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A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 7: Computer Crime1 PowerPoint ® Slides to Accompany A Gift of Fire : Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues for Computers and the.

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Presentasi berjudul: "A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 7: Computer Crime1 PowerPoint ® Slides to Accompany A Gift of Fire : Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues for Computers and the."— Transcript presentasi:

1 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 7: Computer Crime1 PowerPoint ® Slides to Accompany A Gift of Fire : Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues for Computers and the Internet (2nd Edition) by Sara Baase San Diego State University PowerPoint slides created by Sherry Clark Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall

2 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 7: Computer Crime2 A Gift of Fire Computer Crime  Hacking  Online Scams ( Penipuan Online)  Fraud, Embezzlement, Sabotage, Information Theft, and Forgery (Penipuan, Penggelapan, Sabotase, Pencurian Informasi, dan Pemalsuan)  Crime Fighting Versus Privacy and Civil Liberties ( Memerangi Kejahatan Privasi dan Kebebasan Sipil )

3 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 7: Computer Crime3 Introduction Computers Are Tools Computers assist us in our work, expand our thinking, and provide entertainment. (Komputer membantu kita dalam pekerjaan kita, memperluas pemikiran kita, dan memberikan hiburan) Computers Are Used to Commit Crimes Preventing, detecting, and prosecuting computer crime is a challenge. (Mencegah, mendeteksi, dan menuntut kejahatan komputer adalah sebuah tantangan)

4 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 7: Computer Crime4 Hacking The Phases of Hacking Phase One: The early years 1960s and 1970s. Originally, hacker referred to a creative programmer wrote clever code. The first operating systems and computer games were written by hackers. The term hacking was a positive term. Hackers were usually high-school and college students. Q : Describe a modern-day version of “clever” hacks.

5 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 7: Computer Crime5 Hacking The Phases of Hacking (cont’d) Phase Two: Hacking takes on a more negative meaning. 1970s through 1990s. Authors and the media used the term hacker to describe someone who used computers, without authorization, sometimes to commit crimes. Early computer crimes were launched against business and government computers. Adult criminals began using computers to commit their crimes. Q : Distinguish between the hacking done by Kevin Mitnick and Robert J. Morris.

6 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 7: Computer Crime6 Hacking The Phases of Hacking Phase Three: The Web Era Beginning in the mid-1990s. The increased use of the Internet for school, work, business transactions, and recreation makes it attractive to criminals with basic computer skills. Crimes include the release of malicious code (viruses and worms). Unprotected computers can be used, unsuspectingly, to accomplish network disruption or commit fraud. Hackers with minimal computer skills can create havoc by using malicious code written by others. Q : Why are denial-of-service attacks difficult to prevent?

7 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 7: Computer Crime7 Hacking Hactivism …is the use of hacking expertise to promote a political cause. This kind of hacking can range from mild to destructive activities. (Hacking semacam ini dapat berkisar dari ringan sampai kegiatan yang merusak) Some consider hactivism as modern-age civil disobedience.(Beberapa orang menganggap hactivism sebagai modern-usia pembangkangan sipil) Others believe hactivism denies others their freedom of speech and violates property rights.(Lainnya percaya hactivism menyangkal orang lain untuk bebas berbicara dan melanggar hak milik) Q : Argue the case that hactivism is ethical.

8 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 7: Computer Crime8 Hacking The Law Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA, 1986) It is a crime to access, alter, damage, or destroy information on a computer without authorization. Ini adalah kejahatan untuk mengakses, mengubah, merusak, atau merusak informasi pada komputer tanpa otorisasi Computers protected under this law include: –government computers,(Komputer Pemerintahan) –financial systems,(Sistem Perbankan) –medical systems,(Sistem Medis) –interstate commerce, and (Perdagangan) –any computer on the Internet.(komputer manapun di internet) Q : Is your personal computer protected under this law?

9 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 7: Computer Crime9 Hacking The Law (cont’d) USA Patriot Act (USAPA, 2001) Amends the CFAA. Allows for recovery of losses due to responding to a hacker attack, assessing damages, and restoring systems. Higher penalties can be levied against anyone hacking into computers belonging to criminal justice system or the military. The government can monitor online activity without a court order. Q : Are anti-hacking laws adequate?

10 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 7: Computer Crime10 Hacking Catching Hackers … requires law enforcement to recognize and respond to myriad hacking attacks.( penegakan hukum mengharuskan untuk mengenali dan menanggapi berbagai serangan hacking ) Computer forensics tools may include: Undercover agents, Honey pots (sting operations in cyberspace), Archives of online message boards, Tools for recovering deleted or coded information. Computer forensics agencies and services include: Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT), National Infrastructure Protection Center (NIPC), Private companies specializing in recovering deleted files and , tracking hackers via Web site and telephone logs, etc.. Q : What computer forensics tools or agencies have been in the news lately?

11 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 7: Computer Crime11 Hacking Questions About Penalties Intent Should hackers who did not intend to do damage or harm be punished differently than those with criminal intentions? (Haruskah hacker yang tidak berniat untuk melakukan kerusakan atau bahaya dihukum berbeda dibandingkan dengan niat kriminal) Age Should underage hackers receive a different penalty than adult hackers? (Harus hacker di bawah umur menerima hukuman berbeda dari hacker dewasa?) Damage Done Should the penalty correspond to the actual damage done or the potential for damage? (Seharusnya hukuman diberikan Jika denda sesuai dengan kerusakan yang sebenarnya dilakukan atau potensi kerusakan?)

12 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 7: Computer Crime12 Hacking Security Security weaknesses can be found in the computer systems used by: businesses,(Bisnis) government (classified and unclassified), and(pemerintahan) personal computers.(Komputer Pribadi) Causes of security weakness: characteristics of the Internet and Web,(Karakteristik dari internet dan web) human nature, (sifat manusia) inherent complexity of computer systems.(kompleksitas dari sistem komputer) Q : How secure is your computer at home? At work?

13 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 7: Computer Crime13 Hacking Security can be improved by: Ongoing education and training to recognize the risks.(Pendidikan yang berkelanjutan dan pelatihan untuk megatasi bahaya/resiko) Better system design.(perancangan sistem yang lebih baik) Use of security tools and systems.(menggunakan alat-alat untuk menunjang kemanan sistem) Challenging “others” to find flaws in systems.(Menantang "orang lain" untuk menemukan kelemahan dalam sistem) Writing and enforcing laws that don’t stymie research and advancement. (Menulis dan menegakkan hukum yang tidak menghalang penelitian dan kemajuan.) Q : Does weak security justify intrusion?

14 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 7: Computer Crime14 Online Scams Auctions (Lelang) Selling and buying goods online has become popular. Problems: sellers don’t send the goods, penjual tidak mengirim barang sellers send inferior goods, penjual mengirim barang murahan price is driven up by shill bidding,harga didorong oleh penawaran judi illegal goods sold.barang ilegal dijual Solutions: educate customers,mendidik konsumen read seller “reviews,”membaca mekanisme penjualan use third-party escrow, menggunakan pihak ketigaand more…

15 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 7: Computer Crime15 Fraud, Embezzlement, Sabotage, Identity Theft, and Forgery Some Causes of Fraud Credit-Card Stolen receipts, mailed notices, and cards. Interception of online transaction or weak e-commerce security. Careless handling by card-owner. ATM Stolen account numbers and PINs. Insider knowledge. A counterfeit ATM. Telecommunications Stolen long-distance PINs. Cloned phones. Q : What is the legal definition of fraud? Embezzlement? Sabotage? Theft?

16 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 7: Computer Crime16 Fraud, Embezzlement, Sabotage, Identity Theft, and Forgery Some Defenses Against Fraud Credit-Card Instant credit-card check. Analysis of buying patterns. Analysis of credit card applications (to detect identity theft). Verify user with Caller ID. ATM Redesigned ATMs. Limited withdrawal. Telecommunications match phone “signature” with serial number. identify phone without broadcasting serial number. Q : Identify a business’ defense against fraud that you have witnessed.

17 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 7: Computer Crime17 Fraud, Embezzlement, Sabotage, Identity Theft, and Forgery Embezzlement and Sabotage (Penggelapan&Sabotase) Some Causes Insider information. Poor security. Complex financial transactions. Anonymity of computer users. Some Defenses Rotate employee responsibility. Require use of employee ID and password. Implement audit trails. Careful screening and background checks of employees.

18 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 7: Computer Crime18 Fraud, Embezzlement, Sabotage, Identity Theft, and Forgery Identity Theft Some Causes of Identity Theft Insecure and inappropriate use of Social Security numbers. (ketidakamanan dan penggunaan yang tidak tepat terhadap nomor keamanan,Ex:ATM,etc) Careless handling of personally identifiable information.(Ceroboh dalam menangani informasi yang bersifat pribadi) Weak security of stored records.(Keamanan yang lemah terhadap rekaman yang tersimpan) Insufficient assistance to identity theft victims. (Kurangnya bantuan kepada para korban pencurian identitas). Q : What measures do you take to reduce the risk of theft of your identity?

19 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 7: Computer Crime19 Fraud, Embezzlement, Sabotage, Identity Theft, and Forgery Identity Theft Some Defenses for Identity Theft Limit use of personally identifiable information.(Membatasi penggunaan informasi pribadi) Increase security of information stored by businesses and government agencies.(Meningkatkan keamanan informasi yang disimpan oleh perusahaan dan instansi pemerintah) Improve methods to accurately identify a person.(Meningkatkan metode untuk mengidentifikasi seseorang secara akurat) Educate consumers.(Mendidik konsumen) Q : What measures do you take to reduce the risk of theft of your identity?

20 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 7: Computer Crime20 Fraud, Embezzlement, Sabotage, Identity Theft, and Forgery Forgery(pemalsuan) Some Causes Powerful computers and digital manipulation software.(Komputer canggih dan software pemalsuan digital) High-quality printers, copiers, and scanners.(printer kualitas tinggi, mesin peng-copy, scaner Some Defenses Educate consumers and employees.(mendidik konsumen & Pekerja) Use anti-counterfeiting techniques during production.(Gunakan tekhnik anti-pemalsuan selama produksi) Use counterfeit detection methods.(Gunakan metode deteksi palsu) Create legal and procedural incentives to improve security.(Menciptakan Hukum dan Prosedur insentif untuk meningkatkan keamanan) Q : How would you educate your peers about the risks of digital forgery? A parent? A child?

21 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 7: Computer Crime21 Crime Fighting vs Privacy and Civil Liberties Scams (Penipuan) Crime Fighting Automated surveillance software to look for suspicious Web activity. Privacy and Civil Liberties No search warrant nor proof of probable cause. Biometrics (Biometric) Crime Fighting Exact match of biological characteristics to a unique person. Privacy and Civil Liberties Easy to build complete dossier on people. Q : How much of your privacy and civil liberties are you willing to give up in order to allow law enforcement to better fight computer crime?

22 A Gift of Fire, 2edChapter 7: Computer Crime22 Crime Fighting vs Privacy and Civil Liberties Search and Seizure of Computers(Pencarian dan penyitaan Komputer) Crime Fighting Obtain evidence of a crime. Privacy and Civil Liberties Day-to-day business ceases; non-criminal contact with others ends. The Cybercrime Treaty(Perjanjian cybercrime) Crime Fighting U.S. and European governments agree to cooperate with investigations. Privacy and Civil Liberties Potential for government spying is great. Q : Might there be incriminating data stored about you in the logs of your ISP?


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