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These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by.

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Presentasi berjudul: "These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by."— Transcript presentasi:

1 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Catatan Kuliah Rekayasa Perangkat Lunak (Software Engineering) Bagian 2 Catatan Kuliah Rekayasa Perangkat Lunak (Software Engineering) Bagian 2 copyright © 2006 R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc M. Idham Ananta Timur, S.T., M.Kom. Hanya digunakan di lingkungan Universtias Hanya boleh digandakan untuk mahasiswa di lingkungan universitas yang menggunakan buku Software Engineering: A Practitioner's Approach. Selain itu dilarang keras menggandakan. Presentasi, slide atau hardcopy tidak boleh digunakan untuk short courses, seminar industri, atau kepentingan konsultasi.

2 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e Bab 10 Desain Arsitektur Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e Bab 10 Desain Arsitektur copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc. For University Use Only May be reproduced ONLY for student use at the university level when used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner's Approach. Any other reproduction or use is expressly prohibited.

3 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Kenapa Arsitektur ? Arsitektur bukanlah PL operasional, namun dia merupakan representasi yang memungkinkan pengembang PL untuk : (1)menganalisa efektivitas desain dalam memenuhi kebutuhan, (2) Mengetahui alternatif2x arsitektur pada keadaan dimana membuat perubahan desain masih relatif lebih mudah, dan (3) Mengurangi resiko terkait dengan konstruksi PL.

4 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Mengapa Arsitektur Penting? Representasi dari arsitektur PL adalah enabler bagi komunikasi antar pihak (stakeholder) yang tertarik dengan pengembangan sistem berbasis komputer. Representasi dari arsitektur PL adalah enabler bagi komunikasi antar pihak (stakeholder) yang tertarik dengan pengembangan sistem berbasis komputer. Arsitketur menyoroti keputusan desain awal yang akan mempunyai pengaruh yang sangat besar pada pekerjaan RPL yang mengikutinya, dan keberhasilan pada entitas sistem operasional. Arsitketur menyoroti keputusan desain awal yang akan mempunyai pengaruh yang sangat besar pada pekerjaan RPL yang mengikutinya, dan keberhasilan pada entitas sistem operasional. Arsitektur membangun model yang relatif kecil dan mudah digenggam secara intelektual tentang bagaimana sistem distrukturkan dan bagaimana komponen2x bekerja sama [BAS03]. Arsitektur membangun model yang relatif kecil dan mudah digenggam secara intelektual tentang bagaimana sistem distrukturkan dan bagaimana komponen2x bekerja sama [BAS03].

5 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Desain Data Pada level arsitektur … Pada level arsitektur … Desain satu atau lebih database untuk mendukung arsitektur aplikasi Desain satu atau lebih database untuk mendukung arsitektur aplikasi Desain method untuk ‘mining’ isi dari berbagai database Desain method untuk ‘mining’ isi dari berbagai database Navigasi melalui database2x yang ada dalam usaha untuk mengambil informasi level bisnis yang sesuai Navigasi melalui database2x yang ada dalam usaha untuk mengambil informasi level bisnis yang sesuai Desain sebuah data warehouse—sebuah database besar, independen yang mempunyai akses pada data yang disipan dalam database yang melayani sekelompok aplikasi yang dibutuhkan bisnis Desain sebuah data warehouse—sebuah database besar, independen yang mempunyai akses pada data yang disipan dalam database yang melayani sekelompok aplikasi yang dibutuhkan bisnis

6 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Desain Data Pada level komponen … Pada level komponen … Mengambil objek2x data dan mengembangkan satu set abstraksi data Mengambil objek2x data dan mengembangkan satu set abstraksi data Implementasi atribut2x objek data sebagai satu atau lebih struktur data Implementasi atribut2x objek data sebagai satu atau lebih struktur data review struktur data untuk memastikan bahwa relasi yang tepat sudah dibuat review struktur data untuk memastikan bahwa relasi yang tepat sudah dibuat Sederhanakan struktur data sesuai dengan kebutuhan Sederhanakan struktur data sesuai dengan kebutuhan

7 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Desain Data—Level Komponen 1. Prinsip2x analisis semantik yang diterapkan pada fungsi dan perilaku harus juga dapat berjalan pada data. 2. Seluruh struktur data dan operasi yang akan dilakukan harus dapat diidentifikasi. 3. Sebuah data dictionary harus dibuat dan digunakan untuk menentukan desain program dan data. 4. Keputusan desain data level rendah harus ditunda hingga akhir proses desain. 5. Representasi struktur dara harus diketahui oleh modul yang menggunakannya langsung dalam struktur tersebut (enkapsulasi). 6. Sebuah pustaka struktur data dan operasi yang memungkinkan untuk diterapkan harus dikembangkan. 7. Desain PL dan bahasa pemrograman harus mendukung spesifikasi dan realisasi dari tipe data abstrak.

8 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Ragam Gaya Arsitektur Data-centered architectures Data-centered architectures Data flow architectures Data flow architectures Call and return architectures Call and return architectures Object-oriented architectures Object-oriented architectures Layered architectures Layered architectures Masing2x menggambarkan kategori sistem yang menunjukkan : (1) a sekumpulan komponen (mis database, modul komputasi) yang menunjukkan fungsi yan dibutuhkan sistem, (2) sekumpulan connectors yang memungkinkan komunikasi, koordinasi dan kerjasama antar komponen components, (3) batasan yang menentukan bagaimana komponen dapat diintegrasikan untuk membentuk sistem, dan (4) smodel semantik yang memungkinkan desainer untk memahami properti keseluruhan dari sistem dengan menganlisai properti dalam bagian2x di dalamnya.

9 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Data-Centered Architecture

10 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Data Flow Architecture

11 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Call and Return Architecture

12 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Layered Architecture

13 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Pattern Arsitektural Concurrency—aplikasi harus menangani banyak tugas dalam pola yang mensimulasikan paralelisasi Concurrency—aplikasi harus menangani banyak tugas dalam pola yang mensimulasikan paralelisasi operating system process management pattern operating system process management pattern task scheduler pattern task scheduler pattern Persistence—Data ada jika dia bertahan setelah eksekusi proses yang membuatnya. Ada dua pattern umum :: Persistence—Data ada jika dia bertahan setelah eksekusi proses yang membuatnya. Ada dua pattern umum :: database management system pattern yang menerapkan penyimpanan dan pengambilan dari DBMS kepada arsitektur aplikasi database management system pattern yang menerapkan penyimpanan dan pengambilan dari DBMS kepada arsitektur aplikasi application level persistence pattern yang membangun fitur persistence pada aristektur aplikasi application level persistence pattern yang membangun fitur persistence pada aristektur aplikasi Distribution— pola dimana sistem atau komponen2x di antaranya berkomunkasi dalam lingkungan terdistribusi Distribution— pola dimana sistem atau komponen2x di antaranya berkomunkasi dalam lingkungan terdistribusi broker bertindak sebagai orang di tengah antara komponen klient dan komponen server. broker bertindak sebagai orang di tengah antara komponen klient dan komponen server.

14 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Desain Arsitektur PL harus ditempatkan pada konteks PL harus ditempatkan pada konteks Desain harus menentukan entitas eksternal (sistem lain, piranti, orang) dimana PL berinteraksi dengannya Desain harus menentukan entitas eksternal (sistem lain, piranti, orang) dimana PL berinteraksi dengannya Sekumpulan arsitektur archetypes harus diidentifikasi Sekumpulan arsitektur archetypes harus diidentifikasi archetype adalah abstraksi (mirip dengan class) yang menampilkan satu elemen dari perilaku sistem archetype adalah abstraksi (mirip dengan class) yang menampilkan satu elemen dari perilaku sistem Desainer menentukan struktur sistem dengan memilih komponen PL yang mengimplmentasi masing2x archetype Desainer menentukan struktur sistem dengan memilih komponen PL yang mengimplmentasi masing2x archetype

15 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Architectural Context

16 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Archetypes

17 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Component Structure

18 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Refined Component Structure

19 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Analisis Desain Arsitektur 1. Kumpulkan semua skenario. 2. Dapatkan kebutuhan2x, batasan2x, dan gambaran lingkungan. 3. Gambarkan pola/gaya arsitektur yang telah dipilih untuk menangani skenario2x dan kebutuhan2x :: module view module view process view process view data flow view data flow view 4. Evaluasi kualitas atribut2x dengan melihat setiap atribut dalam isolasi. 5. Kenali kualitas atribut untuk setiap atribut arsitektural untuk masing-masik gaya arsitektur yang spesifik. 6. Lakukkan kritik pada arsitektur2x kandidat (yg dikembangkan pada langkah 3) menggunakan analisis pada langkah 5.

20 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Metode Desain Arsitektur "four bedrooms, three baths, lots of glass..." customer requirements architectural design

21 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Memperoleh Arsitektur Program ProgramArchitecture

22 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Partisi Arsitektur Partisi “horizontal” dan “vertical” dibutuhkan Partisi “horizontal” dan “vertical” dibutuhkan

23 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Partisi Horizontal Tentukan cabang yang terpisah pada hierarki modul untuk setiap fungsi utama Tentukan cabang yang terpisah pada hierarki modul untuk setiap fungsi utama Gunakan modul kontrol untuk koodinasi komunikasi antar fungsi2x Gunakan modul kontrol untuk koodinasi komunikasi antar fungsi2x function 1 function 3 function 2

24 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Partisi Vertikal : Factoring Didesain sehingga pengambilan keputusan dan pekerjaan distratifikasi Didesain sehingga pengambilan keputusan dan pekerjaan distratifikasi Modul pengambilan keputusan tetap ada di puncak arsitektur Modul pengambilan keputusan tetap ada di puncak arsitektur workers decision-makers

25 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Mengapa Arsitektur Terpartisi? Hasilnya adalah PL yang mudah diuji Hasilnya adalah PL yang mudah diuji Membawa kepada PL yang lebih mudah dikelola Membawa kepada PL yang lebih mudah dikelola Hasilnya efek samping yang semakin sedikit Hasilnya efek samping yang semakin sedikit Hasilnya adalah PL yang lebih mudah dikembangkan Hasilnya adalah PL yang lebih mudah dikembangkan

26 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Desain Terstruktur Tujuan : untuk mendapatkan arsitektur program yang terpartisi Tujuan : untuk mendapatkan arsitektur program yang terpartisi pendekatan: pendekatan: DFD dipetakan ke arsitektur program DFD dipetakan ke arsitektur program PSPEC dan STD digunakan untuk mengindikasikan setiap modul PSPEC dan STD digunakan untuk mengindikasikan setiap modul notasi: diagram struktur notasi: diagram struktur

27 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Karakteristik Aliran Aliran Transformasi Aliran Transaksi

28 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Pendekatan Pemetaan Umum Isolasi aliran ke dalam dan ke luar batasan; untuk aliran transaksi, isolasi Pusat transaksi Bekerja dari batasan luar, petakan Transformasi DFD ke modul terkait Tambahkan modul kontrol jika dibutuhkan Sempurnakan struktur program Menggunakan konsep modularitas efektif

29 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Pemetaan Transformasi

30 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Factoring

31 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, First Level Factoring main program controller input controller processing controller output controller

32 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Second Level Mapping

33 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Transaction Flow T incoming flow action path

34 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Transaction Example operator commands process operator commands fixture setting report robot control fixture servos display screen robot control software in reality, other commands would also be shown assembly record

35 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Refining the Analysis Model write an English language processing narrative for the level 01 flow model apply noun/verb parse to isolate processes, data items, store and entities develop level 02 and 03 flow models create corresponding data dictionary entries refine flow models as appropriate... now, we're ready to begin design!

36 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Deriving Level 1 Processing narrative for " process operator commands" Process operator command software reads operator commands from the cell operator. An error message is displayed for invalid commands. The command type is determined for valid commands and appropriate action is taken. When fixture commands are encountered, fixture status is analyzed and a fixture setting is output to the fixture servos. When a report is selected, the assembly record file is read and a report is generated and displayed on the operator display screen. When robot control switches are selected, control values are sent to the robot control system. Processing narrative for " process operator commands" Process operator command software reads operator operatorcommands from from the cell operator. An error message is isdisplayed for for invalid commands. The command type is isdetermined for for valid commands and appropriate and appropriate action is taken. When fixture commands are areencountered,fixture status is isanalyzed and a and a fixture setting is isoutput to the to the fixture servos. When a report is is selected, the the assembly record file is isread and a and a report is generated and anddisplayed on the operator on the operator display screen. When robot control switches are areselected, control value s are sent to to the robot control system. noun-verb parse

37 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Level 1 Data Flow Diagram

38 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Level 2 Data Flow Diagram

39 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Transaction Mapping Principles isolate the incoming flow path define each of the action paths by looking for the "spokes of the wheel" assess the flow on each action path define the dispatch and control structure map each action path flow individually

40 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Transaction Mapping

41 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Isolate Flow Paths

42 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Map the Flow Model

43 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, Refining the Structure Chart


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