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Modul 2 Open Systems, Standards, and Protocols Mata Kuliah Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap 2009 - 2010.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Modul 2 Open Systems, Standards, and Protocols Mata Kuliah Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap 2009 - 2010."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Modul 2 Open Systems, Standards, and Protocols Mata Kuliah Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap

2 Outline What an open system is? How an open system handles networking? Why standards are required? How standards for protocols like TCP/IP are developed? What a protocol is? The OSI protocols? 2 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

3 OPEN SYSTEM 3 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

4 What is an Open System? Definitions: –loosely defined as one for which the architecture is not a secret Published Available to anyone –Applies equally to hardware and software –from proprietary platforms to one that is multi vendor Open System Networking: –a network based on a well-known and understood protocol (such as TCP/IP) that has its standards published and readily available to anyone who wants to use them –The process of networking open systems (machaine-specific hardware and software) using a network protocol Three services are widely used and account for the highest percentage of network traffic: –file transfer, –electronic mail, –and remote login. 4 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

5 NETWORK ARCHITECTURE 5 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

6 Network Architecture Network –usually means a set of computers and peripherals (printers, modems, plotters, scanners, and so on) that are connected together by some medium. –The different devices on the network communicate with each other through a predefined set of rules (the protocol). Network Topology –The layout of the network (the actual devices and the manner in which they are connected to each other) in the same room scattered through a building separated by many miles (using dedicated telephone lines, microwave, or a similar system even be scattered around the world (using long-distance communications medium) –LAN (Local Area Network), MAN (Metropolitan Area Network), and WAN (Wide Area Network) 6 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

7 LAN Local Area Network (LAN) adalah sistem komunikasi yang menghubungkan banyak komputer/workstation Secara teknis LAN merupakan medium yang dapat digunakan bersama oleh oleh workstation yang tersambung untuk berkomunikasi satu sama lain Jaringan LAN meliputi area yang kecil, misalnya pada satu bangunan atau satu departemen/bagian dari kantor, kampus dll Kecepatannya berkisar antara 4 Mbps sampai >100 Mbps Topologi umumnya: –Bus –Ring –Hub 7 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

8 Bus Network A schematic of a bus network showing the backbone with transceivers leading to network devices. The advantages: –high-speed bus –usually immune to problems with any single network card within a device on the network. (This is because the transceiver allows traffic through the backbone whether a device is attached to the junction box or not. Each end of the bus is terminated with a block of resistors or a similar electrical device to mark the end of the cable electrically. Each device on the pathway has a special identifying number, or address, that lets the device know that incoming information is for that device. 8 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

9 A schematic of a machine-to- machine bus network. Bus Network machine-to-machine (also called peer-to-peer) network –usually built using twisted-pair or coaxial cable (much cheaper and easier to work with) –limited to a throughput of about 10 Mbps (megabits per second), although recent developments called 100VG AnyLAN and Fast Ethernet allow 100 Mbps on this type of network. The advantages of this machine-to-machine bus network: –simplicity. –cost: it is probably the lowest cost LAN topology available. The problem with this type of bus network is that if one machine is taken off the network cable, or the network interface card malfunctions, the backbone is broken and must be tied together again with a jumper of some sort or the network might cease to function properly 9 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

10 Ring Network A schematic of a Ring network. a ring topology network  no physical ring architecture in a ring network, though The term ring is a misnomer because ring networks don't have an unending cable like a bus network with the two terminators joined together. Instead, the ring refers to the design of the central unit that handles the network's message passing. In a token ring network, the central control unit is called a Media Access Unit, or MAU. The MAU has a ring circuit inside it (for which the network topology is named). The ring inside the MAU serves as the bus for devices to obtain messages. 10 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

11 Hub Network A hub network uses a main cable much like the bus network, which is called the backplane. From the backplane, a set of cables leads to a hub, which is a box containing several ports into which devices are plugged. The cables to a connection point are often called drops, because they drop from the backplane to the ports. Hub networks can be very large, using a high-speed fiber optic backplane and slightly slower Ethernet drops to hubs from which a workgroup can be supported. The hub network can also be small, with a couple of hubs supporting a few devices connected together by standard Ethernet cables. The hub network is scaleable (meaning you can start small and expand as you need to), which is part of its attraction. Hub networks have become popular for large installations, in part because they are easy to set up and maintain. They also can be the least expensive system in many larger installations, which adds to their attraction. The backplane can extend across a considerable distance just like a bus network, whereas the ports, or connection points, are usually grouped in a set placed in a box or panel. There can be many panels or connection boxes attached to the backplane. A schematic of a hub network. 11 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

12 Aplikasi LAN LAN digunakan dalam berbagai aplikasi yang luas. Beberapa aplikasi yang umum meliputi: Personal Computer LAN Backend Network and Storage Area LAN High-Speed Office Network Backbone LAN 12 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

13 Personal Computer LAN Aplikasi ini umumnya digunakan pada suatu korporasi dengan tujuan agar komputer serta perangkat lainnya dapat digunakan optimal dan efisien, meliputi: –Central processing facilities –Corporate-wide data files –Share files among users –Share work and information –Tie into large corporate network facilities –Resource sharing (disc, printer, etc) LAN untuk menunjang penggunaan komputer/workstation banyak diaplikasikan di perusahaan-perusahaan, baik besar maupun kecil. Persyaratan utama dari suatu jaringan personal computer adalah “low cost”. Biaya untuk aplikasi jaringan harus secara signifikan lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan apabila aplikasi tersebut disediakan pada setiap PC 13 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

14 Backend and Storage Area Network Backend network digunakan untuk menghubungkan sistem-sistem yang besar, seperti mainframe, supercomputer, dan mass storage devices. Fungsinya adalah untuk transfer data di antara devices yang jumlahnya terbatas pada area yang kecil. Karakteristik umum jaringan ini adalah: –High data rate Untuk memenuhi volume data yang besar Kecepatan data 100 Mbps atau lebih –High speed interface Biasanya menggunakan high speed I/O interface –Distributed access Menggunakan teknik distributed MAC untuk memungkinkan beberapa device dapat mengakses jaringan secara shared dengan reliabel dan efisien. –Limited distance Biasanya digunakan dalam satu ruang komputer atau beberapa ruangan yang berdekatan –Limited number of devices Mainframe dan mass storage device yang harganya mahal biasanya hanya terdapat beberapa buah saja (tidak lebih dari sepuluh) 14 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

15 Storage Area Network Storage devices Mainframe Server (a) Server-based storage(a) Storage area network 15 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

16 High-Speed Office Network Jaringan komunikasi perkantoran saat ini banyak digunakan untuk aplikasi dan transfer data dengan kecepatan tinggi. –Contoh: Fax, image processor dan graphic program pada komputer/workstation. –Misalnya untuk mengirim satu halaman gambar (hitam putih) dengan resolusi 200 picture element (pels) menghasilkan kbits (8.5 inch x 11 inch x pels per square inch). Hal tersebut ditambah lagi dengan kapasitas storage pada PC yang semakin besar (sampai beberapa ratus GBps). Untuk mendukung kondisi demikian diperlukan LAN dengan kapasitas yang besar. 16 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

17 Backbone LAN Aplikasi prosesing terdistribusi serta jumlah personal komputer yang semakin banyak, membuat penggunaan single LAN menghadapi berbagai kelemahan dalam berbagai hal, antara lain –Reliabilitas: Dengan single LAN, terputusnya layanan, walaupun untuk waktu yang pendek, dapat mengakibatkan gangguan yang lebih luas bagi pengguna. –Kapasitas: Single LAN memiliki kapasitas terbatas untuk digunakan pada jumlah aplikasi dan komputer yang sangat banyak. –Biaya: Membuat beberapa LAN kecil lebih murah dibandingkan dengan satu LAN dengan kapasitas besar. Alternatif yang lebih menarik adalah dengan membuat beberapa LAN kecil, dengan biaya murah, di tiap gedung/bagian dan menghubungkannya satu sama lain dengan satu LAN dengan kapasitas besar. LAN penghubung tersebut disebut backbone LAN. 17 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

18 High-Speed LAN Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet: –Pengembangan dari sistem 10-Mbps CDMA/CD ke sistem dengan kecepatan yang lebih tinggi. –Pengembangan ini merupakan strategi yang logis karena investasi yang telah ditanamkan untuk sistem lama masih bisa digunakan. Fibre Channel: –Teknologi ini cukup murah, dan mudah dikembangkan untuk kecepatan data sangat tinggi pada local area network. High-speed Wireless LAN: –Standar dan produk untuk teknologi ini sudah mulai dikembangkan. 18 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

19 Karakteristik High-Speed LAN Fast EthernetGigabit EthernetFiber ChannelWireless LAN Data Rate100 Mbps1 Gbps, 10 Gbps100 Mbps – 3.2 Gbps 1 – 54 Mbps Transmission Media UTP, STP, Optical Fiber UTP, Shielded Cable, Optical Fiber Optical Fiber, Coaxial Cable, STP 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz Microwave Access MethodCSMA/CDSwitched CSMA/Polling Supporting Standard IEEE Fiber Channel Association IEEE Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

20 Gigabit Ethernet 1 Gbps Switching Hub 100/1000 Mbps Switching Hub Central Server Workgroup 100 Mbps link 1 Gbps link 20 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

21 Fiber Channel Network Fiber Channel Switching End system (node) 21 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

22 Fiber Channel Application Fiber Channel Switching WAN Linking LANs and WANs to the backbone Linking high performance workstation clusters Connecting mainframes to each other Giving server farms high-speed pipes Clustering disk farms 22 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

23 Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) MAN adalah jaringan yang menghubungkan LAN-LAN yang berada dalam satu kota MAN biasanya menggunakan jaringan kabel optik dengan konfigurasi ring. –Biasanya menggunakan jaringan SONET (synchronous optical network) milik operator telepon lokal yang berbasis TDM (time division multiplex) –Namun saat ini banyak operator baru yang menyediakan layanan MAN melalui IP over fiber network yang lebih murah. –Sekarang sudah terdapat Gigabit Ethernet MAN di kota-kota besar utama di dunia, yang disediakan oleh operator-operator IntelliSpace, Telseon, Yipes Communications, dan XO Communications. Saat ini dikembangkan teknologi MAN tanpa kabel yang dinamakan free-space optical systems (Terrabeam mengembangkan sistem ini dengan trademark “Fiberless Optical”). Sistem ini memiliki data rate yang lebih besar). 23 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

24 Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Ethernet / LAN Router CSU/ DSU ATM Switch MUX Sonet MUX ATM Switch CSU/ DSU Router Ethernet / LAN ATM Traditional Telco Network Voice Oriented Connectivity Ethernet / LAN Managed Switch / Router GB Router Ethernet / LAN Managed Switch / Router GB Router IP Over Fiber Gigabit Network Connectivity (a) MAN via Traditional Telco Network (b) MAN via IP Over Fiber Network 24 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

25 Wide Area Network WANs are usually composed of LANs joined together by a high- speed link (such as a telephone line or dedicated cable). Gateways –At the entrance to each LAN, one or more machines act as the link between the LAN and WAN –the interface between a LAN and a WAN. Many terms other than gateway are also used: router and bridge. They are all gateways, but they perform slightly different tasks. –Router: LANs can be tied to a WAN through a gateway that handles the passage of data between the LAN and WAN backbone. –Bridge is used to connect LANs using the same network protocol. A router connects a LAN to the backbone.Using a bridge to connect two LANs. 25 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

26 Link Penghubung Link penghubung antar LAN dalam suatu WAN bisa menggunakan –Dedicated leased line Biasanya disewa dari operator penyedia jaringan jarak jauh Cara ini masih banyak digunakan walaupun cukup mahal –Packet-switched network Frame-relay, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), atau Internet Protocol (IP) Biaya lebih murah –Dial-up connection WAN dapat dibangun dengan topologi star, ring, mesh, atau packet-switched. 26 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

27 Topologi WAN RS HQ RS HQ RS HQ RS HQ RS ATM, Frame Relay, Internet StarRing Mesh Switched-Network HQ : Head Quarter RS : Remote Site 27 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

28 LAYERS 28 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

29 Layers With open systems communications, groups are quite obvious. –One group deals with the transport of data, another with the packaging of messages, another with end-user applications, and so on. –Each group of related tasks is called a layer. The layers of an architecture are meant to be stand-alone, independent entities. They usually cannot perform any observable task without interacting with other layers, but from a programming point of view they are self-contained. The OSI Reference Model showing all seven layers. 29 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010 (Application) (Data Flow)

30 STANDARDS 30 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

31 Standards ISO: (7 OSI Layers) –Members: American National Standards Institute (ANSI), British Standards Institute (BSI), Deutsches Institut fur Normung (DIN), and Association Francaise du Normalization (AFNOR) Internet Standards –Internet Engineering Task Force 31 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

32 PROTOCOLS 32 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

33 Protocols Computer protocols define the manner in which communications take place. If one computer is sending information to another and they both follow the protocol properly, the message gets through, regardless of what types of machines they are and what operating systems they run (the basis for open systems). As long as the machines have software that can manage the protocol, communications are possible. Essentially, a computer protocol is a set of rules that coordinates the exchange of information 33 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

34 ISO Protocols OSI defines a protocol as "a set of rules and formats (semantic and syntactic), which determines the communication behavior of N-entities in the performance of N-functions The flow of information is controlled by a set of actions that define the state machine for the protocol. OSI defines these actions as protocol control information (PCI). 34 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

35 Protocol Headers 35 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

36 Role of Upper (Application) Layers Telnet HTTP User Interface EXAMPLES Application 36 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

37 Telnet HTTP ASCII EBCDIC JPEG User Interface How data is presented Special processing such as encryption EXAMPLES Presentation Application 37 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010 Role of Upper (Application) Layers

38 Telnet HTTP ASCII EBCDIC JPEG Keeping different applications’ data separate User Interface How data is presented Special processing such as encryption Operating System/ Application Access Scheduling EXAMPLES Session Presentation Application 38 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010 Role of Upper (Application) Layers

39 Keeping different applications’ data separate User Interface How data is presented Special processing such as encryption Telnet HTTP ASCII EBCDIC JPEG Operating System/ Application Access Scheduling Transport Layer Data Link Network Layer Physical EXAMPLES Session Presentation Application 39 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010 Role of Upper (Application) Layers

40 Role of Lower (Data Flow) Layers EIA/TIA-232 V.35 Physical Move bits between devices Specifies voltage, wire speed and pin-out cables EXAMPLES 40 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

41 802.3 / HDLC EIA/TIA-232 V.35 Role of Data Flow Layers Data Link Physical Combines bits into bytes and bytes into frames Access to media using MAC address Error detection not correction Move bits between devices Specifies voltage, wire speed and pin-out cables EXAMPLES 41 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

42 802.3 / HDLC EIA/TIA-232 V.35 IP IPX EXAMPLES Role of Data Flow Layers Network Data Link Physical Combines bits into bytes and bytes into frames Access to media using MAC address Error detection not correction Move bits between devices Specifies voltage, wire speed and pin-out cables Provide logical addressing which routers use for path determination 42 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010

43 TCP UDP SPX / HDLC EIA/TIA-232 V.35 IP IPX EXAMPLES Transport Data Link Physical Reliable or unreliable delivery Error correction before retransmit Combines bits into bytes and bytes into frames Access to media using MAC address Error detection not correction Move bits between devices Specifies voltage, wire speed and pin-out cables Network Provide logical addressing which routers use for path determination 43 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010 Role of Lower (Data Flow) Layers

44 TCP UDP SPX / HDLC EIA/TIA-232 V.35 IP IPX Presentation Application Session EXAMPLES Reliable or unreliable delivery Error correction before retransmit Combines bits into bytes and bytes into frames Access to media using MAC address Error detection not correction Move bits between devices Specifies voltage, wire speed and pin-out cables Transport Data Link Physical Network Provide logical addressing which routers use for path determination 44 Sistem Telekomunikasi Semester Genap Pebruari 2010 Role of Lower (Data Flow) Layers

45 OSI Reference Model Real-World Analogy 1 source TCP/IP Guide Ph ase OSI Layer CEO LetterWeb Site Connection (Simplified) Tra ns mis sio n 7 The CEO of a company in Phoenix decides he needs to send a letter to a peer of his in Albany. He dictates the letter to his administrative assistant.administrative assistant You decide you want to connect to the web server at IP address , which is within your organization but not on your local network. You type the address into your browser. 6 The administrative assistant transcribes the dictation into writing. (Generally, with a web site connection, nothing happens at this layer, but format translation may be done in some cases.) 5 The administrative assistant puts the letter in an envelope and gives it to the mail room. The assistant doesn't actually know how the letter will be sent, but he knows it is urgent so he says, “get this to its destination quickly”. The request is sent via a call to an application program interface (API), to issue the command necessary to contact the server at that address.application program interfaceserver 4 The mail room must decide how to get the letter where it needs to go. Since it is a rush, the people in the mail room decide they must use a courier. The envelope is given to the courier company to send.courier company The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is used to create a segment to be sent to IP address

46 OSI Reference Model Real-World Analogy 2 source TCP/IP Guide Ph ase OSI Layer CEO LetterWeb Site Connection (Simplified) Ro uti ng 3 The courier company receives the envelope, but it needs to add its own handling information, so it places the smaller envelope in a courier envelope (encapsulation). The courier then consults its airplane route information and determines that to get this envelope to Albany, it must be flown through its hub in Chicago. It hands this envelope to the workers who load packages on airplanes. Your computer creates an IP datagram encapsulating the TCP datagram created above. It then addresses the packet to but discovers that it is not on its local network. So instead, it realizes it needs to send the message to its designated routing device at IP address It hands the packet to the driver for your Ethernet card (the software that interfaces to the Ethernet hardware). 2 The workers take the courier envelope and put on it a tag with the code for Chicago. They then put it in a handling box and then load it on the plane to Chicago. The Ethernet card driver forms a frame containing the IP datagram and prepares it to be sent over the network. It packages the message and puts the address (for the router) in the frame. 1The plane flies to Chicago. The frame is sent over the twisted pair cable that connects your local area network. (I'm ignoring overhead, collisions, etc. here, but then I also ignored the possibility of collisions with the plane. )

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