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2nd meeting Types of Sentences.

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Presentasi berjudul: "2nd meeting Types of Sentences."— Transcript presentasi:

1 2nd meeting Types of Sentences

2 What is Sentence? A sentence is a grammatical unit that is composed of one or more clauses. Grammar . a grammatical unit of one or more words, bearing minimal syntactic relation to the words that precede or follow it, often preceded and followed in speech by pauses, having one of a small number of characteristic intonation patterns, and typically expressing an independent statement, question, request, command, etc., as Summer is here.  or Who is it?  or Stop!

3 Simple Sentences A simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a subject and a verb, and it expresses a complete thought. Simple sentence (kalimat sederhana), juga disebut independent clause, adalah kalimat yang memiliki satu subject dan satu verb (predicate), dan sudah dapat mengekspresikan suatu kejadian/aktivitas secara utuh.

4 Independent clause and dependent clause.
A group of words made up of a subject and a predicate. An independent clause (unlike a dependent clause) can stand alone as a sentence. Independent clause, atau bisa juga disebut main clause, adalah kalimat yang mempunyai gagasan atau pokok pikiran yang lengkap (complete thought). Dan memiliki subjek dan predikat (verb) dalam struktur kalimatnya.

5 Sentence in Bahasa and English
S+V = complete thought (independent clause) S+Predicate Why in English uses Verb? She cries. They spoke. *Verb: main and linking verb!

6 Simple Sentences The president spoke. (S-V)
Betty made some iced tea. (S-V-O) They arrived at 2:00. (S-V-Comp) I was there. (S-V-Comp) That he was a criminal surprised me. (noun clause) I don’t know the lady who lives next door. (adj. clause) I will help you when I have time. (adverbial clause)

7 Independent clause and dependent clause.
A group of words that has both a subject and a verb but (unlike an independent clause) cannot stand alone as a sentence. Also known as a subordinate clause. Dependent clause adalah klausa yang memberikan informasi tambahan kepada independent clause atau main clause, tetapi keberadaannya tidak menjadi keharusan dalam melengkapi pokok pikiran kalimat. Meskipun dependent clause mempunyai subjek dan predikat, tetapi ia tidak dapat berdiri sendiri sebagai kalimat lengkap.

8 Dependent clause Wherever she goes, she leaves a piece of luggage behind. No one understands why experience is something you don't get until just after you need it. When she gets here, all will be explained.

9 Compound Sentences Compound sentence contains two or more main clauses and no subordinate clauses. Compound sentence (kalimat majemuk) adalah kalimat yang mengandung sekurang-kurangnya dua independent clause yang dihubungkan oleh coordinating conjunctions, correlative conjunctions, atau semicolon (i.e.  ; ).

10 Compound Sentences The clauses may be linked by: 1. A semi-colon (;)
* The batter swung at the ball; he missed. 2. Coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) * The batter swung at the ball, but he missed.

11 Complex Sentences Complex sentence (kalimat kompleks) adalah kalimat yang memiliki satu main clause/independent clause dan sekurang-kurangnya satu anak kalimat/dependent clause (subordinating clause). Anak kalimat biasanya berupa adverbial clause (i.e. clause yang diawali oleh subordinating conjunction (i.e. although, because, ect.) atau berupa adjective clause (i.e. clause yang diawali oleh relative pronoun (i.e. who, that, which, ect.). Pada kalimat kompleks, jika kalimat pokoknya (main clause) dihilangkan, anak kalimat akan memiliki makna yang belum lengkap.

12 Complex Sentences While you were watching the baboon, he was watching you. When I was young, I enjoyed the circus because the clowns made me laugh. Subordinate clause: klausa bawahan

13 Compound-complex Sentences
Jika sebuah kalimat mengandung sekurang- kurangnya dua independent clause dan sekurang- kurangnya satu dependent clause, kalimat tersebut disebut compound-complex sentence. Please try to make at least 3 compound-complex sentences! When the police arrived, he attempted to escape, but he was captured as he tried to enter a car.

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