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PENGANTAR KULIAH ANATOMI

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Presentasi berjudul: "PENGANTAR KULIAH ANATOMI"— Transcript presentasi:

1 PENGANTAR KULIAH ANATOMI
Dr. Thontowi Djauhari NS, M.Kes Laboratorium Anatomi Program Studi Fisoterapi Univ. Muhammadiyah Malang

2 PROGRAM STUDI FISIOTERAPI UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG
Kuliah Perdana Laboratorium Anatomi PROGRAM STUDI FISIOTERAPI UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG Tanggal, 18 September 2013

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4 Sine Anatomi Nihil Medicine Tidak Ada Ilmu Kedokteran Tanpa Anatomi

5 ANATOMI Asal Kata. Greek “ temnein” artinya “memotong” ( dissecting )
Pengertian. Adalah ilmu yang mempelajari struktur tubuh melalui pemotongan ( dissecting ) Ilmu Urai.

6 Selayang Pandang : - Galen.Dokter Yunani melakukan dissecting pada hewan. - mengetahui bahwa darah mengalir dari jantung. - Membuat hypotese bahwa susunan syaraf terdiri dari devisi sensoris dan motoris. : - Andreas Vesalius Dokter Belgia tinggal di Italia melakukan dissecting pada manusia - menerbitkan buku anatomi pertama berjudul De Fabrica Corporis Humani : William Harvey seorang Anatomis menerangkan bahwa aliran darah merupakan aliran darah searah Jantung arteri vena Jantung

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9 Pembagian anatomi Mikroskopik Anatomi ( Histologi = Ilmu Jaringan).
Ilmu yang mempelajari struktur tubuh dengan menggunakan mikroskop Makroskopik Anatomi ( Gross Anatomy = Ilmu Urai.) Ilmu yang mempelajari struktur tubuh tanpa alat pembesar.

10 Approaches to Studying Anatomy
Systemic Anatomy Undergraduate courses are taught systemically, mainly because physiology is taught along with anatomy. Regional Anatomy Medical school courses are taught regionally. Dissection of a cadaver is best done in this manner.

11 Regional Anatomy This course will be divided into 4 units:
1. Back and Upper Limb 2. Thorax and Abdomen 3. Pelvis and Lower Limb 4. Head and Neck

12 SISTEM TUBUH MANUSIA Atoms Molecule Organelle Cell Tissue Organ
Organ System Organism

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14 Organ Systems

15 Organ Systems

16 The urinary system, made up of kidneys, urinary bladder, and tubes that convey urine, rids the body of nitrogenous wastes, and regulates fluid balance and pH.

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18 Regio-regio Dalam Tubuh manusia
Nama Regio Nama Anatomi. Cephalic Cephalon Cervicalis Cervicis Thoracalis Thorax Brachialis Brachium Abdominalis Abdomen Gluteus Glutea Femoralis Femur Cruris Crural Pedis Pes

19 Regional Terms

20 Regional Terms

21 Terminologi Anatomi

22 Anatomical Terminology
Directional. Anterior = front navel is on the anterior the trunk. Ventral = belly side ---- navel is on the ventral surface. Posterior = behind spine is on the posterior of the body. Dorsal = back = behind. Cranial = toward the head --- Chest is cranial to the abdomen. Superior = above ( when referring to standing human body superior is equivalent to cranial) Caudal = toward the tail the hips are cudal to the waist. Inferior = below; at a lower level. --- the knees are inferior to hips. Medial = toward the mid line Lateral = away from midline Proximal = toward the central of the body Distal = away from the central of the body. Superficial = toward body surface. Profundus = away from body surface.

23 Abreviation a. = arteri = artery v. = vena = vein n. = nervus = nerve
= musculus = muscle = arteriae = arteries = venae = veins = musculi = muscles = nervi = nerves.

24 Terms of Relationship and Comparison
Superficial vs. deep Medial vs. lateral Superior vs. inferior Cranial vs. caudal Anterior vs. posterior Proximal vs. distal Dorsal vs. palmar Dorsal vs. plantar Be able to use each term in a sentence. (See figure.)

25 Sections

26 MOVEMENT

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34 Anatomic Positions Prone Supine

35 Anatomic Positions Trendelenburg’s position Fowler’s position

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37 Cabang Lain Anatomi Anatomi Perkembangan Comparative Anatomi
Embryology. Ilmu yang mempelajari anatomi sebelum lahir . Disebut juga morphogenesis Ontogeny. Ilmu yang mempelajari perkembangan mahluk dari fertilisasi sampai dewasa Anthropology Ragawi. Adalah bagian dari phylogeny yaitu ilmu yang mempelajari terjadinya suatu phylum--- ras. Comparative Anatomi Radiographic Anatomi

38 Praktikum Menghargai preparat/cadaver
Jas Praktikum Rapi + Tanda Pengenal Membawa alat-alat praktikum sendiri Kuku dipotong pendek Masuk Tepat Waktu Dimulai dengan doa bersama Keluar Lab. Harus Seijin Dosen Tempat Sholat disediakan

39 MATERI KULIAHFISIOTERAPI
Anatomi Umum Embriologi Umum Osteologi bagian atas Osteologi bagian Bawah Artrologi Extremitas atas 1 Extremitas atas 2 Extremitas bawah 1 Extremitas bawah 2 Panca Indra Respirasi dan cardiovascular Pencernakan Urogenital dan uropoetika Endocrin Saraf

40 SISTEM TUBUH PERMUKAAN MUSCULOSKELETAL
Thontowi Djauhari NS M.Kes Laboratorium Anatomi Program Studi Fisioterai Univ. Muhammadiyah Malang

41 SKELETON (Kerangka Tulang)
Axial skeleton : Skull 22 Auditory ossicles 6 Hyoid bone 1 Vertebral column 26 Ribs and sternum 25 ---- 80 Appendicular skeleton : Upper extremity 64 Lower extremity 62 Total 206 Axial Skeleton – merupakan tulang axis dari tubuh : Contoh : cranium, vertebrae, sacrum, costae Appendicular Skeleton – berbungan dengan penyusun tubuh : Contoh : extremitas atas bawah dan pelvis

42 Skeletal System Structure: Function Parts Axial skeleton
Bones Cartilage Function Protection Support Movement Storage for salts (e.g., calcium) Supply of new blood cells Parts Axial skeleton (skull, hyoid, vertebrae/sacrum, ribs, sternum) Appendicular skeleton (bones of limbs including pectoral/pelvic girdles)

43 An Overview of the Skeleton
There are 206 bones in the adult human body Skeletal Divisions Axial skeleton (80 bones) Skull Thoracic cage and sternum Vertebral column Appendicular skeleton (126 bones) Upper, lower limbs Pectoral girdle Pelvic girdle

44 JENIS TULANG Panjang Pendek Pipih Tak beraturan Sesamoid

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46 KOMPOSISI TULANG Water (25%) Organic Constituent (~25%) Collagen. A fibrous protein that provide flexibility. Inorganic Constituent (~50%) Calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. Mineral salts that provide hardness.

47 Bone Cell Types Osteogenic cells- stem cells.
Osteoblasts- bone building cells, secrete matrix & collagen fibers. Osteocytes- mature bone cells that no longer secrete matrix. Osteoclasts- bone digestion.

48 Anatomy of a Long Bone Diaphysis- shaft.
Epiphysis- the distal and proximal ends of a long bone. Metaphysis- regions in a mature bone where the diaphysis joins the epiphysis. Articular cartilage- a thin layer of hyaline cartilage that covers each epiphysis. Medullary cavity- the space in the diaphysis that contains fatty yellow bone marrow.

49 Histology of Compact Bone
Concentric Lamellae- calcified matrix surrounding a vertically oriented blood vessel. Lacuna- a small hollow space, contains osteocytes. Canaliculus- a small channel filled with extracellular fluid that connects lacunae to each other, and to the central canal. Central Canal- a circular channel that contains blood and lymphatic vessels, and nerves.

50 Lacunae, Lamellae, Canaliculi, Haversian Canals

51 Structure of Long Bone Figure 6.3

52 Bone Growth in Length Epiphyseal plate
Cartilage cells in this plate divide rapidly. Zone of proliferating cartilage. Between ages 18-25, the epiphyseal plates close. Cartilage cells in the plate stop dividing and bone replaces the cartilage. Growth in length stops at age 25.

53 Long Bone Formation and Growth
Slide 5.14a

54 Bone Growth in Width

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56 Factors Affecting Bone Growth 1
Nutrition Adequate levels of vitamins and minerals. Calcium and phosphorus for bone growth. Vitamin C for collagen formation. Vitamins K and B12 for protein synthesis.

57 Factors Affecting Bone Growth 2
Hormones During childhood growth factors stimulate cell division. Human growth hormone (hGH) Thyroid hormones Insulin Sex steroids at puberty initiate male and female characteristics.

58 Hormonal Abnormalities
Oversecretion of hGH during childhood produces giantism. Undersecretion of hGH or the thyroid hormones during childhood produces dwarfism. The epiphyseal plate closes before normal height is reached. Estrogen is responsible for closing the growth plate. Both men and women that lack estrogen receptors on cells grow taller than normal.

59 Aging and Bone Tissue Demineralization- loss of minerals.
Very rapid in women as estrogen levels decrease. In males, begins after age 60, but is gradual. Decrease in protein synthesis Decrease in growth hormone. Decrease in collagen production, which gives bone its tensile strength, this causes bone to become brittle and susceptible to fracture.

60 Cold spots indicate Decreased metabolism of decalcified bone.
Fracture. Bone infection.

61 Bone Fractures A break in a bone Types of bone fractures
Closed (simple) fracture – break that does not penetrate the skin Open (compound) fracture – broken bone penetrates through the skin Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilization Realignment of the bone Slide 5.16

62 Pathology Part 2 Pathology Types of fractures Complex Incomplete
Comminuted Greenstick Simple (closed) Compound (open) Colles’ Impacted

63 Common Types of Fractures

64 Common Types of Fractures

65 Common Types of Fractures

66 Common Types of Fractures
Table 5.2 Slide 5.17 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

67 Stages in the Healing of a Bone Fracture
Figure 5.5 Slide 5.19

68 Skeletal Muscle & Muscle Architecture

69 Skeletal Muscle & Muscle Architecture

70 Muscle Shape Flat (with an aponeurosis) Pennate (“featherlike”)
Fusiform (spindle-shaped) Quadrate (with 4 sides) Circular (surrounds an opening)

71 Architecture of muscle
Strap/flat Ex : m. sartorius m. sternocleidomastoideus Fusiform Ex : M. biceps brachii Pennate : Unipennate m. pronator quadratus Bipennate m. rectus femoris Multipennate m. deltoideus Circular m. orbicularis oculi m. orbicularis oris Sphincter

72 TERIMA KASIH


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