (2)They are proud of Japan politically (3)They are proud of Japanese culture (4)They are prone to accept foreigners into Japan Table 7.5 shows that contemporary Japanese form four clusters with respect to their national identities.

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10  Istilah Buraku berarti sebuah dusun kecil, atau kelompok masyarakat desa. Penduduk dusun Buraku disebut Burakumin. Rezim Feodal Tokugawa : Pengklasifikasian penduduk berdasarkan sistem kelas. Ada 4 sistem kelas dalam pengklasifikasian penduduk tersebut, yaitu : - Tingkatan pertama yaitu ksatria ( samurai-warriors ) - Tingkatan kedua yaitu petani - Tingkatan ketiga yaitu pengrajin - Tingkatan keempat yaitu pedagang Tetapi, sistem kelas tersebut tidak berlaku untuk penduduk yang tergolong Burakumin. Mereka ditempatkan diluar tingkatan tersebut atau ditempatkan di lingkungan terpisah. Permasalahan Buraku

11  Ada dua jenis orang “buangan” dalam kelompok masyarakat, yaitu : 1. Eta, secara harfiah berarti cukup kotor atau sangat kotor. Terdiri dari beberapa kelompok: pekerja di industri kulit, termasuk orang- orang yang menyembelih hewan dan orang-orang yang memproduksi kerajinan kulit; pengrajin berpangkat rendah, seperti tukang celup, pengrajin bambu dan logam; pekerja transportasi, termasuk pelaut; buruh Kuil dan Candi; pekerja irigasi dan penjaga bidang pertanian 2. Hinin, secara harfiah berarti orang-orang yang bukan manusia. Terdiri dari penghibur, pengemis, algojo, dan sebagainya. Dipandang lebih rendah daripada kaum Eta, orang-orang dalam kategori Hinin diizinkan untuk naik ke status tidak terbuang (dalam keadaan terbatas), sedangkan yang berada dalam kategori eta itu tidak Permasalahan Buraku

12  Diskriminasi terhadap kaum Burakumin : dalam pernikahan, ketenagakerjaan, pendidikan dan beberapa sektor lainnya. Pada tahun 1969, Pemerintah mengeluarkan Undang-Undang Anti Diskriminasi. Hal tersebut merupakan upaya untuk melawan diskriminasi terhadap kaum Buraku. Undang-undang ini menjamin bahwa Pemerintah memberikan dukungan keuangan bagi pembangunan yang akan meningkatkan kondisi ekonomi, perumahan dan pendidikan kaum Burakumin. Organisasi Buraku, bernama Suiheisha (1922). Organisasi tersebut berkomitmen pada kesetaraan hak manusia. Organisasi ini sempat dibubarkan pada saat Perang Dunia II, dan dihidupkan kembali menjadi Buraku Kaiho Domei (the Buraku Liberation League). Permasalahan Buraku

13   Penduduk Korea dibawa ke Jepang pasca kolonialisasi Jepang (1910) sebagai buruh murah untuk tambang, konstruksi, dan pembuatan kapal.  Penduduk Korea disebut sebagai zainichi Korean. Terbagi menjadi 2: Mindan ( South-oriented ) dan Chongryun ( North-affiliated ).  Mengalami diskriminasi dalam hal pekerjaan dan perumahan. Munculnya Mintohren.  Persoalan kewarganegaraan, nama, pernikahan, ekonomi, dan pendidikan. IV Korean Residents

14  Four identity types of Korean youth in Japan (Fukuoka Yasunori)

15   Menurut the Immigration Bureau of Japan, pada 2010 terdapat zainichi Korean (tidak termasuk naturalized Japanese citizens ).  Permasalahan identitas.  Perbedaan pandangan antara Mindan dan Chongryun.  Afiliasi Chongryun dan Korea Utara  mendapat banyak kecaman di Jepang karena persoalan pendanaan ilegal, persoalan nuklir, penculikan WN Jepang pada periode IV Korean Residents

16   The Ainu race, the indigeneous population of northern Japan, now comprises persons and households living mainly in Hokkaido.  For more than ten centuries, they’ve suffered a series of attemps by Japan’s central government to invade and deprive them of their land, and (to totally) assimilate them culturally and linguistically.  Under pressure, the Japanese government and parliament formally recognized the Ainu as an indigeneous people of Japan in  Immediately after the Meiji Restoration, the Tokyo government took steps to designate Hokkaido as ‘ownerless land’, confiscated the Ainu land, and established a governmental Land Development Bureau.  Until recently, the national government regarded the Ainu as an underdeveloped and uncivilized race, took a high-handed assimilation policy, and demolished much of the Ainu traditional culture. Indigeneous Ainu

17   The Sapporo District Court ruled in favor of the Ainu in 1997 and recognized their indigeneous rights.  Occupationally, many Ainu work in primary industry or the construction industry, with a considerable number being employed as casual day laborers.  Sharing a plight common to aboriginal people subjected to the commercial forces of the industrialized world, Ainu have often been portrayed as leading exotic lives and made showpieces for the tourism industry.

18   The Ainu community is increasingly cautious about the exploitation of the curiousity value of their arts and crafts.  Nonetheless, the fact remains that Ainu culture differs in many respects from the culture of the majority of Japanese, bearing further testimony to the diversity of Japanese ways of life.  The continuance of discrimination and prejudice against Ainu prompted the Hokkaido Ainu Association to alter its name to the Hokkaido Utari Association to avoid the negative image of the Ainu label.  After, in 1977, the Japanese parliament put into effect a new law governing the Ainu population into effect, to ‘promote Ainu culture and disseminate knowledge about the Ainu tradition’.  This historic charter urged the Japanese public to recognize the existence of the Ainu ethnic community and its distinctive culture within Japan.

19   Foreigners resident in Japan increased dramatically in the 1980s and early 1990s.  An influx of workers from the Philippines, China, Brazil, Peru, Thailand, and other developing countries boosted the total number of foreign residents in Japan to nearly 2.22 million at the beginning of 2009, approximately 1,74 percent of the total population.  This situation has produced a significant diversification in the composition of the foreign population, with new migrants forming the fourth minority group in Japan.  Approximately half of them are employed as production process workers and laborers, most of whom are Latin American and Asian.  More than 10% work as professional and technical workers, many of whom are North American and British. Immigrant Workers from Overseas

20   The overwhelming majority of employers who hire foreign workers are themselves on the bottom rung of the subcontracting pyramid in construction and manufacturing, or are in the most financially shaky sectors of the service industry.  The ‘new-comer’ migrants do not form a monolithic block, many ‘self- actualization’ types exist alongside the stereotyped ‘money-seekers’.  There also the undocumented foreign workers, which should face numerous institutional and cultural barriers.  These workers have difficulty in accessing legal means, and the tightened police control has compelled some of them to go ‘underground’ and enabled Japan’s criminal and semi-criminal elements to manipulate them more easily.  The media tend to play up crimes committed by foreigners, fueling xenophobic apprehensions in the community.

21   Two stances compete regarding the ways in which Japan should accept non-Japanese as part of the nation.  One position contends that the country should admit only skilled workers, already well educated and well trained in their home countries.  The opposing position, which argues for the acceptance of unskilled workers, is partly based on the pragmatic consideration that the Japanese economy simply cannot survive without unskilled foreign workers filling the lowest segment of the nation’s labor force.  The grass-roots community attitudes to foreign residents in Japan are varied and diverse.  Many studies point out that Japanese nationals residing in areas in which foreigners live in large numbers tend to take a positive view towards them.  Conversely, Japanese who have less contact with foreign residents are likely to be more prejudicial and intolerant.

22   Research has also shown that the blue-collar workers and low income earners are likely to believe that Japanese society should remain monocultural and believe that there is neither race-based nor nationality-based inequality.  In contrast, multiculturalists who feel that Japan should accept foreign residents and believe that ethnic inequality is prevalent in Japan are well educated and white-collar and occupy relatively high socio- economic position in Japanese society.  They take an open-minded, egalitarian, and progressive stance, while enjoying a comfortable standing as the ‘victors’ of status competition.

23   Pasca Perang Dunia II, masyarakat Jepang semakin berupaya untuk masuk ke dalam masyarakat Internasional dan lebih berpola pikir global, termasuk kelompok-kelompok minoritas yang ada  Hingga tahun 1995 Jepang sendiri belum meratifikasi the International Convention of the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination  Masalah lain yang harus dihadapi oleh kaum minoritas ini ialah permasalahan untuk mempertahankan budaya mereka VII Problems and Pitfalls

24  1.Pebisnis Jepang dan keluarganya yang hidup di luar Jepang untuk mengatur operasi perusahaan Jepang di luar negeri namun masih berada di bawah pengawasan kantor pusat di Jepang 2.Warga negara Jepang yang memilih untuk tinggal di luar negeri secara semi permanen. 3.Warga negara asing yang tinggal di luar Jepang namun dengan lancer berbahasa Jepang. Orang-orang ini tidak hanya mengerti sisi omote namun juga memahami ura.Mereka merupakan orang-orang yang memahami Jepang secara linguistik dan intelektual, namun bukan warga negara resmi Jepang VIII Japan Beyond Japan

25   Globalisasi sedikit banyak telah mempengaruhi masayarakat Jepang dan telah menghasilkan banyak masyarakat Jepang yang hidup di luar teritori Jepang  Globalisasi telah menyebabkan arus pertukaran informasi, dan juga pergerakan manusia semakin tinggi. Sehingga tidak heran apabila kemudian terdapat banyak orang asing yang tinggal di Jepang dan orang Jepang yang tinggal di luar negeri Kesimpulan


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