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2-Metode Penelitian Dalam Psikologi Klinis Aska Primardi.

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Presentasi berjudul: "2-Metode Penelitian Dalam Psikologi Klinis Aska Primardi."— Transcript presentasi:

1 2-Metode Penelitian Dalam Psikologi Klinis Aska Primardi

2 Research Methods Observation Case Studies Epidemiological research Correlational research Cross-sectional >< longitudinal approaches The experimental method Single-case designs Mixed designs

3 Observation Unsystematic observation : casual observation, & developing hypotheses that can be tested Naturalistic observation : (+) carried out in real-life settings, more systematic, carefully planned, no real control by observer (-) Limited to a relatively few individuals/situations Controlled observation : same as naturalistic observation, except the investigator exerts a degree of control over the events being observed

4 Case studies Intensive study of a client or patient who is in treatment Information from : interviews, test responses, & treatment Such material might also include biographical & autobiographical data, letters, diaries, life- course information, medical histories, etc.

5 Epidemiological research Is a study of the incidence, prevalence, & distribution of illness or disease in a give population Incidence : the rate of new cases of the illness/disorder is on increase (ex. AIDS cases increasing this year compared with last year) Prevalence : percentage of the target population is affected by the illness/disorders Ex : “smoking and health”, “relationship between schizophrenia and either socioeconomic class & factor

6 Correlational Methods The technique : Correlating 2 variables. Commonly using The pearson product-moment correlation coefficient to determine the degree of relationship between 2 variables The questions of causality : no matter how logical it may appear, we cannot, on the basis of correlation alone, assert that one variable has caused another. Correlational >< experiment Factor analysis : examining the interrelationship among a number of variables at the same time

7 Cross sectional & longitudinal Birth date Age measurement

8 The experimental method Experimental group Control group Experimental hypothesis Independent variables : is supposed to be under the control of investigators & is expected to have a causal effect on participants behavior, which is referred to as the dependent variable

9 Experiment Between group design : two separate sets of participants, each of which receives a different kind of treatment Within group design : Comparisons might be made on the same patient at different points in time

10 Single-case designs A-B : Merupakan sebuah eksperimen dengan satu baseline dan satu treatment, dan tidak mempertimbangkan variabel- variabel ekstra yang mempengaruhi perubahan perilaku. A-B-A-B : Merupakan sebuah eksperimen dengan dua (atau lebih) baseline dan dua (atau lebih) treatment, untuk perilaku yang sama, pada satu subyek. Multiple-baseline-across-behaviors : Fase baseline dan treatment diberikan pada dua atau lebih perilaku yang berbeda, pada subyek yang sama. Multiple-baseline-across-subject : Fase baseline dan treatment diberikan pada perilaku target yang sama, dengan dua atau lebih subyek yang berbeda. Multiple-baseline-across-settings : Fase baseline dan treatment diberikan pada dua atau lebih seting, dengan perilaku dan subyek yang sama.

11 Mixed designs Experimental + correlational design

12 Research & ethics Informed consent Confidentiality Deception

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