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Pengampu : Muchdie, PhD in Economics Semester Genap 2010/2011  PhD in Economics, 1998, Dept. of Economics, The University of Queensland, Australia. 

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Presentasi berjudul: "Pengampu : Muchdie, PhD in Economics Semester Genap 2010/2011  PhD in Economics, 1998, Dept. of Economics, The University of Queensland, Australia. "— Transcript presentasi:

1 Pengampu : Muchdie, PhD in Economics Semester Genap 2010/2011  PhD in Economics, 1998, Dept. of Economics, The University of Queensland, Australia.  Post Graduate Diploma in Regional Dev.,1994, Dept. of Economics, The Univ. of Queensland, Australia.  MS in Rural & Regional Development Planning, 1986, Graduate School, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor  Lektor Tidak Tetap pada FE & PPs-Uhamka Pendahuluan : Manajemen Operasi & Produksi (Part 1 : Managing Operations ) Bahan Kuliah Pertemuan-1 Manajemen Operasi & Produksi Program Studi Magister Manajemen Program Pascasarjana Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof Dr HAMKA

2 Pokok Bahasan •Fungsi Operasi dalam Organisasi –Teknologi Konversi •Operasi Manufaktur Vs Operasi Jasa •Sejarah Manajemen Operasi & Produksi •Pandangan Kesisteman dari Operasi –Organisasi Sebagai Suatu Sistem •Manajemen Sub-Sistem Operasi –Definisi Manajemen Operasi –Manajemen Klasik –Manajemen Tingkahlaku –Pemodelan Sebagai Manajemen •Kerangka Kerja untuk Manajemen Operasi –Perencanaan, Pengorganisasian, Pengendalian, Tingkahlaku, Model •Masalah-Masalah dari Manajer Operasi •Peran Strategis dari Operasi –Perspektif Strategi, Tujuan Operasi •Kecenderungan dalam Manajemen Operasi •Karier dalam Manajemen Operasi

3 Fungsi Operasi dalam Organisasi Proses Konversi INPUTs OUTPUTs Random Fluctuations • Lahan •Tenaga •Modal •Manajemen Umpan Balik Membandingkan : Fakta & Keinginan • Barang •Jasa Monitor Output Butuh Penyesuaian ?

4 Beberapa Terminologi •Sistem operasi : bagian dari organisasi yang menghasilkan produk barang dan jasa organisasi •Proses konversi : proses yang merubah input menjadi output •Nilai tambah : peningkatan nilai karena proses konversi dimana output > input •Random fluctuations : pengaruh lingkungan yang tidak dapat dikendalikan •Umpan balik : informasi dalam proses kontrol yg memungkinkan bagi manajemen untuk memutuskan apakah kegiatan organisasi memerlukan penyesuaian •Technology : tingkat kecanggihan pengetahuan dlm proses konversi (pabrik, peralatan dan ketrampilan)

5 Contoh : Sistem Operasi pada Toko Swalayan Proses Konversi INPUTs OUTPUTs Random Fluctuations • Lahan •Tenaga • Bangunan, Peralatan • Manajer Toko Umpan Balik •Tingkat inventory • Efisiensi tenaga kerja • Volume penjualan Melayani konsumen dgn memuaskan • Deliveri terlambat • Resesi ekonomi • Tenaga kerja berkurang + atau -

6 Contoh : Sistem Operasi pada Usaha Pertanian Proses Konversi INPUTs OUTPUTs Random Fluctuations • Lahan •Tenaga petani •Traktor, dsb • Bangunan • Manajemen pertanian Umpan Balik •Observasi kondisi air dan tanah • Harga yang diterima • Biji-bijian • Daging • Susu • Telur • Cuaca/iklim • Inflasi • Kontrol pemerintah • Peralatan rusak + atau -

7 Perubahan Paradigma : Manajemen Proses Proses Konversi INPUTs OUTPUTs Random Fluctuations • Bahan Umpan Balik • Barang • Jasa Membandingkan : Fakta & Keinginan • Fasilitas • Orang • Organisasi • Informasi Monitor Output

8 Perubahan Paradigma : Manajemen Proses Belajar-Mengajar Proses Konversi INPUTs OUTPUTs Random Fluctuations • Mahasiswa Umpan Balik • Sarjana • Magister • Doktor • Fasilitas • Orang • Organisasi • Informasi • Kuliah • Seminar • Penelitian • Tugas Akhir

9 Operasi Manufaktur Versus Jasa : Produksi Versus Operasi Proses Konversi INPUTs OUTPUTs Random Fluctuations Umpan Balik Barang Jasa

10 Perbedaan Barang dgn Jasa Ciri-Ciri Barang •Produk berwujud •Produk bisa dijual kembali •Produk bisa disimpan •Produksi terpisah dgn konsumsi •Aspek mutu mudah diukur •Penjualan terpisah dgn produksi •Produk bisa diangkut •Fasilitas penting utk biaya •Mudah melakukan otomatisasi •Penerimaan dihasilkan dariproduk Ciri-Ciri Jasa •Produk tidak berwujud •Jasa sulit dijual kembali •Banyak jasa tdk bisa disimpan •Produksi dan konsumsi bisa secara simultan •Banyak aspek mutu sulit diukur •Penjualan menjadi bagian dari jasa •Interaksi pelanggan tinggi •Penyedia, bukan produk, bisa diangkut •Fasilitas penting untuk kontak pelanggan •Sulit untuk melakukan otomatisasi •Penerimaan dihasilkan dari kumpulan jasa

11 Barang Versus Jasa BarangJasa 0%25% 50% 75%100% 25%50%75%100% Mobil Komputer Makanan siap saji Makanan restoran Bengkel Rumah sakit Jasa konsultasi/pengajaran Konseling

12 Sejarah & Kontribusi MOP TahunKontribusiKontributor 1776Spesialisasi tenaga kerja di pabrikAdam Smith 1832Pembagian tenaga kerja; penugasan berds ketrampilanCharles Babbage 1900Scientific management; time study and workFrederick W Taylor 1900Motion study of jobsFrank B Gilberth 1901Schedulling techniques for employee, machines and jobHenry L Gantt 1915Economic lots sizes for inventory controlF.W. Harris 1927Human relations; the Hawthorne studiesElton Mayo 1940Operation research applications in WW-IIPMS Blacket, dkk 1946Digital computerJohn Mauchly & JP Eckert 1947Linier programmingGB Dantizg, dan lainnya 1950Mathematical programming, non linier & stochasticA.Chanrnes, WW Cooper 1951Commercial digital computer; large-scale are availableSperry Univac 1960Organizational behaviour; Study people at workL. Cumming; L.Porter 1970Integrating operation into overall strategy & policyW. Skinner 1980Quality and productivity application from JapanWE Deming & J. Juran

13 Pemasaran Keuangan Pandangan Kesisteman Produksi/Operasi SDM Teknik Pembelian Distribusi Akuntansi

14 Manajemen Sub-Sistem Produksi Klasik Asumsi-AsumsiFokus UtamaKontribusi terhadap Manajemen Scientific Management •People motivated by economic alone •Mangerial rationality •Organization a closed system •Economic efficiency •Physical aspecs of work environment •Scientific analysis of work task •Application of techniques to work tasks Demonstration of benefits from specialization of labor, division of labor, job analysis, separation of planning and doing Process Orientation Management activities separable Management processes Indentification of principles and function of management

15 Manajemen Sub-Sistem Produksi Behavioral Asumsi-AsumsiFokus UtamaKontribusi terhadap Manajemen Human Relations People complex; possess multiple needs Behavior of individual in work environment Awareness of individuals Behavioral Science Human being sosial creatures Interpersonal and social aspects of work environment Indentification of behavioral variables that relate to organisational behavior Social Systems Organisation an open system Interactive relationships of organisation with its environment Development of theories relating oragnisational behavior to human characteristics and organisational variables

16 Manajemen Sub-Sistem Produksi Modelling Asumsi-AsumsiFokus UtamaKontribusi terhadap Manajemen Decision making Decision making process are the primary managerial behaviors Information acqusition, utilisation and choice processes Development of guides for improving decision making System theory •Organisation an open system •Organisation an complex interrelated subcomponents Identification of organisation boundaries, interrelationships among subsystems and organisation and larger environment Devel;opment of approaches for predicting and explaining system behavior Mathematical modelling Main elements of organisation can be abstracted, interrelated and expressed matehematically •Quantification of decision problems and systems •Optimizing of small set of situations • Development of explicit rules for management decisions •Development of methods for analysing organisation systems or subsystems

17 Pendekatan Klasik •Efisiensi Organisasi (%) : Output/Input x 100% PlanningOrganising Controlling •Process Management

18 Kerangka Kerja untuk MOP •Planning : activities that establish a cource of action and guide future decision making •Organising : activities that establish a structure of tasks and authority •Controlling :activities that assure that actual performance is in accordance with planned performance •Behavior : how planning, organising and controlling affect human behavior •Modelling : use to simplify real-world

19 Kerangka Kerja untuk MOP PlanningOrganising Controlling Model Behavior

20 Masalah-Masalah dalam MOP %Activity% 90.6Production planning48.1Lead time reduction 76.9Supervisor training47.5Quality circles 66.3Capacity expantion46.9Developing new processes for old product 63.1Worker safety program46.3Automating jobs 58.8Defining manufacturing strategy44.4Developing new process for new product 57.5Motivating direct labor employees43.1Vendor relations,procurement 55.0Value analysis-product redesign42.5Focusing factories 54.4Improved maintenance practices41.3Narrowing product line 53.1Changing manufacturing organisation 39.4Making existing system work better 51.3Changing labor/management relationship 35.0Giving workers a broader range of tasks to perform 50.0Developing integrated infromation system 33.1CAD

21 Peran Strategis MOP Industry Market & competitions Organisational Strategy Profit or return Source of funds Product or service quality Operations Policy Conversion Characteristics : Design Product design flexibility Delivery capacity Location of facility Processing technology Control system Managing conversion operation Quality, Efficiency, Schedule Results

22 Karakteristik untuk Persaingan •Quality (Product performance) •Cost efficiency (Low product price) •Dependability (Reliable, Timely delivery of orders to customers) •Flexibility (responding rapidly with new products or changes in output volume)

23 Tujuan Operasi •Tujuan operasi : menyediakan kapabilitas konversi untuk memenuhi goals dan strategi organisasi –Karakteristik barang/jasa –Karakteristik proses –Kualitas barang/jasa –Efisiensi (effective employee relation and cost control of labor, cost control of material, cost control in facility utilisation) –Customer service (schedule) –Adaptability for future survival

24 Trend in MOP YearPrimaryManufactureServicesTotal Distribusi tenaga kerja, sumber : NBER Statistical Abstract of the United States 1972, pp

25 Organising Organising for conversion •Job Design, Work Measurement • Project Management Controlling Material Control •Inventory Control • Material Require Planning Managing for world-class competition • Japanese manufacturing •Managing for quality Planning Planning Conversion System • Operations Strategis • Product and Process Choices • Opration Capacity • Facility Location •Layout Planning Schedulling • Schedulling System • Operation Schedulling Topik Kontemporer dalam MOP Proses Konversi INPUTs OUTPUTs Random Fluctuations

26 Penutup •Bab ini menegaskan peran fungsi operasi dalam organisasi dan pentingnya memanajnya secara efektif. •Untuk memahami dan mengatasi masalah operasi diadopsi suatu kerangka yang merujuk pada 3 aliran pemikiran manajemen –klasik, behavioral dan modelling. •Kecendrungan kegiatan ekonomi bergeser dari pertanian (primer) ke industri (sekunder) dan ke jasa (tersier). Ini memberikan tantangan tersendiri bagi MOP.


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