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Mata Kuliah Konsentrasi WTO (GATT dan GATS) Topik: Tariff barriers dan Non-tariff barriers Dina W. Kariodimedjo FAKULTAS HUKUM UGM FH UGMMKK WTO1.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Mata Kuliah Konsentrasi WTO (GATT dan GATS) Topik: Tariff barriers dan Non-tariff barriers Dina W. Kariodimedjo FAKULTAS HUKUM UGM FH UGMMKK WTO1."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Mata Kuliah Konsentrasi WTO (GATT dan GATS) Topik: Tariff barriers dan Non-tariff barriers Dina W. Kariodimedjo FAKULTAS HUKUM UGM FH UGMMKK WTO1

2 Perdagangan internasional memerlukan akses ke pasar domestik negara lain. Akses tersebut harus terukur dan bertambah/ meningkat – Goods and services – Countries, traders, and service suppliers Akses ke pasar domestik negara lain acapkali dibatasi dengan bermacam cara – Tariff barriers – Non-tariff barriers (NTB) FH UGMMKK WTO2

3 TB Terutama mencakup customs duties = tariffs. TB relevan terutama untuk perdagangan barang. FH UGMMKK WTO3

4 NTB Quantitative restrictions – Quotas Other NTB – Lack of transparency of trade regulation – Unfair and arbitrary application of trade regulation – Customs formalities – Technical barriers to trade and government procurement practices FH UGMMKK WTO4

5 Pembukaan WTO Agreement WTO Members pursue the objectives of higher standards of living, full employment, growth and sustainable economic development by entering into reciprocal and mutual advantageous arrangements directed to the substantial reduction of tariffs and other barriers to trade. FH UGMMKK WTO5

6 Pengurangan tariff dan hambatan-hambatan perdagangan yang bersifat non-tariff yang dilakukan bersamaan dengan penghapusan diskriminasi merupakan cara kunci untuk mencapai tujuan WTO secara menyeluruh. – Estimasi nilai keuntungan dari adanya pengurangan tariff: antara US$80 billion and US$500 billion. – Kelebihan-kelebihan/ nilai positif dari pengurangan tariff lebih banyak dari pada keuntungan yang dicapai dari liberalisasi perdagangan. FH UGMMKK WTO6

7 Quantitative restrictions on goods are prohibited, while other barriers, such as customs duties are allowed in principle and are only limited to the extent of a Member’s specific agreement. FH UGMMKK WTO7

8 Tariff barriers to trade in goods Custom duties or tariff Negotiations on tariff reductions Tariff concessions and schedule of concessions Protection of tariff concessions Modification or withdrawal of tariff concessions Imposition of custom duties Other duties and charges FH UGMMKK WTO8

9 Tariff barriers to trade in goods Custom duties or tariff – Is a financial charge, in the form of a tax, imposed on products at the time of, and/or because of their importation. – Tariff is specific, ad valorem or mixed. A specific customs duty on a product is an amount based on the weight, volume or quantity of that product. – Duty 100 Euro per hectoliter minyak sayur. – Duty Euro atas setiap mobil. FH UGMMKK WTO9

10 Tariff barriers to trade in goods Ad valorem pada barang adalah duty yang dihitung berdasarkan nilai barang  persentase dari nilai barang yang diimpor – 15% ad valorem duty pada komputer  duty atas komputer senilai Euro = 150 Euro. Mixed or compound – Duty on wool 10% ad valorem + 50 Euro per ton  duty on 3 tons of wool dengan harga Euro per ton = 300 Euro Euro = 450 Euro. – Ad valorem, specific atau mixed MFN duties Preferential duties FH UGMMKK WTO10

11 Ad valorem duty lebih dipilih dan paling umum digunakan dari semua customs duties: – Lebih transparan dibanding specific duty atau mixed duty – Dampak terhadap perlindungan dan efek negatif pada harga di konsumen lebih mudah dianalisis – Berdasarkan index – lebih aman pada saat ada inflasi FH UGMMKK WTO11

12 Tariff barriers to trade in goods Custom duties or tariff – Tujuan: Pemasukan bagi negara (revenue for governments) – easy to collect. Melindungi industri domestik. Mendukung alokasi rational atas kelangkaan valas – meningkatkan penggunaan valas untuk impor barang e.g. mesin industri (negara berlakukan tariff tinggi) dan menghambat penggunaannya untuk impor barang mewah e.g. perfume (negara berlakukan tariff rendah). Instrumen untuk kebijakan pertumbuhan/ perkembangan ekonomi. FH UGMMKK WTO12

13 Tariff Punya arti lain. Daftar terstruktur deskripsi produk dan hubungannya dengan customs duty. National tariff kebanyakan mengikuti Harmonised Commodity Description and Coding System = Harmonised System or HS. FH UGMMKK WTO13

14 NTB to trade in goods Quantitative restrictions Rules on quantitative restrictions Administration of quantitative restrictions Other NTB FH UGMMKK WTO14

15 NTB to trade in goods Quantitative restrictions (QR) – Is a measure which limits the quantity of a product that may be imported or exported A prohibition or ban – “diberlakukan pada saat tidak dipenuhinya syarat- syarat tertentu” FH UGMMKK WTO15

16 NTB to trade in goods Quantitative restrictions (QR) - lanjutan – Is a measure which limits the quantity of a product that may be imported or exported A quota – “measure indicating the quantity that may be imported or exported” » Global quota, global quota allocated among countries, bilateral quota – Contoh: ketentuan yang membolehkan impor dengan jumlah (atau nilai) maks: » ton cocoa powder per tahun » 450 traktor (units, weight atau volume) » 12 juta Euro flowers FH UGMMKK WTO16

17 NTB to trade in goods Quantitative restrictions (QR) - lanjutan – Is a measure which limits the quantity of a product that may be imported or exported Automatic and non-automatic licensing – Import-licensing procedures: administrative procedures….. requiring the submission of an application or other documentation (other than that required for customs purposes) to the relevant administrative body as a prior condition for importation into the customs territory of the importing Member. Other QR – Quantitative restriction made effective through State trading operations, a mixing regulation; a minimum price, triggering a quantitative restriction; and a voluntary export restraint. FH UGMMKK WTO17

18 Tariff quotas (TRQ) – Is not quota – Is not a quantitative restriction – Is a quantity which can be imported at a certain duty; any quantity above that amount is subject to a higher tariff Contoh: Anggota dapat membolehkan impor atas traktor dengan 10% ad valorem, dan traktor lain yang diimpor dalam jumlah lebih dari traktor dikenai 30% ad valorem FH UGMMKK WTO18

19 Barriers to trade in services Biasanya disebabkan oleh peraturan pemerintah (domestic regulation) Contoh: – A restriction on the number of drugstore allowed within a geographical area – An obligation for all practicing lawyers to be a member of the local bar association – Sanitation standards for restaurants – Technical safety requirements for airline companies – A requirement that all professional services are offered in the national language – Professional qualification requirements for accountants – A prohibition on banks to sell life insurance FH UGMMKK WTO19

20 Barriers to trade in services Banyak peraturan pemerintah dalam bidang jasa yang tidak harmonis dengan GATS-inkonsisten terhadap upaya penghilangan/pengurangan barriers to trade in services. Alasan: sektor produksi dan konsumsi bidang jasa sering dihubungkan dengan – Perlindungan konsumen – Jaminan terhadap kesehatan masyarakat dan keamanannya Preamble GATS – “the right of Members to regulate, and to introduce new regulations on, the supply of services within their territories in order to meet national policy objectives.” FH UGMMKK WTO20

21 Barriers to trade in services Market access barriers to trade in services Other barriers to trade in services FH UGMMKK WTO21

22 Barriers to trade in services Market access barriers to trade in services – Art XVI: 2(a) to (f) Pembatasan jumlah service suppliers Pembatasan total nilai transaksi jasa atau aset Pembatasan jumlah total service operations atau total kuantitas service output Pembatasan total jumlah pekerja dalam sektor tertentu Pelarangan atau persyaratan bentuk badan hukum tertentu atau joint venture Pembatasan penyertaan modal asing FH UGMMKK WTO22

23 Barriers to trade in services Market access barriers to trade in services - lanjutan – Art XVI: 2(a) to (f) 4 jenis quantitative restrictions – Dilihat dari “angka” atau studi kebutuhan ekonomi – Namun tidak berkaitan dengan: » Kualitas jasa yang disediakan » Kemampuan supplier dalam menyediakan jasa: technical standards or qualification of the supplier Pembatasan bentuk badan hukum Pembatasan penyertaan modal asing FH UGMMKK WTO23

24 Barriers to trade in services – Akses pasar jasa yang diskriminasi atau non- diskriminasi? Pemberian izin kepada restoran cepat saji yang ditentukan dari studi dari sisi kebutuhan ekonomi berbasis jumlah penduduk (?) Pelarangan waktu tayang terhadap film asing (?) FH UGMMKK WTO24

25 Barriers to trade in services Other barriers to trade in services – Lack of transparency Publikasi, saluran keluhan, pemberitahuan, prosedur keberatan – Unfair or arbitrary application of measures affecting trade in services Pemberitahuan terhadap putusan atas suatu pendaftaran – Domestic regulation FH UGMMKK WTO25

26 Barriers to trade in services Other barriers to trade in services - lanjutan – Lack of recognition of diploma and professional certificates 2 cara: harmonisasi atau persetujuan antar negara yang berkepentingan – Other measures and actions Monopolies and exclusive service providers (perhatikan komitmen yang telah dibuat) International payments and transfer Government procurement laws and practices (penyediaan barang dan jasa) FH UGMMKK WTO26

27 Bacaan wajib Van den Bossche, Peter, 2005, The Law and Policy of the World Trade Organization, Text, Cases and Materials, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. WTO, 1999, The Legal Texts, The Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, Cambridge University Press. Bahan-bahan kuliah lain yang dikirimkan oleh Dosen ke Anda. FH UGMMKK WTO27


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