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INSURANCE. Unsur-Unsur Penting Asuransi 1. Adanya perjanjian -> Polis Asuransi 2. Para pihak -> Penanggung & Tertanggung 3. Benda / obyek pertanggungan.

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Presentasi berjudul: "INSURANCE. Unsur-Unsur Penting Asuransi 1. Adanya perjanjian -> Polis Asuransi 2. Para pihak -> Penanggung & Tertanggung 3. Benda / obyek pertanggungan."— Transcript presentasi:

1 INSURANCE

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3 Unsur-Unsur Penting Asuransi 1. Adanya perjanjian -> Polis Asuransi 2. Para pihak -> Penanggung & Tertanggung 3. Benda / obyek pertanggungan 4. Nilai pertanggungan 5. Pengalihan resiko 6. Premium 7. Syarat-syarat pertanggungan 8. Jangka waktu pertanggungan Detail dari unsur-unsur tersebut diatas tertuang di dalam Polis Asuransi - Deductible : batas minimum resiko sendiri yang harus ditanggung oleh Tertanggung

4 Syarat Sah Perjanjian (Pasal 1320 KuhPer) 1. Adanya kesepakatan antara para pihak (tidak ada paksaan) 2. Cakap 3. Adanya obyek yang diperjanjikan 4. Suatu sebab / tujuan yang dihalalkan

5 Prinsip-Prinsip Dasar Asuransi 1. Insurable Interest “Kepentingan yang sah yang dimiliki oleh tertanggung atas benda yang diasuransikan (obyek pertanggungan)” Kepentingan yang sah = berdasarkan hukum / adanya hubungan hukum Dihubungkan dgn asuransi laut, terdapat 2 kelompok kepentingan yg dapat diasuransikan; i. Kepentingan yg melekat pada barang -nilai barang, biaya pengiriman, dll. ii. Kepentingan yg melekat pada kapal -nilai kapal, freight, dll.

6 2. Utmost Good Faith Adanya itikad baik antara Penanggung dan tertanggung 3. Proximate Cause Kerusakan atau kerugian yg terjadi atas benda yg diasuransikan (obyek pertanggungan) disebabkan oleh salah satu bahaya (resiko) yg dijamin di dalam polis asuransi 4. Indemnity Mengembalikan posisi keuangan tertanggung seperti sesaat sebelum terjadi bencana Prinsip (lanjutan)

7 5. Subrogation Beralihnya hak yg dimiliki Tertanggung kepada Penanggung untuk menuntut ganti rugi secara hukum terhadap pihak ketiga yg telah menyebabkan kerusakan/ kerugian atas obyek pertanggungan. Beralihnya hak tersebut setelah Penanggung memberikan indemnity kepada Tertanggung berdasarkan polis asuransi yg dimiliki Tertanggung Prinsip2....

8 Jenis-jenis Asuransi  Jiwa; -Meninggal dunia -Personal Accident -Anggota tubuh -dll.  Kerugian; -Kend. bermotor -Gedung -Barang -Kapal & muatannya -dll.

9 Resiko Yang Ditanggung  Kebakaran  Huru-hara  Bencana alam  Kehilangan / perampokan  dll. Resiko2 yang ditanggung oleh perusahaan asuransi tercantum di dalam Polis Asuransi

10 Marine Insurance  Cargo  Vessel; - Hull & Machinery (H&M) Melindungi biaya-biaya kerusakan/kerugian yang berkaitan langsung dengan kapal (rangka & mesin) - Protection & Indemnity Club (P&I Club) Melindungi biaya2 yg dikeluarkan yg merupakan tanggung jawab hukum kepada pihak ketiga yang timbul sebagai akibat dari pengoperasian kapal

11  Hull & Machinery; - Total loss - Damage to hull & machinery - Collision with vessel - Contact with Fixed Floating Object - Salvage Kerugian terjadi pada kapal sendiri  Protection & Indemnity - Pollution - Wreck removal - Crew; Loss of life, illness, etc. - Cargo damage - Collision with vessel - Contact with Fixed Floating Object Kerugian terjadi pada pihak ketiga Perbedaan H&M dan P&I

12 JENIS2 ASURANSI H&M (PT SISM)  H&M (Hull & Machinery)  I.V. (Insured Value) ; pertambahan nilai, 25% dari harga kapal  War Risks ; resiko perang, daerah yang termasuk di dalam zona War Risks – additional premium

13 Jenis2 Klaim Dalam H&M - Total Loss / Constructive Total Loss - Particular Average (PA) PA loss is a partial loss of the subject matter insured, caused by a peril insured against, and which is not a General Average loss - Salvage Charges

14 - General Average (GA) There is a GA act when, and only when, any extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure is intentionally and reasonably made or incurred for the common safety for the purpose of preser- ving from peril the property involved in a common maritime adventure - Sue and Labour / Particular Charges ~ Expenses incurred by or on behalf of the assured for the safety or preservation of the subject matter insured, other than GA & Salvage Charges, are called Particular Charges. ~ Measures taken for the purpose of averting or minimising a loss which would be recoverable under this insurance Jenis2 Klaim......(lanjutan)

15 Resiko Yang Ditanggung (Insured Perils)  Resiko-resiko yg ditanggung (insured perils); - perils of the seas, rivers, lakes or other navigable waters - fire, explosion - violent theft by persons from outside the vessel - jettison - piracy - breakdown of or accident to nuclear installations or reactors - contact with aircraft or similar objects, or objects falling therefrom, land conveyance, dock or harbor equipment or installation - earthquake volcanic eruption or lightning - grounding = perils of the seas - crew negligence = not perils of the seas - excluded perils = War Risks

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17 PIHAK YANG TERLIBAT (H&M)  Adjuster: pihak independen yang bertugas menilai kewajaran jumlah suatu klaim  Surveyor: pihak independen, bekerja utk kepentingan underwriter yg meneliti sebab2 terjadinya suatu kecelakaan  Broker: pihak perantara yg mempertemukan kepentingan penanggung dan tertanggung

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22 Claim Documentation - Statement of fact - Marine note of protest, legalized by notary public or Port Authority - Chief Engineer’s report (in case of machinery damage) - Deck & engine log book (3 days prior & after incident) - Class Report - Accounts for repairs, supplies, port dues, etc. - Class Maintenance Certificate - Other (depend on the type of case)

23 PROTECTION & INDEMNITY CLUB (P&I CLUB)  Sejarah  Britannia P&I Club – P&I Club pertama Berdiri pada awal abad 19, para pemilik kapal bersama-sama mendirikan suatu perkumpulan yang bertujuan utk menanggung resiko2 yg tidak ditanggung oleh underwriter

24 • Mutual P&I Club > each member is acting as insured and insurer > non profit making • International Group of P&I Clubs – 13 Clubs > Pooling Agreement > International Group Agreement • Premi = Call - Advance Call - Supplementary Call • Renewal; setiap tanggal 20 February • Jangka waktu pertanggungan; 1 tahun 20 Februari 2006 – 19 Februari 2007 P&I Club (lanjutan)

25 Risks Covered (Resiko Yg Ditanggung) - Loss of life, Personal Injury & Illness ~ Member of the crew ~ Any other person - Damage to property - Collision liability to ships - Removal of wreck - Pollution - Liability to cargo

26 - Contracts of indemnity or guarantee - Unrecoverable General Average - Fines Provided that (syarat pengajuan klaim); i. Arise in respect of the Member’s interest in an entered ship ii. Out of events occurring during the period of entry of the ship in the Association iii. In connection with operation of the ship Risks Covered (lanjutan)

27 Pihak-Pihak Yg Terlibat - P&I Correspondent Available at most of the big city ports of the world - Surveyor - Expert (chemical lab, etc.) - Lawyer, etc. (depend on the case)

28 P&I Claim Handling & Procedures  Do not admit liability put remarks “Receive Only Without Prejudice” when signing the Statement of Fact made by the opponent vessel  Notification – as soon as an incident arise - local P&I Club’s correspondent (list of correspondents in the rule book) - PT SISM

29 Study Case Britannia have received terrible news from one of their tankers, The Pride of The Fleet, has been in collision with a bulk carrier, The Rusty Bucket. The collision took place off Thailand. The Rusty Bucket struck The Pride of The Fleet midships on the starboard side, the force of collision piercing two cargo tanks. There was an explosion on impact. Oil is leaking from the collision wound. Both crews have abandoned the ships and five of twenty crew of Pride of the Fleet are dead. Salvors have also been retained on the basis of LOF. They are holding the vessel off the coast but are concerned that she will suffer further damage if not towed into shelter water. However the Thai government will not grant permission until any threat of pollution is over. The oil slick threatens ten miles of coastline which include valuable fishing ground and fish farm. The rusty bucket has taken a considerable quantity of water and is in danger of sinking The Questions; 1. What most likely civil claims would be arising 2. What actions should be taken


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