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ELEKTRONIKA DASAR Jurusan Teknik Elektro Fakultas Teknik UGM 2009 Bahan Kuliah Minggu I.

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Presentasi berjudul: "ELEKTRONIKA DASAR Jurusan Teknik Elektro Fakultas Teknik UGM 2009 Bahan Kuliah Minggu I."— Transcript presentasi:

1 ELEKTRONIKA DASAR Jurusan Teknik Elektro Fakultas Teknik UGM 2009 Bahan Kuliah Minggu I

2 Hukum Dasar KKirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL): The algebraic sum of the currents entering any node is zero Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL): The algebraic sum of all voltages taken around a closed loop in a circuit is zero Node analysis Loop analysis

3 1) Hukum Kirchhoff tentang Arus HUKUM DASAR PERHITUNGAN LISTRIK NODE i1i1 i4i4 i3i3 i2i2 i 1 - i 2 - i 3 + i 4 = 0 i1i1 i 2 = - i 1

4 2) Hukum Kirchhoff tentang Tegangan HUKUM DASAR PERHITUNGAN LISTRIK a v2v2 + v1v c d e g common b vCvC vLvL vRvR iRiR iCiC iLiL abcdega: abcga: edcge:

5 HUKUM OHM Sumber Tegangan Sumber Arus Hambatan Hukum OHM :

6 RANGKAIAN HAMBATAN TTersambung seri DDialiri arus yang sama besar TTersambung parallel MMempunyai tegangan yang sama antara ujung-ujungnya

7 KODEWARNAKODEWARNA HITAM COKLAT MERAH ORANYE KUNING HIJAU BIRU UNGU KELABU PUTIH hicokmeokuhibiukepu R

8 4 GELANG TOLERANSI Prosentase perubahan nilai resistor Emas : 5 %, artinya nilai yang tertera ± 5% Contoh : nilai resistor : 4700 Ohm Maka nilai yang mungkin terjadi antara 4465 Ohm sd 4935 Ohm

9 5 GELANG BIASANYA UNTUK TOLERANSI : 1% BERAPA NILAI RESISTOR INI ? Warna gelang I : Warna Gelang II: Warna Gelang III : Warna Gelang IV : Nilai resistor :

10 KAPASITOR 1.Kapasitor merupakan komponen yang dapat menyimpan muatan listrik. 2.Pada dasarnya sebuah kapasitor terdiri atas 2 buah plat (konduktor) yang satu sama lain dipisahkan dengan menggunakan bahan penyekat (isolator). 3.Satuan kapasitor adalah Farad, akan tetapi 1 Farad merupakan dimensi yang sangat besar dalam prakteknya. 4.Biasanya dalam praktek digunakan satuan mikrofarad atau nanofarad atau pikofarad. 5.Jenis kapasitor yang ada dalak praktek adalah : kapasitor elektrolit, polyester, polypropylene, ceramic, kertas maupun mika

11 KAPASITOR ELEKTROLIT Dulu : sebagian besar kapasitor dibuat dari kertas dan minyak yang ditempatkan diantara dua konduktor. Dimensi kapasitor dengan nilai kapasitansi mikrofarad bisa sangat besar. Nilai kebocoran kapasitor sangat besar. Sekarang ini : ukuran sudah dapat diperkecil, dengan nilai kapasitansi yang besar, tetapi masih tetap kebocorannya tinggi dan kemungkinan mengering besar.

12 ELKO

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14 TANTALUM

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27 SIMBOL DAN KEMASAN TRANSISTOR

28 SIMBOL dan KEMASAN

29 DAYA dan BENTUK RESISTOR

30 HAMBATAN VARIABEL

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32 LED

33 DIODA dan DIODA ZENER

34 REGULATOR TEGANGAN (Penghasil Tegangan Konstan)

35 komponen A B C D

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37 KOMPONEN LISTRIK LAINNYA

38 LED : Light Emitting Diode ( Dioda yang Memancarkan Cahaya )

39 UNTAI TERINTEGRASI

40 TABUNG HAMPA  First Generation Electronic Computers used Vacuum Tubes  Vacuum tubes are glass tubes with circuits inside.  Vacuum tubes have no air inside of them, which protects the circuitry.

41 TABUNG HAMPA – 1941 TRANSISTOR -1948

42 First Transistor  Uses Silicon  developed in 1948  won a Nobel prize  on-off switch  Second Generation Computers used Transistors, starting in 1956

43 First Transistor

44 The First Microprocessor – 1971  The 4004 had 2,250 transistors  four-bit chunks (four 1’s or 0’s)  108Khz  Called “Microchip”

45 Operational Amplifier ( Op-Amp) MIKROPROSESOR 1971

46 Potentiometer Variable Resistor Power Supply Batteries Capacitors Resistor Coil Electronic Components Transformer 120V AC In DC volts Out + Speaker Microphone + Step Down Step Up Isolated Stereo HeadsetStereo Volume Control 1m

47 Diode LED Light Emitting Diode Transistor Electronic Switch NPN Electronic Components Meters Current Meter Voltage Meter Resistance Meter Switch Normally Open n.o. Normally Closed n.c. n.o. n.c. Slide Switch 1m 2m

48 Bucket Voltage 1.5 Volts 1 Gallon Formula Resistance = Voltage Current Flow = 1 amp Flow Meter Gallons/hour Valve restricts water flow EKIVALENSI ALIRAN AIR dan LISTRIK Resistor restricts current flow light dimmer Voltage = Resistance X Current Current = Voltage Resistance Water Flow Bucket Stores Water Battery Stores Energy Current Flow Voltage measured in volts (Symbol = V) Current measured in Amps (Symbol = I) Resistance measured in Ohms (Symbol = Ω ) Switch 5m 7m

49 Tangki Menyimpan Air Pengukur debit Liter/Jam Kran menghambat aliran air EKIVALENSI Aliran Air dan Elektron Resistor Menghambat Aliran listrik Aliran Air Battery Menyimpan energi Airan Elektron Saklar Pengukur arus Amper

50 Electronic Components Resistors Resistor Valve Variable Resistor is a Potentiometer 1” Pipe 1/2” Pipe 1 ohm 10 ohm 100 ohm 1,000 ohm = 1K ohm 10,000 ohm = 10 K ohm 100,000 ohm = 100 K ohm 1,000,000 ohm = 1 M ohm Resistor restricts flow of current. Resistors are made of carbon or wire. Smaller pipe restricts flow of fluids Pipe Resistance measured in Ohms (Symbol = Ω) Valve restricts flow of fluids 2 inch pipe 1 inch pipe 3/4 inch pipe 1/2 inch pipe 1/4 inch pipe The smaller the pipe the more restriction of flow The larger the resistor value the more restriction to current flow This could be used to control volume in a radio 1m 8m

51 Electronic Components Resistors A Resistor Value is determined by its color band and is measured in ohms First Ring is units Second Ring is Ten Third Ring is number of zero’s Fourth Ring is tolerance First Ring Black = 0 Brown = 1 Red = 2 Orange = 3 Yellow = 4 Green = 5 Blue = 6 Violet = 7 Gray = 8 White = 9 Third Ring Multiplier Silver = X.01 Gold = X.1 Black = X 1 Brown = X 10 Red = 2 = X 100 Orange = 3 = X 1000 Yellow = 4 = X 10,000 Green = 5 = X 100,000 Blue = 6 = X 1000,000 Violet = 7 = X 10,000,000 Resistor Color Rings Resistor Color Code Values Second Ring Black = 0 Brown = 1 Red = 2 Orange = 3 Yellow = 4 Green = 5 Blue = 6 Violet = 7 Gray = 8 White = 9 1m 9m

52 First Ring Red = 2 Black = 0 Second Ring Red = 2 Third Ring Red = X 100 = 2200 ohms Brown = X 10 = 020 ohms Example of Color Rings First Ring Brown = _1__ Green = _5__ Second Ring Green = _5__ Red = _2__ Third Ring Brown = __0__ = _150 ohms Yellow = 0,000 = 520,000 ohms Test of Color Rings Electronic Components Resistors First Ring is units Second Ring is Ten Third Ring is number of zero’s 5m 14m

53 Capacitors Stores small amounts of Voltage charge Measured in farads Batteries Sold already charged. Some may be recharged Bucket Voltage Storage Devices 1 f = 1.0 farad 10 mf =.01 Farad 1,000uf =.001 Farad 100uf =.0001 Farad 10uf =.00001Farad 1 uf = Farad.1 uf = uf = uf = pf = pf = pf = Electronic Components Most batteries are 1.5 Volts per cell. AAA =.2 amp hours AA =.5 amp hours C = 1 amp hour D = 4 amp hour Different size buckets of water with the same height and with a 1/4 inch hole will take different amounts of time to empty 1 gallon = 1 hours 2 gallon = 2 hours 5 gallon = 5 hour 10 gallon = 10 hour Un-Polorized Polorized 2m 17m

54 NPN Transistors A Transistor is an Electronic Switch 12 Volt Battery 12 Volt Battery Computer can send a signal to turn on the transistor which then turns on the light NPN Transistor Light Mechanical Switch Circuit Transistor Switch Circuit Switch open Light off = 0 Switch close Light on = 1 Input = 0 Light off Input = 1 Light on 1m 38m

55 An integrated circuit (IC) consists of multiple transistors. The number of transistors can vary from just a few (circuits shown below), to several million that are in a (Pentium microprocessor). IC Integrated Circuits Electronic Components 6 Transistors in one IC This IC has 6 inverters An inverter contains 6 Transistors = 36 total 1m 39m Functions Inverters Gates Flip flops Counters Memory MPU Watch IC’s Calculators IC’s Microwave Timer IC’s Radio IC’s Dialer IC’s Car Controller IC’s

56 K Transistors Capacity Microprocessor Road Map 100K 68000/ / / / M 68030/ K 10M PowerPC/Pentium Year of Introduction Every 18 months cpu’s double in density and performance, while still holding prices the same PowerPC/Pentium MaciMacApple 2E IBM 8080 Power Mac IBM 386 IBM 486 IBM Pentium PowerPC/Pentium 20M 1m 40m

57 PR  Buatlah tulisan tentang sebuah komponen elektronika.  Apa ?  Sifat/karakteristik ?  Cara penggunaan ?  Satuannya ?  Harganya dll

58 PENILAIAN ELDAS  KUIS : 5 %  TUGAS PR : 10 %  HARDWARE : 30 %  MID : 25 %  UAS : 30%


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