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DATA DAN INFORMASI KESALAHAN TIPE I & TIPE II. . Definisi Kesalahan Tipe I dan Tipe II. Type 1 and type II errors are mistakes in testing a hypothesis.

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Presentasi berjudul: "DATA DAN INFORMASI KESALAHAN TIPE I & TIPE II. . Definisi Kesalahan Tipe I dan Tipe II. Type 1 and type II errors are mistakes in testing a hypothesis."— Transcript presentasi:

1 DATA DAN INFORMASI KESALAHAN TIPE I & TIPE II

2 . Definisi Kesalahan Tipe I dan Tipe II. Type 1 and type II errors are mistakes in testing a hypothesis. A type I error occurs when the results of research show that a difference exists but in truth there is no difference; so, the null hypothesis H 0 is wrongly rejected when it is true. A type II error occurs when the null hypothesis is accepted, but the alternative is true; that is, the null hypothesis, is not rejected when it is false. Type II errors frequently arise when sample sizes are too small. Peluang kesalahan Tipe I disimbolkan dengan huruf alpha (α) dan peluang kesalahan Tipe II disimbulkan dengan huruf beta (β). DIUNDUH DARI: ……………… 10/10/2012

3 DATA DAN INFORMASI. BIAS. Istilah ini diambil dari penelitian kuantitatif, secfara teknis “bias” berarti “kesalahan sistematis”, dimana suatu temuan penelitian menyimpang dari temuan yang sesungguhnya ('true finding’). Hal ini dapat terjadi disebabkan oleh kesalahan dalam melakukan wawancara, atau kesalahan sampling. Dalam penelitian kualitatif hal ini lebih bersifat “problematik konsep”, karena peneliti kualitatif merupakan bagian dari proses dan semua peneliti adalah “berbeda”. This human factor has been said to be both the greatest strength and the greatest weakness of qualitative method. What can be done in commercial qualitative research, however, is to minimise obvious and avoidable sources of bias, for example by not confining all the fieldwork to one social group or geographic location, by taking steps to recognise the personal views of the researcher, (using techniques such as bracketing), and by working in teams. DIUNDUH DARI: ……………… 10/10/2012

4 DATA DAN INFORMASI PERMASALAHAN PENELITIAN Menstruktur-kan “Masalah Penelitian” Look at any scientific paper, and you will see the research problem, written almost like a statement of intent. Defining a research problem is crucial in defining the quality of the answers, and determines the exact research method used. Rancangan eksperimen kuantitatif menggunakan penakaran deduktif untuk menyusun “hipotesis” yang dapat diuji. Rancangan penelitian kualitatif menggunakan penalaran deduktif untuk mengusulkan “research statement”.. Read more: problem.html#ixzz28wJ5N9uS://www.experiment-resources.com/defining-a-research- problem.html#ixzz28wJ5N9uS DIUNDUH DARI: ……………… 10/10/2012

5 DATA DAN INFORMASI... DIUNDUH DARI: ……………… 10/10/2012

6 DATA DAN INFORMASI MERUMUSKAN MASALAH PENELITIAN Perumusan masalah penelitian dilakukan pada tahap awal memulai proses ilmiah. Misalnya, mengkaji pustaka, menelaah hasil-hasil penelitian yang ada, dan penelitian pendahuluan, dapat memunculkan hal-hal yang menrik untuk diteliti.. Banyak peneliti menelaah suatu bidang kajian dimana para peneliti sebelumnya mendapatkan hasil-hasil yang menarik, tetapi tidak pernah menindak-lanjuti. Hal ini dapat menjadi bidang kajian yang menarik, belum ada orang lain yang meneliti secara intensif.. A scientist may even review a successful experiment, disagree with the results, the tests used, or the methodology, and decide to refine the research process, retesting the hypothesis. This is called the conceptual definition, and is an overall view of the problem. A science report will generally begin with an overview of the previous research and real-world observations. The researcher will then state how this led to defining a research problem. DIUNDUH DARI: ……………… 10/10/2012

7 DATA DAN INFORMASI DEFINISI OPERASIONAL. Definisi operasional merupakan penentuan sifat-sifat skalar dari variabel-variabel penelitian. Misalnya, konsep-konsep “temperature”, “bobot” dan “waktu”, biasanya telah didefinisikan dengan jelas, hanya sekala pengukurannya yang perlu didefinisikan. Kalau peneliti mengukur konsep yang abstrak, seperti inteligensia, emosi, dan respon subyektif, maka perlu ditetapkan suatu sistem untuk mengukurnya secara numerik, sehingga datanya dapat dianalisis secara statistik dan dapat diulang oleh peneliti lain. For example, intelligence may be measured with IQ and human responses could be measured with a questionnaire from ‘1- strongly disagree’, to ‘5 - strongly agree’. Behavioral biologists and social scientists might design an ordinal scale for measuring and rating behavior. These measurements are always subjective, but allow statistics and replication of the whole research method. This is all an essential part of defining a research problem. Read more: DIUNDUH DARI: ……………… 10/10/2012

8 DATA DAN INFORMASI CONTOH: PERUMUSAN MASALAH PENELITIAN.. Seorang pakar antropologi menemukan referensi tentang suku yang masih “terasing” di Papua New Guinea. Melalui penalaran induktif, dia menyusun masalah dan pertanyaan penelitiannya. ‘Bagaimana orang ini hidup dan bagaimana budayanya berhubungan dnegan suku-suku lain di sekitarnya?’ Peneliti ini menemukan “gap” pengetahuan, dan dia berusaha untuk mengisi “gap” ini, dengan menggunakan studi kasus kualitatif, tanpa hipotesis. The Bandura Bobo Doll Experiment is a good example of using deductive reasoning to arrive at a research problem and hypothesis. Anecdotal evidence showed that violent behavior amongst children was increasing. Bandura believed that higher levels of violent adult role models on television, was a contributor to this rise. This was expanded into a hypothesis, and operationalization of the variables, and scientific measurement scale, led to a robust experimental design. Read more: DIUNDUH DARI: ……………… 10/10/2012

9 DATA DAN INFORMASI.PERTANYAAN PENELITIAN. Pada saat peneliti akan mendefinisikan tujuan penelitiannya, dia harus menelaah beberapa idea yang relevan, sehingga memungkinkannya untuk menyusun “pertanyaan penelitian” relevant, menarik dan novel. Beberapa ide-ide itu adalah: 1.What are the most important research questions in my discipline, and are there any particular areas that are ripe for further exploration? 2.Will my research lead to a greater understanding, and fill a gap in current knowledge? 3.Has my literature review turned up a wealth of relevant information in this area? 4.Am I replicating a previous study? If I am, in what ways am I improving and refining the research? 5.Is this research at the cutting edge of science or is it in an area that is fading out of fashion? 6.Apakah pertanyaan penelitian saya ini akan mempunyai dampak yang bermakna bagi perkembangan pengetahuan? Read more: DIUNDUH DARI: ……………… 10/10/2012

10 DATA DAN INFORMASI. Mempersempit Pertanyaan Penelitian A general research question will usually be based around 'why' or 'how' a certain phenomenon is happening. An example of a good general research statement could be: 'Why are the forest resources declining in the Amazon rainforest?' This statement is based around a review of the literature, which shows that the Amazon rainforest coverage is declining rapidly. As a result, you can legitimately use that as a good starting point, a basic assumption upon which to build your research project. Whilst many researchers have postulated reasons for this, there is no clear consensus about what factor, or combination of factors, is contributing to the environmental and ecological damage. Now you need to narrow down the broad question, ideally moving towards a hypothesis or thesis question. For example, looking at the above general question, you could arrive at: 'Is intensive agriculture the major cause of deforestation in the Amazon?' 'Is the logging industry the major cause of deforestation in the Amazon?' 'Is Global Warming the major cause of deforestation in the Amazon?’ DIUNDUH DARI: ……………… 10/10/2012

11 DATA DAN INFORMASI. Mempersempit Pertanyaan Penelitian Once you have a good research paper question, you can then begin to generate a testable hypothesis or research question, and construct your paper around this. Pada akhir penelitian, seorang peneliti harus mampu “mengkaitkan” hasil-hasil penelitian dan pembahasannya dengan “pertanyaan penelitiannya”, dan menambah sedikit informasi ilmiah kepada “gunung es” pengetahuan yang telah ada. Read more: question.html#ixzz28wKCOgk4http://www.experiment-resources.com/research-paper- question.html#ixzz28wKCOgk4 DIUNDUH DARI: ……………… 10/10/2012

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