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PENGANTAR KULIAH ANATOMI PENGANTAR KULIAH ANATOMI Dr. Thontowi Djauhari NS, M.Kes Laboratorium Anatomi Program Studi Fisoterapi Univ. Muhammadiyah Malang.

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Presentasi berjudul: "PENGANTAR KULIAH ANATOMI PENGANTAR KULIAH ANATOMI Dr. Thontowi Djauhari NS, M.Kes Laboratorium Anatomi Program Studi Fisoterapi Univ. Muhammadiyah Malang."— Transcript presentasi:

1 PENGANTAR KULIAH ANATOMI PENGANTAR KULIAH ANATOMI Dr. Thontowi Djauhari NS, M.Kes Laboratorium Anatomi Program Studi Fisoterapi Univ. Muhammadiyah Malang

2 Kuliah Perdana Laboratorium Anatomi PROGRAM STUDI FISIOTERAPI UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG Tanggal, 18 September 2013


4 Sine Anatomi Nihil Medicine Tidak Ada Ilmu Kedokteran Tanpa Anatomi

5 ANATOMI Asal Kata. Greek “ temnein” artinya artinya “memotong” “memotong” ( dissecting ) ( dissecting )Pengertian. Adalah ilmu yang mempelajari struktur tubuh melalui pemotongan ( dissecting ) Ilmu Urai.

6 Selayang Pandang : - Galen.Dokter Yunani melakukan dissecting pada hewan. hewan. - mengetahui bahwa darah mengalir dari jantung. - mengetahui bahwa darah mengalir dari jantung. - Membuat hypotese bahwa susunan syaraf terdiri dari - Membuat hypotese bahwa susunan syaraf terdiri dari devisi sensoris dan motoris. devisi sensoris dan motoris : - Andreas Vesalius Dokter Belgia tinggal di Italia melakukan dissecting pada manusia melakukan dissecting pada manusia - menerbitkan buku anatomi pertama berjudul - menerbitkan buku anatomi pertama berjudul De Fabrica Corporis Humani De Fabrica Corporis Humani : William Harvey seorang Anatomis menerangkan bahwa aliran darah merupakan aliran darah searah bahwa aliran darah merupakan aliran darah searah Jantung arteri vena Jantung Jantung arteri vena Jantung



9 Pembagian anatomi Mikroskopik Anatomi ( Histologi = Ilmu Jaringan). ( Histologi = Ilmu Jaringan). Ilmu yang mempelajari struktur tubuh dengan menggunakan mikroskop Ilmu yang mempelajari struktur tubuh dengan menggunakan mikroskop Makroskopik Anatomi ( Gross Anatomy = Ilmu Urai.) ( Gross Anatomy = Ilmu Urai.) Ilmu yang mempelajari struktur tubuh tanpa alat pembesar. Ilmu yang mempelajari struktur tubuh tanpa alat pembesar.

10 Approaches to Studying Anatomy Systemic Anatomy Undergraduate courses are taught systemically, mainly because physiology is taught along with anatomy. Regional Anatomy Medical school courses are taught regionally. Dissection of a cadaver is best done in this manner.

11 Regional Anatomy This course will be divided into 4 units: 1. Back and Upper Limb 2. Thorax and Abdomen 3. Pelvis and Lower Limb 4. Head and Neck

12 SISTEM TUBUH MANUSIA Atoms Molecule Organelle Cell Tissue Organ Organ System Organism


14 Organ Systems


16 The urinary system, made up of kidneys, urinary bladder, and tubes that convey urine, rids the body of nitrogenous wastes, and regulates fluid balance and pH.


18 Nama Regio Nama Anatomi. CephalicCephalon CervicalisCervicis ThoracalisThorax BrachialisBrachium AbdominalisAbdomen GluteusGlutea FemoralisFemur CrurisCrural PedisPes Regio-regio Dalam Tubuh manusia

19 Regional Terms


21 TerminologiAnatomi

22 Anatomical Terminology Directional. –Anterior = front ---- navel is on the anterior the trunk. –Ventral = belly side ---- navel is on the ventral surface. –Posterior = behind ---- spine is on the posterior of the body. –Dorsal = back = behind. –Cranial = toward the head --- Chest is cranial to the abdomen. –Superior = above ( when referring to standing human body superior is equivalent to cranial) –Caudal = toward the tail the hips are cudal to the waist. –Inferior = below; at a lower level. --- the knees are inferior to hips. –Medial = toward the mid line –Lateral = away from midline –Proximal = toward the central of the body –Distal = away from the central of the body. –Superficial = toward body surface. –Profundus = away from body surface.

23 Abreviation a. = arteri = artery v. = vena = vein n. = nervus = nerve m. = musculus = muscle aa. = arteriae = arteries vv. = venae = veins mm. = musculi = muscles nn. = nervi = nerves.

24 Terms of Relationship and Comparison Superficial vs. deep Medial vs. lateral Superior vs. inferior Cranial vs. caudal Anterior vs. posterior Proximal vs. distal Dorsal vs. palmar Dorsal vs. plantar Be able to use each term in a sentence. (See figure.)

25 Sections









34 Anatomic Positions ProneSupine

35 Trendelenburg’s position Fowler’s position


37 Cabang Lain Anatomi Anatomi Perkembangan – Embryology. Ilmu yang mempelajari anatomi sebelum lahir. Disebut juga morphogenesis –Ontogeny. Ilmu yang mempelajari perkembangan mahluk dari fertilisasi sampai dewasa – Anthropology Ragawi. Adalah bagian dari phylogeny yaitu ilmu yang mempelajari phylogeny yaitu ilmu yang mempelajari terjadinya suatu phylum--- ras. terjadinya suatu phylum--- ras. Comparative Anatomi Radiographic Anatomi

38 Praktikum Menghargai preparat/cadaver Jas Praktikum Rapi + Tanda Pengenal Membawa alat-alat praktikum sendiri Kuku dipotong pendek Masuk Tepat Waktu Dimulai dengan doa bersama Keluar Lab. Harus Seijin Dosen Tempat Sholat disediakan

39 MATERI KULIAHFISIOTERAPI Anatomi Umum Embriologi Umum Osteologi bagian atas Osteologi bagian Bawah Artrologi Extremitas atas 1 Extremitas atas 2 Extremitas bawah 1 Extremitas bawah 2 Panca Indra Respirasi dan cardiovascular Pencernakan Urogenital dan uropoetika EndocrinSaraf

40 SISTEM TUBUH PERMUKAAN MUSCULOSKELETAL Thontowi Djauhari NS M.Kes Thontowi Djauhari NS M.Kes Laboratorium Anatomi Program Studi Fisioterai Univ. Muhammadiyah Malang

41 SKELETON (Kerangka Tulang) Axial skeleton : Skull 22 Auditory ossicles 6 Hyoid bone1 Vertebral column26 Ribs and sternum Appendicular skeleton : Upper extremity64 Lower extremity Total206 Axial Skeleton – merupakan tulang axis dari tubuh : Contoh : cranium, vertebrae, sacrum, costae Appendicular Skeleton – berbungan dengan penyusun tubuh : Contoh : extremitas atas bawah dan pelvis

42 Skeletal System Structure: –Bones –Cartilage Function –Protection –Support –Movement –Storage for salts (e.g., calcium) –Supply of new blood cells Parts Axial skeleton (skull, hyoid, vertebrae/sacrum, ribs, sternum) Appendicular skeleton (bones of limbs including pectoral/pelvic girdles)

43 An Overview of the Skeleton Skeletal Divisions Axial skeleton (80 bones) –Skull –Thoracic cage and sternum –Vertebral column Appendicular skeleton (126 bones) –Upper, lower limbs –Pectoral girdle –Pelvic girdle There are 206 bones in the adult human body

44 JENIS TULANG Panjang Pendek Pipih Tak beraturan Sesamoid


46 KOMPOSISI TULANG Water (25%) Organic Constituent (~25%) –Collagen. A fibrous protein that provide flexibility. Inorganic Constituent (~50%) –Calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. Mineral salts that provide hardness.

47 Bone Cell Types Osteogenic cells- stem cells. Osteoblasts- bone building cells, secrete matrix & collagen fibers. Osteocytes- mature bone cells that no longer secrete matrix. Osteoclasts- bone digestion.

48 Anatomy of a Long Bone Diaphysis- shaft. Epiphysis- the distal and proximal ends of a long bone. Metaphysis- regions in a mature bone where the diaphysis joins the epiphysis. Articular cartilage- a thin layer of hyaline cartilage that covers each epiphysis. Medullary cavity- the space in the diaphysis that contains fatty yellow bone marrow.

49 Histology of Compact Bone Concentric Lamellae- calcified matrix surrounding a vertically oriented blood vessel. Lacuna- a small hollow space, contains osteocytes. Canaliculus- a small channel filled with extracellular fluid that connects lacunae to each other, and to the central canal. Central Canal- a circular channel that contains blood and lymphatic vessels, and nerves.

50 Lacunae, Lamellae, Canaliculi, Haversian Canals

51 Structure of Long Bone Figure 6.3

52 Bone Growth in Length Epiphyseal plate –Cartilage cells in this plate divide rapidly. –Zone of proliferating cartilage. Between ages 18-25, the epiphyseal plates close. –Cartilage cells in the plate stop dividing and bone replaces the cartilage. Growth in length stops at age 25.

53 Long Bone Formation and Growth Slide 5.14a

54 Bone Growth in Width


56 Factors Affecting Bone Growth 1 Nutrition –Adequate levels of vitamins and minerals. Calcium and phosphorus for bone growth. Vitamin C for collagen formation. Vitamins K and B12 for protein synthesis.

57 Factors Affecting Bone Growth 2 Hormones –During childhood growth factors stimulate cell division. Human growth hormone (hGH) Thyroid hormones Insulin –Sex steroids at puberty initiate male and female characteristics.

58 Hormonal Abnormalities Oversecretion of hGH during childhood produces giantism. Undersecretion of hGH or the thyroid hormones during childhood produces dwarfism. –The epiphyseal plate closes before normal height is reached. Estrogen is responsible for closing the growth plate. –Both men and women that lack estrogen receptors on cells grow taller than normal.

59 Aging and Bone Tissue Demineralization- loss of minerals. –Very rapid in women as estrogen levels decrease. –In males, begins after age 60, but is gradual. Decrease in protein synthesis –Decrease in growth hormone. –Decrease in collagen production, which gives bone its tensile strength, this causes bone to become brittle and susceptible to fracture.

60 Cold spots indicate –Decreased metabolism of decalcified bone. –Fracture. –Bone infection.

61 Bone Fractures Slide 5.16  A break in a bone  Types of bone fractures  Closed (simple) fracture – break that does not penetrate the skin  Open (compound) fracture – broken bone penetrates through the skin  Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilization  Realignment of the bone

62 Pathology Part 2 Types of fractures ComplexIncompleteComminutedGreenstick Simple (closed)Compound (open)Colles’Impacted

63 Common Types of Fractures



66 Slide 5.17 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 5.2

67 Stages in the Healing of a Bone Fracture Slide 5.19 Figure 5.5

68 Skeletal Muscle & Muscle Architecture

69 Skeletal Muscle & Muscle Architecture Skeletal Muscle & Muscle Architecture

70 Muscle Shape Flat (with an aponeurosis) (with an aponeurosis)Pennate (“featherlike”) (“featherlike”)Fusiform (spindle-shaped) (spindle-shaped)Quadrate (with 4 sides) (with 4 sides)Circular (surrounds an opening) (surrounds an opening)

71 Architecture of muscle Strap/flat Ex : m. sartorius m. sternocleidomastoideus m. sternocleidomastoideusFusiform Ex : M. biceps brachii Pennate : –Unipennate m. pronator quadratus m. pronator quadratus –Bipennate m. rectus femoris m. rectus femoris –Multipennate m. deltoideus m. deltoideusCircular m. orbicularis oculi m. orbicularis oculi m. orbicularis oris Sphincter m. orbicularis oris Sphincter


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