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Systems Analysis and Design: System Analysis Romi Satria Wahono 081586220090.

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1 Systems Analysis and Design: System Analysis Romi Satria Wahono

2  SD Sompok Semarang (1987)  SMPN 8 Semarang (1990)  SMA Taruna Nusantara, Magelang (1993)  S1, S2 dan S3 (on-leave) Department of Computer Sciences Saitama University, Japan ( )  Research Interests: Software Engineering, Intelligent Systems  Founder dan Koordinator IlmuKomputer.Com  Peneliti LIPI ( )  Founder dan CEO PT Brainmatics Cipta Informatika Romi Satria Wahono

3 Contents 1.Introduction 2.Project Planning 3.System Analysis 4.System Design 5.System Implementation

4 Recap  Identifying the business value of the new project is a key to success  The system request describes an overview of the proposed system.  The feasibility study is concerned with insuring that technical, economic, and organizational benefits outweigh costs and risks  Project estimation methods: simply method, function point and use case point

5 3. SYSTEM ANALYSIS

6 Learning Objectives 1.Understand how to create a requirements definition 2.Become familiar with requirements analysis techniques 3.Understand when to use each requirements analysis technique 4.Understand how to gather requirements using interviews, JAD sessions, questionnaires, document analysis, and observation 5.Understand when to use each requirements-gathering technique 6.Understand the business process modeling

7 SDLC and Deliverables

8 System Analysis and Design with UML 1.System Analysis 1.Business Process Identification  Use Case Diagram 2.Business Process Modeling  Activity Diagram or Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) 3.Business Process Realization  Sequence Diagram (Buat untuk setiap use case dengan menggunakan pola Boundary-Control-Entity) 2.System Design 1.Program Design 1.Class Diagram (Gabungkan Boundary-Control-Entity Class dan susun story dari sistem yang dibangun) 2.Package Diagram (Gabungan class yang sesuai, boleh menggunakan pola B-C-E) 3.Deployment Diagram (arsitektur software dari sistem yang dibangun) 2.User Interface Design (Buat UI design dari Boundary Class) 3.Entity-Relationship Model (Buat ER diagram dari Entity Class)

9 Requirement Gathering

10 What is a Requirement  Business Requirement • Statement of what the system must do • Focus on what the system must do, not how to do it  There are 2 kinds of requirements 1.Functional 2.Nonfunctional

11 Functional Requirement  Defines the functions of the system must carry out  Specifies the process that must be performed  Examples: • Diagrams:  Activity Diagrams  Use Case Diagrams • Problem Statements:  Must search for inventory  Must perform these calculations  Must produce a specific report

12 Nonfunctional Requirements Deals with how the system behaves: 1.Operational – Physical/technical environment 2.Performance – Speed and reliability 3.Security – Who can use the system 4.Cultural & Political – Company policies, legal issues

13

14 Requirement Gathering Methods 1.Document Analysis 2.Interviews 3.Joint Application Design (JAD) 4.Questionnaires 5.Observation

15 1. Document Analysis  Provides clues about the "formal" existing As- Is system  Typical documents • Forms • Reports • Policy manuals  Look for user additions to forms  Look for unused form elements  Do document analysis before interviews

16 2. Interviews  Most commonly used technique  Very natural • If you need to know something, you ask someone  Five basic steps: 1.Selecting interviewees 2.Designing interview questions 3.Preparing for the interview 4.Conducting the interview 5.Post-interview follow-up

17 3. Joint Application Design (JAD)  Allows project managers, users, and developers to work together  May reduce scope creep by 50%  Avoids requirements being too specific or too vague  Include 10 to 20 users  Tend to last 5 to 10 days over a three week period

18 JAD Meeting Room JPEG Figure 5-5 Goes Here

19 4. Questionnaire 1.Selecting participants • Using samples of the population 2.Designing the questionnaire • More important than interview questions • Prioritize questions to grab attention • Distinguish between  Fact-oriented questions (specific answers)  Opinion questions (agree – disagree scale) • Test the questionnaire on colleagues

20 4. Questionnaire 3.Administering the questionnaire • Need to get good response rate • Explain its importance & how it will be used • Give expected response date • Follow up on late returns • Have supervisors follow up • Promise to report results 4.Questionnaire follow-up • Send results to participants

21 5. Observation  Users/managers often don’t remember everything they do  Validates info gathered in other ways  Behaviors change when people are watched  Keep low profile, don’t change the process  Careful not to ignore periodic activities • Weekly … Monthly … Annual

22 Selecting the Appropriate Techniques Interviews JAD Questionnaires Document Observation Interviews JAD Questionnaires Document Observation Analysis Analysis Type of As-Is As-Is As-Is As-Is As-Is Information Improve. Improve. Improve. To-Be To-Be To-Be To-Be Depth of High High Medium Low Low Information Breadth of Low Medium High High Low Information Integration Low High Low Low Low of Info. User Medium High Low Low Low Involvement Cost Medium Low- Low Low Low- Medium Medium Medium Medium

23 Business Process Analysis

24 Business Process Analysis Steps

25 Business Process Analysis Strategies 1.BPA (Business Process Automation) 2.BPI (Business Process Improvement) 3.BPR (Business Process Reengineering)

26 Business Process Automation  Makes almost no changes to business processes • Just makes them more efficient  Improves efficiency by automating the business processes  Least impact on users • They do the same things, just more efficiently

27 Business Process Improvement  Goal is to improve the business processes  Change what the users do, not just how efficiently they do it  Changes to business process must be decided first  Decisions to change the business processes cannot be made by the analyst

28 Business Process Reengineering “Fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements…”  Throw away everything  Start with a blank page  Appealing, but very expensive and risky

29 Strategy Comparation BusinessBusinessBusiness BusinessBusinessBusiness ProcessProcessProcess ProcessProcessProcess Automation ImprovementReeingineering Potential Business Low-ModerateModerateHigh Value Project Cost LowLow-ModerateHigh Breadth of Analysis NarrowNarrow-ModerateVery Broad Risk LowLow-ModerateVery High

30 Business Process Identification

31 System Analysis and Design with UML 1.System Analysis 1.Business Process Identification  Use Case Diagram 2.Business Process Modeling  Activity Diagram or Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) 3.Business Process Realization  Sequence Diagram (Buat untuk setiap use case dengan menggunakan pola Boundary-Control-Entity) 2.System Design 1.Program Design 1.Class Diagram (Gabungkan Boundary-Control-Entity Class dan susun story dari sistem yang dibangun) 2.Package Diagram (Gabungan class yang sesuai, boleh menggunakan pola B-C-E) 3.Deployment Diagram (arsitektur software dari sistem yang dibangun) 2.User Interface Design (Buat UI design dari Boundary Class) 3.Entity-Relationship Model (Buat ER diagram dari Entity Class)

32 Use Case Diagram

33 Use Case Diagrams  Summarized into a single picture  All of the use cases for the part of the system being modeled  Use case represents the discrete activities performed by the user  Use Case Diagram tells what the system will do  Good for communicating with users

34 Syntax for an Use Case Diagram  Actor • person or system that derives benefit from and is external to the subject  Use Case • Represents a major piece of system functionality  Association Relationship  Include Relationship  Extend Relationship  Generalization Relationship <> <>

35 Use Case  A major piece of system functionality  Can extend other Use Cases  Placed inside system boundary  Labeled with descriptive verb - noun phrase Use Case

36 System Boundary  Includes the name of the system inside or on top  Represents the scope of the system  Actors are outside the scope of the system Boundary

37 Actor  A person or another system that interacts with the current system  A role, not a specific user  Provides input, receives output, or both  actor  Actor/Role

38 Association Relationship  Links actor and the Use Case  Shows two-way communication • If one-way, arrows are used  * is for "multiplicity of the Association" **

39 Extends Relationship  Extends Use Case to include Optional behavior  Arrow points from the extension Use Case to the base Use Case  extend  Make Appointment Make Payment Arrangement

40 Include Relationship  Include one Use Case from within another  Arrow points from base Use Case to the included Use Case  include  Create New Patient Make New Patient Appointment

41 Generalization Relationship  A specialized Use Case to a more generalized Use Case  Arrow points from specialized to general Use Case Make Appointment Make Old Appointment

42 Use Case Diagram for Appointment System

43 Use Case Diagram with Specialized Actor

44 Extend and Include Relationships

45 Studi Kasus: ATM System

46 ATM System

47 Layar Kotak Uang Kotak Kartu Kotak Kuitansi

48 Masukkan PIN: Kotak Uang Kotak Kartu Kotak Kuitansi

49 Menu Utama 1. 1.Melihat Saldo 2. 2.Mentransfer Uang 3. 3.Mengambil Uang 4. 4.Logout Kotak Uang Kotak Kartu Kotak Kuitansi

50 Menu Melihat Saldo 1. 1.Saldo anda adalah …. Kotak Uang Kotak Kartu Kotak Kuitansi

51 Menu Mentransfer Uang 1. 1.No Account Penerima: Kotak Uang Kotak Kartu Kotak Kuitansi

52 Menu Mentransfer Uang 1. 1.Jumlah uang yang dikirim: Kotak Uang Kotak Kartu Kotak Kuitansi

53 Menu Mentransfer Uang 1. 1.Uang berhasil terkirim Kotak Uang Kotak Kartu Kotak Kuitansi

54 Menu Mengambil Uang 1. 1.Jumlah uang yang diambil: Kotak Uang Kotak Kartu Kotak Kuitansi

55 Menu Mengambil Uang Uang berhasil diambil Kotak Uang Kotak Kartu Kotak Kuitansi

56 Use Case Diagram

57 Use Case Diagram (Alternatif)

58 Exercise: Business Process Identification 1.Lihat kembali System Request yang sudah anda buat 2.Lakukan business process identification dengan membuatkan Use Case Diagram untuk System Request tersebut

59 Exercise: Systems Analysis and Design  Lakukan sistem analysis and design yang menghasilkan diagram: 1.Use Case Diagram  Pilih salah satu aplikasi di bawah: 1. 1.Aplikasi Rental Mobil 2. 2.Aplikasi Pengelolaan Klinik 3. 3.Aplikasi Pengelolaan Apotik 4. 4.Aplikasi Pengelolaan Service Mobil 5. 5.Aplikasi Penjualan Motor 6. 6.Aplikasi Pengelolaan Perpustakaan 7. 7.Aplikasi Penjualan Buku Online 8. 8.Aplikasi Penjualan Tiket Kereta Online 9. 9.Aplikasi Manajemen Universitas Online Aplikasi Penjualan Laptop Online Aplikasi Perpustakaan Digital Aplikasi Pengelolaan Project Software

60 Business Process Modeling

61 System Analysis and Design with UML 1.System Analysis 1.Business Process Identification  Use Case Diagram 2.Business Process Modeling  Activity Diagram or Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) 3.Business Process Realization  Sequence Diagram (Buat untuk setiap use case dengan menggunakan pola Boundary-Control-Entity) 2.System Design 1.Program Design 1.Class Diagram (Gabungkan Boundary-Control-Entity Class dan susun story dari sistem yang dibangun) 2.Package Diagram (Gabungan class yang sesuai, boleh menggunakan pola B-C-E) 3.Deployment Diagram (arsitektur software dari sistem yang dibangun) 2.User Interface Design (Buat UI design dari Boundary Class) 3.Entity-Relationship Model (Buat ER diagram dari Entity Class)

62 Elements of an Activity Diagram Guidelines for Creating Activity Diagrams Business Process Modeling with Activity Diagrams

63 BPM With Activity Diagrams  A number of activities support a business process across several departments  Activity diagrams model the behavior in a business process

64 Syntax for an Activity Diagram

65 Activity Diagram Example

66 Creating Activity Diagrams 1.Set the context or scope of the activity being modeled 2.Identify the activities and control/object flows between activities 3.Identify any decisions made 4.Look for opportunities for parallelism 5.Draw the diagram

67 Business Process Modeling with BPMN

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69

70

71

72 Credit Application

73 Purchase Request

74 Shipment Process of a Hardware Retailer

75 The Pizza Collaboration

76 Order Fulfillment and Procurement

77 Studi Kasus: ATM System

78 Activity Diagram: Memasukkan Kartu

79 Activity Diagram: Memasukkan PIN

80 Activity Diagram: Mengecek Saldo

81 Activity Diagram: Mentransfer Uang

82 Activity Diagram: Mengambil Uang

83 Activity Diagram: Melakukan Logout

84 Exercise: Business Process Modeling 1.Lihat kembali System Request dan Use Case Diagram yang sudah anda buat 2.Lakukan business process modeling dengan membuatkan Activity Diagram untuk setiap Use Case yang dibuat

85 Exercise: Systems Analysis and Design  Lakukan sistem analysis and design yang menghasilkan diagram: 1.Use Case Diagram 2.Activity Diagram  Pilih salah satu aplikasi di bawah: 1. 1.Aplikasi Rental Mobil 2. 2.Aplikasi Pengelolaan Klinik 3. 3.Aplikasi Pengelolaan Apotik 4. 4.Aplikasi Pengelolaan Service Mobil 5. 5.Aplikasi Penjualan Motor 6. 6.Aplikasi Pengelolaan Perpustakaan 7. 7.Aplikasi Penjualan Buku Online 8. 8.Aplikasi Penjualan Tiket Kereta Online 9. 9.Aplikasi Manajemen Universitas Online Aplikasi Penjualan Laptop Online Aplikasi Perpustakaan Digital Aplikasi Pengelolaan Project Software

86 Business Process Realization

87 System Analysis and Design with UML 1.System Analysis 1.Business Process Identification  Use Case Diagram 2.Business Process Modeling  Activity Diagram or Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) 3.Business Process Realization  Sequence Diagram (Buat untuk setiap use case dengan menggunakan pola Boundary-Control-Entity) 2.System Design 1.Program Design 1.Class Diagram (Gabungkan Boundary-Control-Entity Class dan susun story dari sistem yang dibangun) 2.Package Diagram (Gabungan class yang sesuai, boleh menggunakan pola B-C-E) 3.Deployment Diagram (arsitektur software dari sistem yang dibangun) 2.User Interface Design (Buat UI design dari Boundary Class) 3.Entity-Relationship Model (Buat ER diagram dari Entity Class)

88 Sequence Diagram

89 Sequence Diagrams  Illustrate the objects that participate in a use case  Show the messages that pass between objects for a particular use-case over time

90 Sequence Diagram Syntax AN ACTOR AN OBJECT A LIFELINE A FOCUS OF CONTROL A MESSAGE OBJECT DESTRUCTION anObject:aClass aMessage() aMessage() x

91 Sequence Diagram 1.Susun Sequence Diagram untuk setiap Use Case yang dibuat 2.Mulai dari menarik Actor yang ada di Use Case Diagram, lanjutkan dengan membuat sequence detail dari berjalannya Use Case Catatan: Objek dari Lifeline di Sequence Diagram akan menjadi kandidat Class

92 Jenis Class 1.Boundary Class: 1.Class yang berinteraksi dengan aktor langsung (user interface) 2.Form, input, UI ini masuk di sini 2.Control Class: 1.Class yang berhubungan dengan pemrosesan, penghitungan, kalkulasi, komputasi, query, dst 3.Entity Class: 1.Class yang berhubungan dengan data, penyimpanan data/file

93 Studi Kasus: ATM System

94 Sequence Diagram: Memasukkan Kartu

95 Sequence Diagram: Memasukkan PIN

96 Sequence Diagram: Mengecek Saldo

97 Sequence Diagram: Mentransfer Uang

98 Sequence Diagram: Mengambil Uang

99 Sequence Diagram: Melakukan Logout

100 Exercise: Sequence Diagram 1.Lihat kembali System Request, Use Case Diagram, dan Activity Diagram yang sudah anda buat 2.Lengkapi diagram tersebut dengan Sequence Diagram untuk setiap Use Case yang dibuat

101 Exercise: Systems Analysis and Design  Lakukan sistem analysis and design yang menghasilkan diagram: 1.Use Case Diagram 2.Activity Diagram 3.Sequence Diagram  Pilih salah satu aplikasi di bawah: 1. 1.Aplikasi Rental Mobil 2. 2.Aplikasi Pengelolaan Klinik 3. 3.Aplikasi Pengelolaan Apotik 4. 4.Aplikasi Pengelolaan Service Mobil 5. 5.Aplikasi Penjualan Motor 6. 6.Aplikasi Pengelolaan Perpustakaan 7. 7.Aplikasi Penjualan Buku Online 8. 8.Aplikasi Penjualan Tiket Kereta Online 9. 9.Aplikasi Manajemen Universitas Online Aplikasi Penjualan Laptop Online Aplikasi Perpustakaan Digital Aplikasi Pengelolaan Project Software

102 Collaboration Diagram

103 Collaboration Diagrams  Essentially an object diagram that shows • Message passing relationships • Instead associations  Emphasize • The flow of messages among objects • Rather than timing and ordering of messages

104 Collaboration Diagram Syntax AN ACTOR AN OBJECT AN ASSOCIATION A MESSAGE anObject:aClass aMessage() aMessage()

105 Example Collaboration Diagram

106 State Machine Diagram

107 Behavioral State Machines  Some objects may change states often  Some may change state and never change back • Patient: new  current  former  This is seen in the cells of the CRUD matrix

108 Behavioral State Machines  The behavioral state machine is a dynamic model that shows this  The behavioral state machine shows • The different states of an object • The events  That cause the object to change from one state to another

109 Components of Statechart Diagrams  States • Determined by the values of the attributes  Events • Changes the state of an object • e.g. changes the values of attributes

110 Components of Statechart Diagrams  Transitions • Movement of an object from one state to another • Often has a guard condition  Actions • Atomic process, takes "zero time"  Activities • Non-atomic, take a long time, can be started and stopped

111 Statechart Diagram Syntax A STATE AN INITIAL STATE A FINAL STATE AN EVENT A TRANSITION aState anEvent

112 Example Behavioral State Machine Diagram

113 Building Behavioral State Machine Diagrams  Set the context  Identify • Initial state • Final state • All stable states  Determine the order in which the object will pass through stable states  Identify the events, actions, and guard conditions associated with the transitions  Validate the diagram

114 Gustav Karner (1993) Estimating Project Size with Use Case Points

115 Actor and Use Case Weighting Tables Actor Type DescriptionWeighting Factor SimpleExternal System with well- defined API 1 AverageExternal System using a protocol-based interface, e.g., HTTP, TCT/IP, SQL 2 Comple x Human3 Use-Case Type DescriptionWeighting Factor Simple1-3 transactions5 Average4-7 transactions10 ComplexMore than 7 transactions 15 Unadjusted Use Case Points (UUCP) = UAW + UUCW Unadjusted Use Case Weighting (UUCW) Unadjusted Actor Weighting (UAW)

116 Technical Complexity Factors Factor Number DescriptionWeig ht T1Distributed system2.0 T2Response time or throughput performance objectives 1.0 T3End-user online efficiency1.0 T4Complex internal processing1.0 T5Reusability of code1.0 T6Easy to install0.5 T7Ease of use0.5 T8Portability2.0 T9Ease of change1.0 Technical Complexity Factor (TCF) = (0.01 * TFactor)

117 Environmental Complexity Factors Factor Number DescriptionWeight E1Familiarity with system development process in use 1.5 E2Application experience 0.5 E3Object-oriented experience 1.0 E4Lead analyst capability 0.5 E5Motivation 1.0 E6Requirements stability 2.0 E7Part time staff E8Difficulty of programming language Environmental Factor (ECF) = (-0.03 * EFactor)

118 Computing Use Case Points  Adjusted Use Case Points (UCP) = UUCP * TCF * ECF  Effort in Person Hours = UCP * PHM

119 Person Hour Multiplier (PHM) If the sum of (number of Efactors ECF1 through ECF6 assigned value 3) ≤ 2 PHM = 20 Else If the sum of (number of Efactors ECF1 through ECF6 assigned value 3) = 3 or 4 PHM 28 Else Rethink project; it has too high of a risk for failure

120 Person Hour Multiplier (PHM)  Let F1 = Number of ECF1 to ECF6 that are < 3  Let F2 = Number of ECF7 and ECF8 that are > 3  If F1 + F2 <= 2 PHM = 20 Else if F1 + F2 = 3 or 4 PHM = 28 Else Scrap the project

121 Use Case Points in EA

122

123 Effort Estimation from PM Defined Effort Estimation of Sistem ATM UCP= 30PHM= 20 PH= 20*30 = 600 PM = 600/8/22 = 3.4 TIME (M)= 3.0 * PM 1/3 TIME (M) = 3.0 * 3.4 1/3 TIME (M) = 4.5

124 Budget (Custom Software) PekerjaanMan-MonthMonthBudgetTotal Planning Analysis Design Implementation Training

125 Budget (Generic Software) ProductTotal LMS Teleconference Chatting eLibrary

126 Exercise: Project Size Estimation 1.Lihat kembali Use Case Diagram, dan Sequence Diagram yang telah anda buat 2.Estimasi Project Size, Effort dan Time dengan menggunakan Use Case Point

127 Exercise: System Analysis untuk System Request 1.Lihat kembali System Request yang sudah anda buat 2.Lakukan system analysis dengan membuat diagram di bawah: 1.Use Case Diagram 2.Activity Diagram 3.Sequence Diagram 3.Buat project baru di Sparx EA, buat 3 package dengan nama sama dengan 3 diagram di atas

128 Referensi 1.Alan Dennis et al, Systems Analysis and Design with UML 4 th Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E Kendall, Systems Analysis and Design 8 th Edition, Prentice Hall, Hassan Gomaa, Software Modeling and Design: UML, Use Cases, Patterns, and Software Architectures, Cambridge University Press, Gary B. Shelly and Harry J. Rosenblatt, Systems Analysis and Design 9 th Edition, Course Technology, Howard Podeswa, UML for the IT Business Analyst 2 nd Edition, Course Technology, Jeffrey A. Hoffer et al, Modern Systems Analysis and Design 6 th Edition, Prentice Hall, 2012


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