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Adelya Desi Kurniawati, STP., M.Sc., MP Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Adelya Desi Kurniawati, STP., M.Sc., MP Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Adelya Desi Kurniawati, STP., M.Sc., MP Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015

2 What we study about...  Legumes as high protein source  Legumes as an ideal crops  Legumes general structre  Nitrogen fixation  Processing Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP Beans, peas, and lentils are the seeds of legumes. They come in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and colors

3 Introduction...  In the tropics, they are the next important food crop after cereals  In Indonesia the consumption is number 3 after cereals and tubers Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

4 Legumes  belong to the family Leguminoseae  sources of low-cost dietary vegetable proteins  “poor man’s meat”  Source of vegetable oils  peanut and soybean  An ideal crops since thousand years ago... Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

5 Legumes as an ideal crops  Seeds  easily harvested, have a low water content and,  Dry seeds  easily stored for long periods of time  High protein content and ease in growing  Cultivation of legumes enriches the soil  rotation crops  “Nitrogen Fixation” Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

6 Legumes Characteristics  Legumes  dicotile family  Flowers  bisexual flowers with five-petal are unequal in size, bilateral symmetry, and has been described as either butterfly shaped or boat shaped. Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

7 Legumes Characteristics  the seeds contain two prominent food- storing cotyledons Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP  The fruit is a pod, or legume, with one row of seeds. Some legumes have edible pod.

8 Legumes Characteristics  the presence of root nodules, which contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria  Rhizobium Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

9 Nitrogen Cycle Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

10 Legumes Enriched the Soil  Rhizobium  enzymatic ability to reduce nitrogen gas to ammonium (NH 4 + )  which cells can convert to other nitrogen-containing compounds.  Some species of nitrogen-fixing organisms can live freely in the soil or in symbiotic associations with higher plants, as in the root nodules of legumes.  After legumes harvesting, 50 to 2000 kg/ha of biologic nitrogen are accumulated in soil  equivalent t/ha compost. Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

11 Legumes as Nature’s Super Food  High quality of protein  provide a range of essential amino acids needed for growth and repair  source of antioxidants, B-group vitamins, iron, calcium, phosphorus, zinc and magnesium  rich in dietary fibre which is essential for the body’s digestive processes  source of ‘soluble’ fibre  bind with cholesterol and carry it out of the body Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

12 Legumes as Nature’s Super Food  low glycaemic index (GI)  excellent source of carbohydrate for people with diabetes  contain a type of fibre known as ‘resistant starch’  prebiotic  don’t contain gluten and can add variety to a gluten-free diet  Except soy beans and peanuts, legumes are low in fat and provide plenty of fibre and bulk, which may help control appetite by keeping you feeling fuller for longer Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

13 Nutrition content Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

14 Peanuts ( Arachis hypogea )  nature's most nutritious seeds  major source of edible oil and protein  one of the world's most popular and universal crops Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

15 Peanut Composition Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP  Dry weight  25% shell and 75% kernel.  Weight of kernel  two fleshy cotyledons (93%), radicle (4% ) and the plumule (3%)

16 Peanut product  dry or salt-roasted peanuts  as honey-roasted peanuts,  peanuts (roasted in-shell)  as peanut cookies and candies  as toppings to various desserts  Peanut butter Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

17 Nutrition components  The fatty acid composition of peanut oil is about 10 % palmitic acid, over 80% oleic and linoleic acids  High amino acid  Aspartic acid, Glutamic acid, Glycine, Proline, Serine  but low in sulphur amino acids Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

18 Antinutrition  trypsin inhibitor (Trypsin is an enzyme involved in the breakdown of many different proteins )  lectins (protein that can bind to cell membranes, which influence the cell interaction)  consumption of raw peanuts  headaches and stomach cramps  due to ingestion of these antinutritional factors present in the skin  remove the skins as the initial step in further processing of peanuts.  A goitrogenic (substances that suppress the function of the thyroid gland by interfering with iodine uptake) in the testa (plumule) and some saponin-like compounds in the germ (radicle)  give bitter tastethyroidiodine Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

19 Aflatoxin  badly harvested and/or poorly stored peanuts  infected with toxigenic microorganisms Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus  produced aflatoxin  cause cancer in animals  Removal of the toxins from the peanuts by extraction using polar solvents or solvent systems to which have been added 0.5% hydrogen peroxide or 0.2% sodium hypochlorite Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

20 Soybeans (Glycine max)  Asal: asia timur  Beberapa jenis varietas kedelai yaitu kedelai muria, tengger, meratus, orba, galunggung, lokon, guntur, wilis, bromo, argomulyo, anjasmoro, mahameru dan dempo. Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

21 Characteristic  Komposisi zat gizi kedelai bervariasi menurut varietas, keadaan tempat tumbuh, umur saat dipanen dan budidaya penanaman.  Kedelai  8% berat kulit, 90% kotiledon (keping biji) dan 2% hipokotil (embrio)  Mayoritas protein kedelai tahan terhadap panas saat pemanasan. Karena itu produk kedelai memerlukan proses dengan panas misal tahu dan susu kedelai Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

22 Nutrition  Kedelai adalah sumber protein yang mengandung asam amino esensial yang jumlahnya cukup banyak  terutama lisin  sumber protein terbaik untuk vegetarian yang tidak mengkonsumsi protein hewani. Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

23 Antinutrition Heat labile  protease inhibitors,  haemagglutinins  haemagglutinins bind on to the glycoproteins on the cell surface causing agglutination of the red cells,  goitrogens  antivitamins  phytates  substance that reduces our absorption of minerals such as calcium, iron, zinc, and magnesium Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

24 Varieties  Edamame  sweet tasting large soybeans that are harvested prematurely, when the beans are still green. Sweet and delicate in flavor, edamame can be added to salads or soups or rice dishes.  Mature Soybeans  tan-colored and are harvested when they have fully matured.  Dried Soybeans  available at most health-food stores, are dense, pea- sized beans that require a long soaking before cooking.  Soy nuts  roasted soybeans that resemble peanuts (like peanuts, soy nuts are high in fat). Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

25 Soybean Products  Kedelai kuning tempe, tahu, kecap, kembang tahu dan susu kedelai.  Kedelai hitam kecap  Kedelai coklat Bisa digunakan untuk pembuatan produk yang serupa dengan dengan kedelai kuning.  Kedelai hijau pembuatan makanan kecil dalam bentuk direbus atau digoreng. Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

26 Soybean products  Soybean oils  in manufacture of mayonnaise and salad dressings.  Lecithin as a by-product of vegetable oil  has both a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic side chain  formation of emulsions  soy protein concentrates  used in canned meats to ensure a firm product while preventing fat separation  “Soybean milk”  replaced of cow milk (intolerant) Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

27 Soy milk VS. Cow milk Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

28 Mung Bean ( Vigna radiata)  dried beans are boiled and are eaten whole or after splitting into dhal (seed coat removed)  dried beans are soaked overnight, drained and placed in containers in a fairly warm, dark place. The beans are sprinkled with warm water every few hours and the sprouts are ready Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

29 Composition content  Seperti kacang-kacangan lainnya kaya akan lisin, tetapi rendah asam amino yang mengandung sulphur. Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

30 Nutrition  Pati pada kacang hijau memiliki daya cerna yang sangat tinggi yaitu 99,8 %  sangat baik untuk dijadikan bahan makanan untuk bayi dan balita yang sistem pencernaannya belum sempurna  Kacang hijau mengandung persen protein  pada kacang hijau mentah memiliki daya cerna sekitar 77 persen. Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

31 Antinutrition  protease inhibitors, haemagglutinins, cyanogens (generate hydrogen cyanide), phytic acid, oligosaccharides (cause of flatulence ) and saponins  protease inhibitors, haemagglutinins, cyanogens  inactivated by moist heat in autoclaving or cooking  Oligosaccharides, saponins  heat stable, but soluble in water and are eliminated by adequate presoaking treatment  Germination and fermentation of the beans are known to reduce malnutrition Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

32 Products  Bubur kacang hijau  Tepung hunkwe  Kecambah (sprout) Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

33 Kecipir ( Psophocarpus tetragonolobus)  Kecipir tergolong tumbuhan penutup tanah dan pupuk hijau efektif karena pertumbuhannya sangat cepat dan termasuk sebagai pengikat nitrogen dari udara yang paling baik. Dalam budidaya, tidak diperlukan sama sekali pemupukan N.tumbuhan penutup tanahpupuk hijaunitrogen  Di negara barat disebut kedelai bersayap (winged bean)  Biji kecipir memiliki kandungan protein, minyak/lemak dan komposisi asam amino yang sangat mirip dengan kedelai. Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

34 Nutrition  Semua bagian tanaman kecipir, kecuali batang, dapat dikonsumsi yaitu daun, bunga, polong muda, biji baik biji segar maupun kering dan umbi  “supermarket on the stalk”  Tingginya kandungan protein pada semua bagian tanaman kecipir  kemampuan akar tanaman ini untuk mengikat nitrogen dari udara bebas Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

35 Antinutrition  Kandungan fosfor tinggi  tapi tidak dapat dimanfaatkan karena terikat dengan asam fitat  sulit dicerna  fermentasi seperti pada tempe menghasilkan enzim fitase (memecah fitat)  Anti tripsin  larut air dan labil panas  perendaman atau pemanasan dalam air mendidih  Tanin  pada kulit biji Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

36 Product  Daun, polong muda  lalapan (setelah direbus)  Konsumsi biji (polong) dalam bentuk direbus, dikukus, disangrai, digoreng, dipanggang  batasi konsumsi mentah untuk menghindari senyawa anti gizi  Tauco kecipir  ragi tempe Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

37 Keterbatasan Legumes  Mengandung anti zat gizi  Mengandung senyawa off flavor  Bau langu (beany flavor)  Rasa pahit dan rasa kapur (chlaky flavor)  Namun dapat dikurangi dengan adanya pemanasan dan proses pengolahan Pengenalan Bahan 2014/2015 – Adelya Desi K., STP., M.Sc., MP

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