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Patologi Sistem Sirkulasi/Kardiovaskuler By: Sarah Suzanna,dr Farida Gustini, drg.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Patologi Sistem Sirkulasi/Kardiovaskuler By: Sarah Suzanna,dr Farida Gustini, drg."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Patologi Sistem Sirkulasi/Kardiovaskuler By: Sarah Suzanna,dr Farida Gustini, drg.

2 SISTEM SIRKULASI/kardiovaskuler Terdiri atas:  Jantung  Darah  Pembuluh darah  Aorta  Vena (pembuluh darah balik)  Arteri (pemb. darah nadi)  Venula  Arteriola  Kapiler

3 Lanjut…st.kardiovaskuler  Sistem kardiovaskuler berfungsi mengedarkan darah ke seluruh tubuh, membawa oksigen dan gizi ke semua jaringan tubuh dan mengangkut semua zat buangan JANTUNG 1. Dindingnya terdiri atas 3 lapis yaitu: Perikardium, merupakan selaput pembungkus jantung Miokardium, merupakan otot jantung Endokardium, merupakan selaput yang membatasi ruangan jantung 2. Ruangan jantung: Jantung mempunyai 4 ruangan jantung yaitu : a. 2 serambi (atrium) yaitu atrium sinister / kiri dan atrium dekster / kanan b. 2 bilik (ventrikel) yaitu vebtrikel sinister / kiri dan ventrikel dekster / kanan

4 jantung 3. Klep jantung Antara ruang jantung dihubungkan oleh klep atau katub jantung seperti: 1. valvula trikuspidalis = klep jantung berdaun tiga yang terletak antara atrium kanan dengan ventrikel kanan 2. Valvula bicuspidalis = klep jantung berdaun dua, terletak antara atrium kiri dengan ventrikel kiri Jantung juga memiliki korda tendinae yaitu urat jantung yang menjaga katup (klep) jantung mendapat makanan dan O2 dari nadi tajuk (arteri coronaria) Otot jantung termasuk otot involunter yang bekerja di luar kendali sistem koordinasi.

5 jantung  Kelistrikan jantung 1.S.A node sbg pemicu timbulnya aksi potensial (pace maker). Terletak di dinding anterior RA berdekatan dengan tempat masuknya vena cava sup. 2.A.V node terletak pada septum atrium bagian kanan dan sedikit posterior katup triskupidalis/ dekat muara sinus koronarius 3.Berkas His, lanjutan dari AV node, merupakan penghubung fungsional antara otot atrium dan ventrikel, kemudian bercabang menjadi left and right bundle branch. Kemudian ke serat- serat purkinye yang berada di sel-sel miokardium.

6 jantung  Jantung berfungsi sebagai pompa darah ke seluruh tubuh  Dari seluruh tubuh, darah mengalir  vena cava superior dan inferior  right atrium,  right ventrikel melalui tricucpidalis valve, yang memompa darah ke arteri pulmonalis menuju paru. Pada paru terjadi proses pertukaran gas sehingga darah yang teroksigenasi  vena pulmonalis  left atrium  left ventrikel melalui mitral valve  darah dipompa ke aorta  ke seluruh tubuh.

7 Pembuluh darah  Pembuluh darah merupakan keseluruhan sistem peredaran (sistem kardiovaskuler) terdiri dari arteri, arteriola, kapiler, venula dan vena.  Pembuluh arteri berdinding tebal, berotot, dan elastis untuk menahan tingginya tekanan darah yang dipompa dari jantung.  Vena yang membawa darah kembali ke jantung, berdinding lebih tipis dan mudah teregang, memungkinkannya mengembang dan membawa darah berjurnlah besar saat tubuh sedang beristirahat. Dinding dalam pada banyak vena mempunyai lipatan yang berperan sebagai katup searah untuk mencegah darah bergerak ke arah yang salah.

8 Roots yang berhubungan dengan St.Kardiovaskuler dan Limfatik RootArtiContohPengertian contoh Cardi/oJantungcardiomyopathyany disease of the heart muscle Atri/oAtrium, serambiatriotomysurgical incision of an atrium Ventricul/oVentrikel, ruang, bilik supraventricularabove a ventricle Valv/o, Valvul/oValve, katupvalvectomysurgical removal of a valve

9 Roots for the Blood Vessels RootMeaningExampleMeaning of example angi/ovesselAngiopathyany disease of blood vessels vas/o, vascul/ovessel, duct, pembuluh darah Vasodilationwidening of a blood vessel arter/o, arteri/oArteryEndarterialwithin an artery arteriol/oArteriolArteriolarpertaining to an arteriole aort/oAortaAortoptosisdownward displacement of the aorta ven/o, ven/iVein, venaVenouspertaining to a vein phleb/oVein, venaPhlebectasiadilatation of a vein

10 TerminologyMeaning aneurysmA localized abnormal dilation of a blood vessel, usually an artery, caused by weakness of the vessel wall; may eventually burst angina pectorisA feeling of constriction around the heart or pain that may radiate to the left arm or shoulder, usually brought on by exertion; caused by insufficient blood supply to the heart atherosclerosisThe development of fatty, fibrous patches (plaques) in the lining of arteries, causing narrowing of the lumen and hardening of the vessel wall. The most common form of arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). Root ather/o means “porridge” or “gruel.” bradycardiaA slow heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute cerebrovascular accident (CVA) Sudden damage to the brain resulting from reduction of blood flow. Causes include atherosclerosis, embolism, thrombosis, or hemorrhage from a ruptured aneurysm; commonly called stroke. clubbingEnlargement of the ends of the fingers and toes caused by growth of the soft tissue around the nails. Seen in a variety of diseases in which there is poor peripheral circulation. cyanosisBluish discoloration of the skin caused by lack of oxygen deep vein thrombosis (DVT) Thrombophlebitis involving the deep veins

11 TerminologyMeaning diaphoresisProfuse sweating dissecting aneurysmAn aneurysm in which blood enters the arterial wall and separates the layers. Usually involves the aorta dyslipidemiaDisorder in serum lipid levels, which is an important factor in development of atherosclerosis. Includes hyperlipidemia (high lipids), hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol), hypertriglyceridemia (high triglycerides) dyspneaDifficult or labored breathing (-pnea) edemaSwelling of body tissues caused by the presence of excess fluid. Causes include cardiovascular disturbances, kidney failure, inflammation, and malnutrition. embolismObstruction of a blood vessel by a blood clot or other matter carried in the circulation fibrillationSpontaneous, quivering, and ineffectual contraction of muscle fibers, as in the atria or the ventricles

12 TerminologyMeaning heart blockAn interference in the conduction system of the heart resulting in arrhythmia heart failureA condition caused by the inability of the heart to maintain adequate circulation of blood hemorrhoidA varicose vein in the rectum hypertensionA condition of higher-than-normal blood pressure. Essential (primary, idiopathic) hypertension has no known cause infarctAn area of localized necrosis (death) of tissue resulting from a blockage or a narrowing of the artery that supplies the area ischemiaLocal deficiency of blood supply caused by obstruction of the circulation (root hem/o) murmurAn abnormal heart sound

13 TerminologyMeaning myocardial infarction (MI)Localized necrosis (death) of cardiac muscle tissue resulting from blockage or narrowing of the coronary artery that supplies that area. Myocardial infarction is usually caused by formation of a thrombus (clot) in a vessel occlusionA closing off or obstruction, as of a vessel phlebitisInflammation of a vein plaqueA patch. With regard to the cardiovascular system, a deposit of fatty material and other substances on a vessel wall that impedes blood flow and may block the vessel. Atheromatous plaque. rheumatic heart diseaseDamage to heart valves after infection with a type of streptococcus (group A hemolytic streptococcus). The antibodies produced in response to the infection produce scarring of the valves, usually the mitral valve.

14 TerminologyMeaning shockCirculatory failure resulting in inadequate supply of blood to the heart. Cardiogenic shock is caused by heart failure; hypovolemic shock is caused by a loss of blood volume; septic shock is caused by bacterial infection stenosisConstriction or narrowing of an opening strokeSee cerebrovascular accident syncopeA temporary loss of consciousness caused by inadequate blood flow to the brain; fainting tachycardiaAn abnormally rapid heart rate, usually over 100 beats per minute thrombophlebitisInflammation of a vein associated with formation of a blood clot thrombosisDevelopment of a blood clot within a vessel thrombusA blood clot that forms within a blood vessel (root thromb/o)

15 TerminologyMeaning varicose veinA twisted and swollen vein resulting from breakdown of the valves, pooling of blood, and chronic dilatation of the vessel (root varic/o); also called varix (VAR-iks) or varicosity angioplastyA procedure that reopens a narrowed vessel and restores blood flow. Commonly accomplished by surgically removing plaque, inflating a balloon within the vessel, or installing a device (stent) to keep the vessel open. artificial pacemaker A battery-operated device that generates electrical impulses to regulate the beating of the heart. It may be external or implanted, may be designed to respond to need, and may have the capacity to prevent tachycardia cardioversionCorrection of an abnormal cardiac rhythm. May be accomplished pharmacologically, with antiarrhythmic drugs, or by application of electric current (see defibrillation) coronary angiography Radiographic study of the coronary arteries after introduction of an opaque dye by means of a catheter coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) Surgical creation of a shunt to bypass a blocked coronary artery. The aorta is connected to a point past the obstruction with another vessel or a piece of another vessel, usually the saphenous vein of the leg or the left internal mammary artery

16 TerminologyMeaning defibrillationUse of an electronic device (defibrillator) to stop fibrillation by delivering a brief electric shock to the heart. The shock may be delivered to the surface of the chest or be delivered directly to the heart through wire leads. echocardiography (ECG) A noninvasive method that uses ultrasound to visualize internal cardiac structures electrocardiographyStudy of the electrical activity of the heart as detected by electrodes lipoproteinA compound of protein with lipid. Lipoproteins are classified according to density as very low density (VLDL), low density (LDL), and high density (HDL). Relatively higher levels of HDLs have been correlated with health of the cardiovascular system. percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) Dilatation of a sclerotic blood vessel by means of a balloon catheter inserted into the vessel and then inflated to flatten plaque against the artery wall

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18 Gagal jantung (Heart failure)  Definisi : suatu keadaan patofisiologi berupa kelainan fungsi jantung sehingga jantung tidak mampu memompa darah untuk memenuhi kebutuhan metabolisme jaringan  Faktor predisposisi : - Penurunan fungsi ventrikel (penyakit arteri koroner, Hipertensi, Kardiomiopati, penyakit pembuluh darah atau penyakit jantung kongenital)  Faktor pencetus : - peningkatan asupan garam. Ketidakpatuhan menjalani pengobatan anti gagal jantung, IMA, hipertensi, aritmia akut, infeksi, emboli paru, anemia, tirotoksikosis, kehamilan, endokarditis infektif

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20 Infarc miocard acute  Nekrosis otot jantung (miokardium) akibat gangguan aliran darah ke otot jantung

21 Angina pectoris  Suatu sindrom klinis berupa serangan sakit dada yang khas  menjalar ke lengan kiri yang timbul pada saat melakukan aktivitas dan segera menghilang saat aktivitas dihentikan  Dibagi menjadi 2: a. Stable Angina Pectoris b. Unstable Angina Pectoris

22 Penyakit jantung hipertensif  Hipertrofi ventrikel kiri sebagai akibat dari peningkatan tahanan pembuluh darah perifer dan peningkatan beban pada ventrikel kiri

23 Insufisiensi Mitral  Katup jantung tidak bisa menutup sempurna pada waktu sistolik Stenosis Mitral  Adanya fibrosis dan fusi komisura katup mitral pada waktu fase penyembuhan demam rematik

24  Stenosis Aorta  Insufisiensi Aorta  Endokarditis Infektif penyakit infeksi oleh mikroorganisme pada endokardium atau katup jantung  Demam Rematik Akut suatu penyakit sistemik akut atau kronik yang dapat sembuh sendiri dan menimbulkan kecacatan pada katup jantung secara lambat

25  Penyakit Jantung Rematik penyakit yang ditandai dengan kerusakan pada katup jantung akibat serangan karditis rheumatik akut yang berulang-ulang DRA adalah merupakan penyakit yang terjadi sesudah infeksi Streptococcus beta hemolyticus  Kor Pulmonal Penyakit paru dengan hipertrofi atau dilatasi ventrikel kanan akibat gangguan fungsi atau struktur paru

26  Kardiomiopathi Kelainan otot jantung yang diketahui sebabnya  Kardiomiopathi dilatasi/kongestif penyakit miokard yang ditandai dengan dilatasi ruangan-ruangan jantung dan gagal jantung kongestif akibat berkurangnya fungsi pompa sistolik secara progresif serta peningkatan volume akhir diastolik dan sistolik

27  Kardiomiopathi Hipertrofik: terjadi pembesaran Septum interventrikuler secara berlebihan sehingga aliran darah keluar dari ventrikel kiri terhambat  Kardiomiopathi restriktif kelainan komposisi miokardium sehingga lebih kaku menyebabkan pengisian ventrikel kiri terganggu mengurangi curah jantung dan meningkatkan tekanan pengisian ventrikel kiri  Perikarditis peradangan perikardium parietal, perikardium viseral, atau keduanya. Terbagi atas perikarditis akut dan kronis

28  Perikarditis Kronik konstriktif penebalan difus perikardium akibat inflamasi yang terjadi sebelumnya sehingga luas jantung berkurang  curah jantung berkurang  tekanan pengisian meningkat  Tamponade Jantung: terjadi pengumpulan cairan di perikardium dalam jumlah yang cukup untuk menghambat aliran darah ke ventrikel

29  SEKIAN DULU  SELAMAT BELAJAR  SEMOGA SUKSES


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