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INTRODUCTION TO CASE METHOD STUDY To insert your company logo on this slide From the Insert Menu Select “Picture” Locate your logo file Click OK To resize.

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Presentasi berjudul: "INTRODUCTION TO CASE METHOD STUDY To insert your company logo on this slide From the Insert Menu Select “Picture” Locate your logo file Click OK To resize."— Transcript presentasi:

1 INTRODUCTION TO CASE METHOD STUDY To insert your company logo on this slide From the Insert Menu Select “Picture” Locate your logo file Click OK To resize the logo Click anywhere inside the logo. The boxes that appear outside the logo are known as “resize handles.” Use these to resize the object. If you hold down the shift key before using the resize handles, you will maintain the proportions of the object you wish to resize.

2 WHAT IS A CASE ? 2 A business case imitates or simulates a real situations that put reader in the role of a participant in the situation. A Case present some:  INFORMATIONS (too much or too little)  DATA (relevant or irrelevant)  And FACTS (clearly written or implicitly ), trough: WORDS FIGURES TABLES DIAGRAM, ETC It is normally written from the point of view of decision maker involved

3 IS THIS A CASE? 3 A case has three characteristics : A signifcant business issue or issues, Sufficient information on which to base conclusions, and No stated conclusions. Many cases have these complicating properties : Information that includes “noise” (irrelevancies, dead ends, and false, biased, or limited testimony by character in the case). Unstated information that must be inferred from the information that is stated. A nonlinear structure in which related evidence is scattered throughout the text in is often disguised or left to inference.

4 SKILLS FOR CASE METHOD STUDENTS 4 A case method students needs two sets of skills : 1. Analyze a case, 2. Communicate their thinking effectively. As a reader of cases, therefore, you must be able to : Construct conclusions from the information in the text. Filter out irrelevant or low-value portions of the text. Furnish missing information through inferences. Associate evidence from different parts of the case and integrate it into a conclusion. Write a report and communicate effectively to other.

5 TYPES OF CASES 5 COMPANY SPECIFIC  INDUSTRY/COUNTRY NOTE DESCRIPTIVE/OBJECTIVE  ANALYTIC/SUBJECTIVE WITHOUT QUESTION  WITH QUESTION ISSUED ORIENTED/ PROBLEM OBVIOUS  WITHOUT OBVIOUS ISSUES (HIDDEN, NON EXISTENT) MULTIPLE ISSUES  SINGLE ISSUE BASED ON PRIMARY DATA (FIELD SURVEY)  BASED ON SECONDARY DATA FACTUAL  FICTIOUS REAL  DISGUISED SHORT (1-3 pages)  LONG (30-50 pages) EASY  DIFFICULT NEW  OLD/ CLASSIC

6 WHERE IS A CASE TAKE PLACE? 6 DIFFERENT FUNCTIONAL AREAS  Marketing  Finance  Operation, HRM, etc.  Multiple functions together DIFFERENT ORGANIZATION  Big, medium or small  Profit or non-profit  Old or new, etc. DIFFERENT INDUSTRIES  Manufacturing  Airline  Trading, etc. DIFFERENT COUNTRY  USA  Europe  Asia, etc.

7 DIFFICULT VS EASY CASE 7 EASY  PROBLEM AND SOLUTION GIVEN: do you think the solution fits the problem? Are there some alternatives?  DIRECT APPLICATION OF SINGLE CONCEPT  SHORT CASE WITH LITTLE EXTRANEOUS INFORMATION IN A NEAT AND STRAIGHTFOWARD MANNER MEDIUM  PROBLEM GIVEN: what should they do?  COMBINATION OF SEVERAL CONCEPT  NORMAL LENGTH CASE WITH AVERAGE AMOUNT OF INFORMATION DIFFICULT  SITUATION AND BACKGOUND: what are the problems and solutions?  INTEGRATION OF MULTIPLE CONCEPT ACROSS FUNCTIONAL AREA  LONG CASE WITH EXTENSIVE INFORMATION IN UNORGANISED MANNER

8 WHAT IS THE CASE METHOD? 8 The case method refers to use of cases as EDUCATIONAL VEHICLES to give students AN OPPORTUNITY to put themselves in the decision maker’s or problem solver’s shoes. Through:  Repeated personal analysis  Discussion with others  Definition of problems  Identification of alternatives  Statement of objectives and decision criteria  Choice of action and plan for implementation  Student gains an opportunity to develop analytical and administrative skills in a laboratory setting. Train to solve business problem through constant drilling in decision making. In medical analogy, The case provides the corpse for the student to pactice on (without any risks).

9 OBJECTIVES OF THE CASE METHOD 9 PRESENT DECRIPTION OF ACTUAL BUSINESS SITUATIONS INTRODUCE REALISM TO EDUCATION TO TEACH THE INFINITE GOALS, FACTS, CONDITIONS, PROBLEMS, PERSONALITIES, AND CONFLICT IN BUSINESS TEACH DECISION MAKING THINK INDEPENDENTLY, WORK COOPERATIVELY

10 PRINCIPLES IN CASE METHOD 10 LEARNING RESPONSIBILITY  PARTICIPANT MULTIWAY COMMUNICATIONS LECTURER AS CONDUCTOR/FACILITATOR PARTICIPANT IS ORCHESTRA/ACTIVE CONTRIBUTOR SOLUTION MAY NOT BE AGREED BY ALL

11 CHARACTERISTICS OF CASE BASED LEARNING 11 PROCESS IS MOST IMPORTANT PROBLEMS ARE COMPLEX INFINITE FACTS, CRUDE DATA POLISHING STUDENT’S ANALITICAL ABILITY, JUDGEMENT, AND DECISION MAKING LEARNER CENTERED THERE IS ALWAYS A SOLUTION, BUT THERE IS NEVER A MOST CORRECT ONE EXCITING, FRUSTATING, ENJOYABLE, YOU ONLY GET AS MUCH AS YOU GIVE

12 PROS AND CONS OF THE CASE METHOD (VIS-A-VIS THE LECTURE METHOD) 12 PROS:  Has a real life like stiry with concrete and specific problems  Is managerial oriented (not theoritical)  Shows administrative processes (not result only)  Put the student in the shoes of an inside manager (not outside on-looker)  Lets the student interrelate several facts to reach a comprehensive judgement and conclusion  Draw active student participation (not passive role) CONS:  Is a slow learning process  Leaved many students frustated (they feel that they learned nothing)  Oversimplifies the real business situation  Cannot provide real life experiences

13 WHICH SCHOOL USE THE CASE METHOD? 13 Not at all: CHICAGO, MIT, CARNEGIE-MELON, TOKYO UNIVERSITY, BERKELEY, SEOUL NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Half the time: STANFORD, MICHIGAN, LONDON SCHOOL OF BUSINESS, KEIO BUSINESS SCHOOL, WHARTON, YALE, INSEAD, IMD, AIM, IPMI Very extensively: HARVARD, DAARDEN

14 GROUND RULES 14 ACTIVE PARTICIPATION CRITICAL NO STUPID QUESTIONS, ONLY STUPID ANSWERS DON’T HESITATE TO SHARE YOUR EXPERIENCES LISTEN, HAVE AN OPEN MIND NO MATER WHAT IDEA GIVEN THINK POSITIVELY MAKE YOUR MISTAKES NOW! IN THE CLASSROOM

15 CAN GROUPS 15 DISCCUSSION GROUPS. The word “CAN” means bathroom in American slank. At HARVARD, students bedrooms in dormitory are connected by bathrooms (CANS) where much discussion took place – therefore, discussion groups are called “CAN GROUP”. From CAN GROUPS, student learn:  DO NOT JUMP TO CONCLUSIONS - OTHER PEOPLE WILL HAVE OTHER IDEAS THAT SHOULD BE CONSIDERED TOO  USE OTHERS AS RESOURCES - A MANAGER HAS TO BE GOOD AT THIS  TEAMWORK  HOW TO CONVINCE OTHERS TACTFULLY

16 PREPARATION FOR CASE DISCUSSION 16 INDIVIDUAL: ANALYZE THE CASE INDIVIDUALLY IN GROUP DISCUSSION: DISCUSS THE CASE IN SMALL GROUP (CAN GROUPS) IN CLASS DISCUSSION: INSTRUCTOR AS FACILITATOR; STUDENT AS ACTIVE MANAGER OR CONSULTANTS

17 ANALYZING A CASE 17 SCAN READING (SITUATION & CHARACTER) READING TWICE, TRICE, (UNDERSTANDING DEEPER) WRITE CASE FACTS AND OPINIONS IDENTIFY THE PROBLEMS IDENTIFY CORE PROBLEM DEVELOP ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION ANALYZE ALTERNATIVES RECOMMEND THE BEST

18 CASE ANALYSIS FOR ORAL PRESENTATION 18 SALIENT CASE FACTS, state the key case facts ANALYSIS, use diagrams when necessary PROBLEMS, identify several problems CORE PROBLEM, decide the core problem after analyzing the problems ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS, identify several alternatives to resolve the core problem RECOMMENDATION, recommend the best with reason But, Don’t solve the case problem by creating new more difficult problems

19 ORAL PRESENTATION 19 BE THOROUGHLY PREPARED, to increase confidence, and defeat nervousness SPEAK FROM THE KEY NOTES, explain as clearly as possible SPEAK TO ENTIRE GROUP, maintain eye contact to the entire audience CONTROL VOICE RATE AND QUALITY BE AWARE OF TIME CONSTRAINT

20 CASE DISCUSSION (DO) 20 PUSH YOUR IDEAS KEEP AN OPEN MIND RELATE OUTSIDE EXPERIENCE BE PROVOCATIVE LEARN FROM OTHER STUDENTS RECOGNIZE THE FLOW OF DISCUSSION BE CONSTRUCTIVE

21 CASE DISCUSSION (DONT) 21 MAKE SUDDEN TOPIC CHANGE REPEAT YOURSELF REPEAT OTHERS USE UNFAIR HINDSIGHT OVERPLAY ONE THEME

22 MENGANALISIS KASUS SECARA LISAN

23 Persiapan 23 Sediakan waktu yang cukup untuk membaca (1-2 jam per kasus di rumah). Baca setiap kasus, minimum 2 kali: yang pertama, untuk overview (mengetahui topik & bahasan kasus secara umum) yang kedua, memahami secara mendalam tentang hal-hal yang dianggap penting. Temukan masalah-masalah dan permasalahan intinya. Buat analisis yang terstruktur, dengan cara : (a) membuat interpretasi dari setiap case fact yang dianggap penting; (b) mencari keterkaitan antara satu hal dengan hal lainnya. Identifikasi alternatif solusi dan kriteria-kriteria pemilihannya.

24 Diskusi di Can Group 24 Jangan datang ke can group dalam keadaan blank (diskusi tidak akan efektif). Klarifikasikan dengan anggota group lainnya mengenai identifikasi masalah, pertajam pemahaman anda mengenai identifikasi masalahnya. Klarifikasikan hasil analisis anda, uji perspektif analisis yang anda gunakan dengan mengundang kritik dan komentar dari anggota group lainnya. Diskusikan rekomendasi dari group. Group tidak harus sepakat dalam identifikasi masalah, analisis, dan rekomendasi, tetapi anda harus mampu melihat esensi-esensi dalam perbedaannya. Siapkan catatan ringkas mengenai hasil diskusi can group.

25 Mekanisme Berkontribusi pada Class Discussion 25 Angkat tangan sebelum bicara. Jangan bicara sebelum dosen/fasilitator menunjuk anda. Sebelum mengemukakan pendapat, nyatakan dahulu tujuan dari anda berbicara: apakah akan menjelaskan case fact, mendukung pernyataan seseorang, atau menentang pernyataan seseorang, atau yang lainnya. Kemukakan apa yang menjadi point pendapat anda dengan logis, tegas, dan jelas. Jangan bertele-tele (ngelantur).

26 EFFECTIVE ARGUMENT (1) 26 Inductive argument: begins with a series of meaningful facts and concludes with a useful generalization. (Rule of thumb: when you have enough evidence to build inductive evidence then do so). Deductive argument: begin with a generalization and work to a specific fact that is useful. (The power of deductive argument rests in the fact that if you are able to present a major premise that your audience will accept as true).

27 EFFECTIVE ARGUMENT (2) 27 To reach a conclusion, writers or speaker frequently use a combination of inductive and deductive argument. The best structure is: 1.Present your position and arguments first; 2.Follow with the negative evidence or evaluation of competing proposals; and 3.Conclude with arguments that demonstrate the superiority of your position.

28 WRITTEN ANALYSIS OF CASE (W.A.C)

29 Objective 29 TO PRESENT YOUR READER WITH THE RESULTS OF YOUR THINKING IN A FORM WHICH IS EASY TO FOLLOW AND REFLECTS THE QUALITY OF YOUR EFFORT

30 Major Steps Reading the case 2. Write analitical summary of the case 3. Write problems and analysis of core problem 4. Write and analyse alternative solutions 5. Write recommendations

31 Written Structure/Outline 31 Current Situation (Salient Case Facts) Problem/Issues Analysis of Critical Factor Alternative Solution Recommendation

32 Current Situation (External) 32 Macro environment Market condition Value chain Competition Consumer characteristics

33 Current Situation (Internal) 33 Company vision, mission, strategy, & current business line and products Company resources Company system & strategy

34 Problem & Issues 34 Identifikasi (lebih dari satu) Temukan yang paling central (core problem: hanya satu) Tuliskan dalam kalimat tanya

35 Analysis of Critical Factors 35 Temukan framework teorinya Gambarkan logik berpikir dari pemecahan masalahnya Bahas setiap butirnya

36 Alternative Solutions 36 Temukan dengan mengacu pada hasil analisis dan teori. Alternatif solusi harus menjawab core problem. Identifikasi sebanyak-banyaknya namun tetap logis (pengalaman dan dasar teori akan sangat membantu). Analisis setiap solusi dengan mengungkapkan semua advantages dan disadvantages.

37 Recommendation 37 Tetapkan secara rasional (termasuk ada penjelasan teorinya), Menggunakan cara berfikir secara sistemik (system thinking approach), Mempertimbangkan kaitan ke belakang dan ke depannya (implications).


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