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C OMPETING WITH I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY Chapter 2.

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Presentasi berjudul: "C OMPETING WITH I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY Chapter 2."— Transcript presentasi:

1 C OMPETING WITH I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY Chapter 2

2 T UJUAN 1. Mengidentifikasi strategi kompetitif dasar dan menjelaskan bagaimana bisnis dapatmenggunakan IT untuk menghadapi kekuatan kompetitif yang dihadapinya. 2. Mengidentifikasi menggunakan beberapa strategi TI dan memberikan contoh bagaimana mereka memberikan keunggulan kompetitif untuk bisnis. 3. Memberikan contoh bagaimana rekayasa ulang proses bisnis sering melibatkan penggunaan strategi TI. 2 Konsep Sistem Informasi

3 T UJUAN ( CONT ’ D ) 4. Mengidentifikasi nilai bisnis menggunakan teknologi internet untuk menjadi pesaing tangkas atau membentuk perusahaan virtual. 5. Menjelaskan bagaimana pengetahuan sistem manajemen dapat membantu sebuah bisnis mendapatkan keuntungan strategis. 3 Konsep Sistem Informasi

4 C ASE 1: F ED E X C ORPORATION : I NVESTASI TI UNTUK K EUNGGULAN K OMPETITIF FedEx dan perusahaan lain banyak yang tahu bahwa manajemen yang tepat dan penggunaan teknologi informasi dapat memberikan keunggulan kompetitif. TI mereka telah menghubungkan 39 hub di seluruh dunia dengan 677 pesawat terbang, lebih dari kendaraan, dan lebih dari karyawan mengirimkan 6 juta paket per hari di 220 negara. FedEx menghabiskan lebih dari $1 milyar pada TI setiap tahun. FedEx lebih memfokuskan pada pendapatan, teknologi kepuasan pelanggan daripada teknologi operasional. FedEx cenderung sebagai innovator daripada pengikut pada aplikasi TI. 4 Konsep Sistem Informasi

5 P ERTANYAAN : 1. Bagaimana strategi investasi TI dan fokus FedEx dan pesaing utamanya UPS berdeda? Perusahaan mana yang mempunyai strategi yang lebih baik? Mengapa? 2. Apakah strategi TI FedEx’s “move, communicate, and shoot” bagus untuk kompetisi persaingan dengan UPS? Mengapa? Apakah hal tersebut merupakan contoh yang bagus dari strategi kompetisi untuk tipe perusahaan yang lain? 5 Konsep Sistem Informasi

6 P ERTANYAAN : 3. Carter CIO FedEx mengataan bahwa perusahaannya saat ini sedang dalam business of engineering time. Apakah hal tersebut gambaran yang business yang bagus untuk FedEx? Mengapa? Seberapa penting TI untuk pengertian bisnis dari FedEx? Gunakan contoh kasus untuk menggambarkan jawaban Anda. 6 Konsep Sistem Informasi

7 R EAL W ORLD I NTERNET A CTIVITY 1. Gunakan Internet untuk membandingkan status FedEx, UPS, dan DHL dalam hal pendapatan, profitabilitas, paket dikirimkan, dan ukuran lain kesuksesan bisnis. Siapa yang memenangkan pertempuran kompetitif? Mengapa? Simak apa yang pe-bisnis komentator dan analis keuangan melaporkan di Web untuk membantuAnda menjawab. 7 Konsep Sistem Informasi

8 R EAL W ORLD G ROUP A CTIVITY 2. Gunakan Internet untuk menemukan lebih lanjut tentang bagaimana FedEx terlibat dalam pertempuran perang melawan teror, berdasarkan apa yang dilaporkan dalam kasus ini. Misalnya, FedEx telah membuat beberapa pengungkapan kontroversial dari informasi pelanggan untuk badan-badan intelijen. Diskusikan tanggung jawab perusahaan FedEx untuk membantu dalam perang melawan teror sekaligus melindungi privasi pelanggan, serta masalah lain yang ditemukan dalampenelitian Anda. 8 Konsep Sistem Informasi

9 S TRATEGIC IT Teknologi tidak lagi ketinggalan jaman dalam pembentukan strategi bisnis, tetapi sebegai pemicu dan pengendali. IT dapat merubah cara bersaing dalam bisnis. Strategi system information adalah Any kind of information system That uses IT to help an organization Gain a competitive advantage Reduce a competitive disadvantage Or meet other strategic enterprise objectives 9 Konsep Sistem Informasi

10 C OMPETITIVE F ORCES AND S TRATEGIES 10 Konsep Sistem Informasi

11 C OMPETITIVE F ORCES Jika bisnis yang ingin berhasil harus mengembangkan strategi untuk melawan kekuatan-kekuatan : Persaingan dari pesaing dalam industri Ancaman pendatang baru ke dalam industri dan pasarnya Ancaman yang ditimbulkan oleh produk pengganti yang mungkin merebut pangsa pasar Kekuatan customer Kekuatan suppliers 11 Konsep Sistem Informasi

12 F IVE C OMPETITIVE S TRATEGIES Cost Leadership Become low-cost producers Help suppliers or customers reduce costs Increase cost to competitors Example, Priceline uses online seller bidding so buyer sets the price Differentiation Strategy Develop ways to differentiate a firm’s products from its competitors Can focus on particular segment or niche of market Example, Moen uses online customer design 12 Konsep Sistem Informasi

13 C OMPETITIVE S TRATEGIES ( CONT.) Innovation Strategy Find new ways of doing business Unique products or services Or unique markets Radical changes to business processes to alter the fundamental structure of an industry Example, Amazon uses online full-service customer systems Growth Strategy Expand company’s capacity to produce Expand into global markets Diversify into new products or services Example, Wal-Mart uses merchandise ordering by global satellite tracking 13 Konsep Sistem Informasi

14 C OMPETITIVE STRATEGIES ( CONT.) Alliance Strategy Establish linkages and alliances with Customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and other companies Includes mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures, virtual companies Example, Wal-Mart uses automatic inventory replenishment by supplier 14 Konsep Sistem Informasi

15 U SING THESE STRATEGIES The strategies are not mutually exclusive Organizations use one, some or all 15 Konsep Sistem Informasi

16 U SING IT FOR THESE STRATEGIES 16 Konsep Sistem Informasi

17 O THER COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES Lock in customers and suppliers And lock out competitors Deter them from switching to competitors Build in switching costs Make customers and suppliers dependent on the use of innovative IS Barriers to entry Discourage or delay other companies from entering market Increase the technology or investment needed to enter 17 Konsep Sistem Informasi

18 O THER COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES ( CONT.) Include IT components in products Makes substituting competing products more difficult Leverage investment in IT Develop new products or services not possible without IT 18 Konsep Sistem Informasi

19 C USTOMER - FOCUSED BUSINESS What is the business value in being customer- focused? Keep customers loyal Anticipate their future needs Respond to customer concerns Provide top-quality customer service Focus on customer value Quality not price has become primary determinant of value 19 Konsep Sistem Informasi

20 H OW CAN WE PROVIDE CUSTOMER VALUE ? Track individual preferences Keep up with market trends Supply products, services and information anytime, anywhere Provide customer services tailored to individual needs Use Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems to focus on customer 20 Konsep Sistem Informasi

21 B UILDING CUSTOMER VALUE USING THE I NTERNET 21 Konsep Sistem Informasi

22 V ALUE C HAIN View the firm as a chain of basic activities that add value to its products and services Activities are either Primary processes directly related to manufacturing or delivering products Support processes help support the day-to-day running of the firm and indirectly contribute to products or services Use the value chain to highlight where competitive strategies can best be applied to add the most value 22 Konsep Sistem Informasi

23 U SING IS IN THE VALUE CHAIN 23 Konsep Sistem Informasi

24 C ASE 2: GE E NERGY AND GE H EALTHCARE : U SING IT TO C REATE S TRATEGIC C USTOMER R ELATIONSHIPS Networking and data storage & analysis technologies enable companies like GE to gain a competitive advantage by providing unique products and services to their customers. This strategic investment in IT has a dramatic effect on the profitability of GE’s services. The strategic business partnership results in a longer-term relationship than traditional methods. 24 Konsep Sistem Informasi

25 C ASE S TUDY Q UESTIONS 1. What are the business benefits of using information technology to build strategic customer relationships for GE Energy and GE Healthcare? What are the business benefits for their customers? 2. What strategic uses of information technology discussed in this chapter and summarized in Figures 2.3 and 2.5 do you see implemented in this case? Explain the reasons for your choices. 25 Konsep Sistem Informasi

26 C ASE S TUDY Q UESTIONS 3. How could other companies benefit from the use of IT to build strategic customer relationships? Provide or propose several examples of such uses. Explain how each benefits the business and its customers. 26 Konsep Sistem Informasi

27 R EAL W ORLD I NTERNET A CTIVITY 1. Use the Internet to discover if GE Energy and GE Healthcare are expanding or strengthening their uses of IT to build strategic customer relationships. What benefits are they gaining for themselves and claiming for their customers? 2. Use the Internet to discover other companies whose products are networked, monitored, diagnosed, and managed at customers’ sites like the GE companies in this case. Alternatively, choose other companies you can research on the Internet and propose several ways they could implement and benefit from similar uses of information technology. 27 Konsep Sistem Informasi

28 R EAL W ORLD G ROUP A CTIVITY 3. What business control and security concerns might a business customer have with the extent of its dependency on GE for the use and maintenance of assets that are vital to the operation of the business? Discuss the rationale for these concerns and what measures both the business and GE could take to reduce any security threats and improve a customer’s secure control of the business assets it obtains from GE. 28 Konsep Sistem Informasi

29 B USINESS P ROCESS R EENGINEERING Called BPR or Reengineering Fundamental rethinking and radical redesign Of business processes To achieve improvements in cost, quality, speed and service Potential payback high Risk of failure is also high 29 Konsep Sistem Informasi

30 H OW BPR DIFFERS FROM BUSINESS IMPROVEMENT 30 Konsep Sistem Informasi

31 A CROSS - FUNCTIONAL PROCESS 31 Konsep Sistem Informasi

32 R EENGINEERING ORDER MANAGEMENT 32 Konsep Sistem Informasi

33 A GILITY Agility is the ability of a company to prosper In a rapidly changing, continually fragmenting Global market for high-quality, high-performance, customer-configured products and services An agile company can make a profit with Broad product ranges Short model lifetimes Mass customization Individual products in large volumes 33 Konsep Sistem Informasi

34 F OUR STRATEGIES FOR AGILITY An agile company: Provides products as solutions to their customers’ individual problems Cooperates with customers, suppliers and competitors to bring products to market as quickly and cost-effectively as possible Organizes so that it thrives on change and uncertainty Leverages the impact of its people and the knowledge they possess 34 Konsep Sistem Informasi

35 H OW IT HELPS A COMPANY BE AGILE 35 Konsep Sistem Informasi

36 V IRTUAL C OMPANY A virtual company uses IT to link People, Organizations, Assets, And ideas Creates interenterprise information systems to link customers, suppliers, subcontractors and competitors 36 Konsep Sistem Informasi

37 A VIRTUAL COMPANY 37 Konsep Sistem Informasi

38 S TRATEGIES OF VIRTUAL COMPANIES 38 Konsep Sistem Informasi

39 K NOWLEDGE C REATION Knowledge-creating company or learning organization Consistently creates new business knowledge Disseminates it throughout the company And builds in the new knowledge into its products and services 39 Konsep Sistem Informasi

40 T WO KINDS OF KNOWLEDGE Explicit knowledge Data, documents and things written down or stored on computers Tacit knowledge The “how-to” knowledge which reside in workers’ minds A knowledge-creating company makes such tacit knowledge available to others 40 Konsep Sistem Informasi

41 K NOWLEDGE ISSUES What is the problem with organizational knowledge being tacit? Why are incentives to share this knowledge needed? 41 Konsep Sistem Informasi

42 K NOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES 42 Konsep Sistem Informasi Source: Adapted from Marc Rosenberg, e-Learning: Strategies for Delivering Knowledge in the Digital Age (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001), p.70.

43 K NOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (KMS) KMS manage organizational learning and business know-how Goal: Help knowledge workers to create, organize, and make available knowledge Whenever and wherever it’s needed in an organization 43 Konsep Sistem Informasi

44 C ASE 3: GE, D ELL, I NTEL, GM, AND O THERS : D EBATING THE C OMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF IT Does IT matter? No: Nicholas Carr argues that IT is infrastructure like electricity Too commonplace to get competitive advantage Yes: IT is not just networks and computers The important part is the software and information and how IT is used For Wal-Mart, GE, Dell, and many other companies, IT is a huge advantage and will continue to be. 44 Konsep Sistem Informasi

45 C ASE S TUDY Q UESTIONS 1. Do you agree with the argument made by Nicholas Carr to support his position that IT no longer gives companies a competitive advantage? Why or why not? 2. Do you agree with the argument made by the business leaders in this case in support of the competitive advantage that IT can provide to a business? Why or why not? 3. What are several ways that IT could provide a competitive advantage to a business? Use some of the companies mentioned in this case as examples. Visit their Web sites to gather more information to help you answer. 45 Konsep Sistem Informasi

46 R EAL W ORLD I NTERNET A CTIVITY 1. Nicholas Carr’s article created a storm of debate that is still raging. Using the Internet, see if you can find Carr’s original article. Also, try to find some more opinions for and against Carr’s arguments beyond those provided in the case. 46 Konsep Sistem Informasi

47 R EAL W ORLD G ROUP A CTIVITY 2. The core of Carr’s arguments has some significant implications for businesses. Discuss your opinion of Carr’s arguments. What are some of the implications of the argument that come to mind? How might they serve to change the way we use computers to support corporate strategy? 47 Konsep Sistem Informasi


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