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Bagian Abstrak, Cara mengutip, Daftar Pustaka, dan Lampiran

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Presentasi berjudul: "Bagian Abstrak, Cara mengutip, Daftar Pustaka, dan Lampiran"— Transcript presentasi:

1 Bagian Abstrak, Cara mengutip, Daftar Pustaka, dan Lampiran
MENULIS KTI Bagian Abstrak, Cara mengutip, Daftar Pustaka, dan Lampiran Dr. Purwanto

2 APA (American Psychological Association)
atau Asosiasi Psikologi Amerika adalah acuan yang paling sering digunakan untuk mengutip sumber dalam ilmu-ilmu sosial



5 Format and Outline     The basic organization of a scientific paper include the following sections:     Introduction Materials and Methods Results and Interpretations Discussion Conclusions Bibliography Appendices

6 Paper Layout The following sections, in order, constitute the paper. Details of these, plus exceptions and variations, are discussed in separate sections below. Title page (unnumbered) Abstract page ii Table of Contents (optional, see below) iii List of Figures (optional, see below) iv Introduction n 1 Materials and Methods Results and Interpretations Discussion Conclusions Bibliography Appendices

7 Formats for Scientific Papers Results and Interpretation
(Follow these procedures precisely) Title Abstract Introduction Materials and Methods Results and Interpretation Conclusions Literature Cited Appendices

8 MENULIS ABSTRAK Penjelasan singkat (sekitar 200 kata) menyajikan poin penting dan kesimpulan kajian "First we did this, then we did that, and then we will tell you what the conclusions are.“ Isi abstrak; fakta, informasi ilmiah, dan kesimpulan. Idealnya abstrak ditulis belakangan. Namun abstrak secara mandiri harus dapat mewakili seluruh makalah Abstrak yang baik disusun secara logis dan cermat

9 ABSTRACT Function: An abstract summarizes, in one paragraph (usually), the major aspects of the entire paper in the following prescribed sequence: the question(s) you investigated (or purpose), (from Introduction) state the purpose very clearly in the first or second sentence. the experimental design and methods used, (from Methods) clearly express the basic design of the study. Name or briefly describe the basic methodology used without going into excessive detail-be sure to indicate the key techniques used. the major findings including key quantitative results, or trends (from Results) report those results which answer the questions you were asking identify trends, relative change or differences, etc. a brief summary of your interpetations and conclusions. (from Discussion) clearly state the implications of the answers your results gave you Style: The Abstract is ONLY text. Use the active voice when possible, but much of it may require passive constructions. Write your Abstract using concise, but complete, sentences, and get to the point quickly. Use past tense. Maximum length should be words, usually in a single paragraph. The Abstract SHOULD NOT contain: lengthy background information, references to other literature, elliptical (i.e., ending with ...) or incomplete sentences, abbreviations or terms that may be confusing to readers, any sort of illustration, figure, or table, or references to them

Menjelaskan apa yang dibahas dalam makalah, sifat dan pentingnya topik dibahas, di mana posisinya dalam pengetahuan ilmiah saat ditulis, dan bagaimana ia menambah atau mengubah pemahaman. Pendahuluan harus membidik imaginasi pembaca dan membuat mereka tertarik untuk membacanya, mengapa dan bagaimana kajian/gagasan ini penting. What ? Why you should state the specific question(s) to be answered

11 BAHAN DAN METODE Semua terkait teknik, cara dan metode membahas topik dikemukakan. should be detailed and clear enough so that any reader knowledgeable in basic scientific techniques could duplicate the study HASIL Mengemukaan hasil kajian; analisis apa yg telah dipelajari, deskripsi data, grafik Here the researcher presents summarized data for inspection using narrative text and, where appropriate, tables and figures to display summarized data. No Interpretation

12 DISKUSI Hasil kajian didiskusikan, dibandingkan dgn kajian lain sejenis, dijelaskan implikasinya bagi kajian sejenis di masa yg akan datang Discussion of results explains what your data means, how it all fits together, and how interpretations logically follow from the data. You must be as objective and unbiased as possible here. You are essentially saying what any knowledgeable person in the field could deduce from the data themselves. This is also where you tell a novice to the discipline the significance of the data, while at the same time not insulting the intelligence of the expert. Fit with related research puts your results in the context of the discipline and field. How do your results compare with similar studies done by others, past and present? Where do you agree or disagree with the conclusions of others, and why? What new things have come out of your study that were not known before? This section requires that you have searched the literature in the field, and know it history and significance. This is also where you give credit wherecredit is due to the researchers who have preceded you, and on whose shoulders you have stood. Discussion of the implications of the research is where you finally make the transition from the researcher (gatherer of data, runner of experiments, and interpreter) to the scientist. This part of the discussion section is where you make personal comments about the topic you researched. You may have special insights into the meaning of your study, or you may have formed unique opinions about the results of the research, or you may have thoughts about the implications of your results for the particular situation you studied, or the discipline as a whole. Even though this is largely opinion, it must be well supported. Intepretation

13 KESIMPULAN/KONKLUSI Konklusi secara ringkas membahas kesimpulan penting dari kajian Konklusi harus konsisten dengan pendahuluan, dan memadai menjawab rumusan masalah This section simply states what the researcher thinks the data mean, and, as such, should relate directly back to the problem/question stated in the introduction change the tense from present to past

14 Berfikir Divergen-Konvergen
Kesimpulan Pendahuluan Fokus confined and justified Terbatas & dibenarkan

15 Daftar Pustaka Fungsi daftar pustaka:
(a) Memungkinkan penulis untuk mengakui pekerjaan orang lain yang secara langsung mempengaruhi kerja penulis saat ini, dan (b) memberikan kemudahan bagi pembaca yang tertarik informasi yang diperlukan untuk mengidentifikasi dan mengambil sumber-sumber terkait

16 Daftar Pustaka (Bibliography or Literature Cited)
Ada dua versi; Daftar Pustaka yg memuat hanya literatur yang benar-benar dikutip, dan ada yang memuat literatur yang dijadikan bacaan/acuan Daftar Pustaka disusun secra alpabetis berdasar nama belakang penulis Contoh penulisan Daftar Pustaka berdasarkan jenis sumber [1] JOURNAL: Dott, R.H. Jr., and Bourgeois, Joanne, 1982, Hummocky stratification: Significance and its variable bedding sequences: Bulletin Geological Society of America, v. 93, p [2] GSA SPECIAL PAPER: McCave, I.N., 1968, Shallow and marginal marine sediments associated with the Catskill complex: Geological Society of America Special Paper 106, p [3] MASTER'S THESIS: McDowell, R. J., 1988, Depositional environments of the Upper Chemung and Lower Hampshire Formations of east-central West Virginia: M.S. thesis, West Virginia University, 168 p. [4] BOOK: Meckel, L.D., 1970, Paleozoic alluvial deposition in the Central Appalachians; A summary: in Fisher, G. W., Pettijohn, F.J., Reed, J.C. Jr., and Weaver, K.N., Studies of Appalachian Geology, Central and Southern: Interscience Publishers. [5] US GOVERNMENT PUBLICATION: Wilson, Frederic H., 1985, The Alaska Peninsula Terrane: A Definition: Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia. [6] U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN Cavaroc, V.V. and R.M. Flores, 1991, Red Beds of the Triassic Chugwater Group, Southwestern Powder River Basin, Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1917-E, Washington D.C.

17 Daftar Pustaka (Bibliography or Literature Cited)
References: Some Special Cases If an author, or group of authors, have more than one paper published in the same year, the papers are distinguished by a letter, e.g. 1956a, 1956b, etc. Abstracts should not contain reference citations. Direct quotes always require page numbers along with the author and date. If you use a direct quote or some specific use of material from a paper, but you got that information from another work, the citations goes like this: "Original Author, Date, in, Your Source, Date, Page." If a reference is used more than once in a paragraph the reference citation need be given only once in the paragraph, the first time it is used (although you may refer to the author's work by the author's name(s) as often as you wish). If the reference is referred to again in another paragraph, even the next one, its citation must be given again. Referencing articles or other publications without an assigned author. - (Anonymous (Anon.). The reference can be listed under "A" for anonymous. - If the publication is sponsored by an organization, such as NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), but does not have an author it can be listed under the organization name as an author. Missing date: Although this should be rare, if an article has no copyright date then place in parentheses after the author's name (no date). et. al. If the paper you are referencing has a lot of authors (like 3 or more), in the body of the paper you may reference the paper with the first author, followed by "et. al." ("and others"), and the date.

18 Daftar Pustaka All citation entries are listed in alphabetical order based the first author's last name; If the same author(s) are cited for more than one paper having the same order of authors' names, the papers should be listed in chronological sequence by year of publication. Authors' names MUST be listed in the citation in the same order as in the article. - Bugjuice, B. 1970a. Physiological effects of estrogen on mouse courtship behavior x.J Physiol 40(2): - Bugjuice, B. 1970b. Physiological effects of estrogen analogs: Insincere courtship xxxxbehavior in female mice. J Physiol 40(8): If the same author(s) are cited for two or more papers published within the same year, place a small case letter after the year to denote the sequence in which you referred to them. For example: - Bugjuice, B. 1970b. Physiological effects of estrogen analogs: Insincere courtship xxxxbehavior in female mice. J Physiol 40(8): If no author is listed, use the word Anonymous in place of the author name(s). Anonymous give rest of citation using appropriate format.

DO NOT USE FOOTNOTES: Footnoting, although commonly done in books and other literary writing, is only rarely done in journal style papers. Cite references in the flow of the text as shown above. DO NOT USE DIRECT QUOTES From Published Material: In 99.99% of the cases, the information you want from a research article is an objective result or interpretation. How the author stated this information, i.e., their prose, is of little importance compared to the results or interpretations themselves. Take the information and put it into your own words; avoid paraphrasing since this can potentially lead to plagiarism.

20 LAMPIRAN/APPENDICES Function: An Appendix contains information that is non-essential to understanding of the paper, but may present information that further clarifies a point without burdening the body of the presentation. An appendix is an optional part of the paper, and is only rarely found in published papers Some examples of material that might be put in an appendix (not an exhaustive list): - raw data - maps (foldout type especially) - extra photographs - explanation of formulas, either already known ones, or especially if you have "invented" some statistical or other mathematical procedures for data analysis. - specialized computer programs for a particular procedure full generic names of chemicals or compounds that you have referred to in somewhat abbreviated fashion or by some common name in the text of your paper. - diagrams of specialized apparati

21 Writing the Scientific-Format Paper
Title--subject and what aspect of the subject was studied. Abstract--summary of paper: The main reason for the study, the primary results, the main conclusions Introduction--why the study was undertaken Methods and Materials--how the study was undertaken Results--what was found Discussion--why these results could be significant (what the reasons might be for the patterns found or not found)


23 Kutipan Singkat Jika Anda langsung mengutip dari karya orang, Anda perlu menyertakan penulis, tahun publikasi, dan nomor halaman untuk referensi (didahului oleh "hal."). Perkenalkan kutipan dengan kalimat sinyal yang meliputi nama belakang penulis diikuti dengan tanggal publikasi dalam kurung. Menurut Jones (1998), "Siswa sering kesulitan menggunakan gaya APA, terutama bila ini adalah pertama kali bagi mereka" (hal. 199). Jones (1998) menemukan "mahasiswa sering kesulitan menggunakan gaya APA" (hal. 199), apa implikasi hal ini bagi guru? Jika penulis tidak disebutkan dalam frase sinyal, tempatkanlah nama belakang penulis, tahun publikasi, dan nomor halaman dalam tanda kurung setelah kutipan. Dia menyatakan, "Siswa sering kesulitan menggunakan gaya APA" (Jones, 1998, hal. 199), tapi dia tidak memberikan penjelasan tentang mengapa.

24 Kutipan Panjang Tempatkan kutipan langsung lebih dari 40 kata dalam satu blok tanpa tanda kutip. Mulai kutip pada baris baru, menjorok 1/2 inci dari margin kiri, yaitu di tempat yang sama Anda akan memulai paragraf baru. Ketik kutipan pada margin baru, dan indent baris pertama dari paragraf berikutnya dalam kutipan 1/2 inci dari margin baru. Jones (1998) dalam studinya menemukan hal berikut:      Siswa sering kesulitan menggunakan gaya APA,      terutama bila ini adalah pertama kali mereka mengutip sumber.      Kesulitan ini dapat dikaitkan dengan fakta bahwa banyak      siswa gagal memperoleh panduan atau gagal untuk meminta      bantuan guru mereka. (hal. 199)

25 Ringkasan atau Saduran
Jika Anda mengutip ide dari karya lain, Anda hanya perlu membuat referensi ke penulis dan tahun publikasi di dalam teks referensi Anda, tetapi pedoman APA mendorong Anda untuk juga memberikan nomor halaman (meskipun tidak diperlukan.) Menurut Jones (1998), gaya APA adalah format kutipan sulit bagi yang belajar pertama kali. Gaya APA adalah format kutipan sulit bagi yang belajar pertama kali (Jones, 1998, hal. 199).




29 digital object identifier




33 The Anatomy of a Figure

34 TIPS Tujukan tulisan Anda kepada sejawat sbg pembaca
Kalimat sederhana, tuntas dan mudah dimengerti Kalimat ringkas dan jelas Paragraf memiliki kalimat utama (topik) dan kalimat yg menunjang topik Kalimat sendiri

35 Digital Information Literacy Taxonomy
Recognition Access Evaluation Management Application Ethics and Issues What information, digital information strategies and/or digital information tools are required or available? (Recognises the need for information and determines the nature and extent of the information needed) Where is the information located and how can it be found using digital means? (Finds needed information effectively and efficiently) How reliable is the information? How effective are the digital tools and strategies? (Critically evaluates information and the information seeking process) How is the information organised digitally and made available for future access or use? (Manages information collected or generated) Using digital tools or strategies, how is the information being used, applied, communicated, or synthesised to create new understandings? (Applies prior and new information to construct new concepts or create new understandings) Which ethical considerations and digital information issues are recognised and/or acted on. (Uses information with understanding and acknowledges cultural, ethical, economic, legal and social issues surrounding the use of information)

Karangan argumentasi adalah jenis paragraf yang mengungkapkan ide, gagasan, atau pendapat penulis dengan disertai bukti dan fakta (benar-benar terjadi). Tujuannya adalah agar pembaca yakin bahwa ide, gagasan, atau pendapat tersebut adalah benar dan terbukti. Ciri-ciri Pargaraf atau karangan argumentasi Menjelaskan pendapat agar pembaca yakin. Memerlukan fakta untuk pembuktian berupa gambar/grafik, dll. Menggali sumber ide dari pengamatan, pengalaman, dan penelitian. Penutup berisi kesimpulan.


38 Be a good learner As producer As publisher As user/audience
As reviewer

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