Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 1/57 5.1 Life Cycle Analysis 5.2 Eco Design 5.3 Mass Flow Analysis Environmental Assessment Tools.

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 1/57 5.1 Life Cycle Analysis 5.2 Eco Design 5.3 Mass Flow Analysis Environmental Assessment Tools."— Transcript presentasi:

1 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 1/ Life Cycle Analysis 5.2 Eco Design 5.3 Mass Flow Analysis Environmental Assessment Tools

2 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 2/57 Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) atau Analisis Siklus Hidup. Berikutnya akan diperkenalkan gagasan tentang Eco-design, yang merupakan suatu aplikasi praktis dari pemikiran siklus hidup didalam disain produk. Material Flow Analysis (MFA), yang merupakan suatu instrumen untuk mengetahui aliran material/bahan dan energi. MFA digunakan pada penelitian-penelitian pada tingkat global, regional dan lokal, serta pengelolaan sampah (padat) regional, misalnya untuk meganalisis zat-zat berbahaya.

3 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 3/ Life Cycle Analysis Analysis of Environmental, Financial and Social Impacts throughout the Life-cycle of Products and Processes 5.1 Life Cycle Analysis LCA merupakan suatu teknik yang digunakan untuk mengukur aspek-aspek lingkungan yang terkait dengan suatu produk, suatu proses pembuatannya, ataupun ‘layanan’ yang diberikan oleh produk tersebut selama siklus hidupnya.LCA merupakan suatu teknik yang digunakan untuk mengukur aspek-aspek lingkungan yang terkait dengan suatu produk, suatu proses pembuatannya, ataupun ‘layanan’ yang diberikan oleh produk tersebut selama siklus hidupnya.

4 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 4/57 Aplikasi-aplikasi yang paling penting antara lainAplikasi-aplikasi yang paling penting antara lain (1) analisis kontribusi tahapan-tahapan siklus hidup terhadap beban lingkungan keseluruhan, biasanya dengan tujuan untuk memprioritaskan pada perbaikan- perbaikan produk atau proses dan(1) analisis kontribusi tahapan-tahapan siklus hidup terhadap beban lingkungan keseluruhan, biasanya dengan tujuan untuk memprioritaskan pada perbaikan- perbaikan produk atau proses dan (2) membandingkan antar produk untuk komunikasi internal.(2) membandingkan antar produk untuk komunikasi internal. 5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

5 Siklus Hidup Kapas Saling Terkait satu sama lain

6 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 6/57 Contoh dari Implementasi LCA didalam Industri. Suatu industri mempertimbangkan penambahan satu tahap proses lagi terhadap lini produknya. Industri tersebut memiliki pilihan antara Mesin A ataukah Mesin B. Kedua mesin memerlukan penambahan beberapa bahan kimia dalam mendukung operasinya, masing-masing menggunakan tenaga yang sama per unit waktu operasi. Mesin manakah yang sebaiknya dipilih untuk industri ini jika didasarkan kepada pengaruh lingkungannya? Life Cycle of Product Systems (Source: USEPA, Life Cycle Assessment: Principles and Practice, Cincinnati, Ohio report no Life Cycle Analysis

7 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 7/57 Tabel dampak lingkungan dari kedua mesin, yang disajikan dalam Eco-points. Unit-unit ini dibuat dengan analisis LCA lingkungan untuk mengukur kategori-kategori dampak lingkungan yang berbeda, seperti perubahan iklim, toksisitas dan penipisan ozon. Life Cycle of Product Systems (Source: USEPA, Life Cycle Assessment: Principles and Practice, Cincinnati, Ohio report no Life Cycle Analysis MesinAB Dampak yang ditimbulkan selama konstruksi (Ecopoints) Dampak dari bahan kimia, penggunaan energi, pemeliharaan (Ecopoints/year) 2024 Dampak pembuangannya setelah digunakan (Ecopoints.) 64 Umur Penggunaannya (years)1510

8 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 8/57 The Concept of LCA (2) Some products have a dominating environmental load in production, some in use, some in disposal: Examples: books, furniture, art etc. Examples: cars, television, airco etc. Examples: Ni-Cd batteries, household chemicals, fireworks etc. 5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

9 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 9/57 Methodology of LCA (1) The official LCA framework according to the International Standards: ISO 14040:2006 and ISO 14044: Life Cycle Analysis (1)Mendefinisikan tujuan dan ruang lingkup kajian; (2)membuat model siklus hidup produk dengan semua inflow dan outflow lingkungan. Tahap ini sering diistilahkan sebagai tahap life cycle inventory (LCI); (3)memahami relevansi lingkungan dari semua inflow dan outflow, tahap ini sering disebut dengan tahap life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) dan (4)interpretasi penelitian. Diagram berikut menunjukkan kerangka kerja ini yang sesuai dengan standar-standar LCA dari ISO.

10 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 10/57 Suatu model LCA merupakan model sistem teknis kompleks yang digunakan untuk memproduksi, memindahkan, menggunakan, dan membuang suatu produk. Suatu model adalah penyederhanaan dari suatu realitas, yang mengimplikasikan bahwa realitas akan terdistorsi dalam beberapa cara dan hasil-hasilnya tidak terpercaya. Cara terbaik untuk menghindari salah paham atau akurasi parsial adalah dengan mendefinisikan tujuan dan ruang lingkup LCA anda secara hati-hati. Didalam tujuan dan ruang lingkup, akan digambarkan tentang pilihan-pilihan yang paling penting (yang seringkali bersifat subyektif). Methodology of LCA (2), Goal and Scope 5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

11 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 11/57 Definition of functional unit, initial system boundaries and procedural aspects  Functional unit: comparison of products on the basis of equivalent function, for example: comparison of 2 packaging systems for 1000 litres of milk by (a) 1000 disposable cartons or (b) 100 reusable bottles; instead of comparison of 1 carton and 1 bottle.  Functional unit is basis for comparison Methodology of LCA (3), Goal and Scope = ? “Compare environmental impacts of packaging of 1000 litres milk in carton packages or glass bottles” 5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

12 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 12/57 Example of Product system and Inventory Table Methodology of LCA (5), Inventory Pengumpulan Data electricity steel plastic production distributionusedump incineration reuse recycling LCI table with environmental interventions Crude oil from earth kg CO2 to air3500 SO2 to air20 kg NOx to air100 kg Cd to water5 g PAH to water 8 kg Etc.……. 5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

13 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 13/57 Methodology of LCA (9), Impact assessment Pengukuran Dampak EffectIntervention Damage CO2 P SO2 NOx DDT Dust VOC Cd PAH CFC Heavy metals Greenhouse effect Acidification Pesticides Eutrophication Damage to Eco-systems Damage to human health Indicator Winter smog Summer smog Carconogenics Ozone layer depl. Category indicators are quantifiable representations of impact categories (ISO) and are defined according standards, such as CML-IA, Eco indicator 99, Impact etc.) 5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

14 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 14/57 Methodology of LCA (8), Impact assessment: Pengukuran Dampak Steps: Characterization, Classification and Normalization:  Determine which LCI results contribute to which impact category, e.g. CO2 and CH4 to climate change  Multiply environmental interventions (resources, emissions etc.) from LCI with a characterisation factor to get indicator results  Normalize to understand the relative magnitude of the indicator results and to get dimensionless score (useful for comparison) Impact category Char. Factor (Global Warming Potential) Cat. Indicator result (kg CO2 equivalent) 5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

15 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 15/57 Methodology of LCA (10), Interpretation “Phase of life cycle assessment in which the findings of either the inventory analysis or the impact assessment, or both, are combined consistent with the defined goal and scope in order to reach conclusions and recommendations” (ISO) To interpret an LCA, you must check the goal and scope:  Are the the general assumptions reasonable?  Is the functional unit well chosen?  Are ISO standards applied?  Has a peer review been conducted? 5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

16 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 16/57 Methodology of LCA (10), Interpretation Conduct a sensitivity analysis: analyze the impact of important choices or assumptions  What if other allocations are applied.  What if other boundaries are applied.  What if other impact assessment method is used. By recalculating the LCA with other assumptions, we can verify how the conclusions connect with the assumptions. 5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

17 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 17/57 Extending the scope of Environmental LCA (1) LCA is often associated with environmental impacts, but scope can be extended to include economic and social impacts. Financial LCA = Life Cycle Costing (LCC); Analysis of life cycle costs Social LCA Social impacts throughout life cycle of products and processes 5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

18 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 18/57 Extending the scope of Environmental LCA (2) What are the costs and revenues incured during the life cycle of a product or process? R&D Production Marketing Sales Etc. Sometimes external costs included as well (costs that are ‘imposed’ on society or the environment): Monetary valuation of environmental LCI and LCIA results…but is it possible to monetise all environmental services? 5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

19 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 19/57 Extending the scope of Environmental LCA (3) Social LCA analyses social impacts, such as employment and health:  Job quality  Quality physical health  Quality social health  Earthly possessions Challenging to model social life cycle impacts, because social conditions do change more rapidly  impacts from changes in employment conditions may dissipate  emotions resulting from changes disappear with time  diseases get cured  people who are laid off may find new jobs) 5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

20 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 20/ Eco-Design Life Cycle Thinking within the Design of Products and Processes 5.2 Eco-design

21 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 21/57 What is Eco-Design? Implications for the Design Process. Consequences for Composition and Amount of Solid Waste. Related Concepts: Design for Environment, Sustainable Product Design. Contents 5.2 Eco-design

22 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 22/57 Eco-design merupakan suatu instrumen prosedural untuk pembuatan keputusan lingkungan, yang secara khusus mengarah kepada disain dari produk dan proses. Eco-design ditujukan untuk memperbaiki kinerja lingkungan dan bisnis didalam pengembangan produk dan proses. Eco-design menggabungkan pemikiran siklus hidup didalam mengidentifikasi kemungkinan- kemungkinan perbaikan lingkungan. What is Eco-Design? 5.2 Eco-design

23 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 23/57 Eco-design juga merupakan aplikasi logis dari eco-efficiency. eco-efficiency didefinisikan sebagai kinerja fungsional dari produk-produk pada siklus hidup yang dibagi kedalam dampak-dampak lingkungan dari produk pada siklus hidupnya. Penurunan dampak lingkungan melalui efisiensi sumberdaya dan penurunan tingkat penggunaan zat-zat berbahaya akan menghasilkan rasio eco-efisiensi yang lebih baik. Aspek- aspek penting dari eco-design yang berhubungan dengan masalah sampah antara lain intensitas material yang rendah, produk dengan penggunaan energi yang rendah dan penggunaan bahan dengan dampak yang rendah. What is Eco-Design? 5.2 Eco-design

24 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 24/57 Studi kasus/Latihan: Cangkir Keramik ataukah Mug dari Kertas? 5.2 Eco-design (Kementrian Lingkungkan Hidup Indonesia) Manakah yang lebih ramah lingkungan, cangkir berbahan keramik ataukah mug berbahan styrofoam? Untuk menemukan jawabannya, maka penelitian harus mengukur siklus hidup cangkir keramik tersebut, yaitu dari proses produksinya yang berupa pemrosesan bahan mentah hingga tidak terpakai lagi dan dibuang ke tempat sampah. Dalam hal ini diperlukan penghitungan konsumsi bahan mentah, penggunaan energi (untuk pengolahan, transportasi dan pembersihan), output bahan-bahan berbahaya ke air dan udara serta volume kotoran yang dihasilkan. Penghitungan ini mengabaikan beberapa dampak lingkungan lain yang biasanya bersifat lokal, seperti kebisingan, bau dan bahaya terhadap bentang alam (landscape). Cangkir dan piring keramik memiliki satu kekurangan: cangkir dan piring jenis ini harus dicuci. Untuk mencuci cangkir dan piring keramik didalam dishwasher (mesin pencuci piring) tentu memiliki dampak yang lebih besar terhadap air daripada jika kita menggunakan cangkir atau piring sekali pakai. Bahan surfactant didalam deterjen, yang selalu kita pakai

25 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 25/57 The relative complex LCA procedure and the creative slightly chaotic design process are not so easy to combine: Implications for the Design Process (2) 5.2 Eco-design

26 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 26/57 Implications for the Design Process (3) Complexity of the Design Process 5.2 Eco-design

27 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 27/57 Implications for the Design Process (4) Design phaseDesign activityLCA activity LCA information generated Product planning Target is defined as product/market combination Assessment of strategyStrategic choices Analysis Refinement of target and definition of requirements LCA of reference product Design guidelines and eco-indicators Idea generation Creativity techniques are used to generate new solutions Use of design rules and eco-indicators Pre-selection of ideas ConceptBest ideas are selected and elaborated Short screenings and what-if analysis Support in concept choices Detailed design Best concept is detailed; prototype and CAD drawings Specific questions and issues Support in detailed design choices Application of LCA results in Design for Environment 5.2 Eco-design

28 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 28/57 Consequences for Composition and Amount of Solid Waste (2) Eco-Design improves Eco-efficiency: Eco-efficiency = Functional performance provided by product over life cycle Environmental Impacts of product over life cycle eco-efficiency resource- efficiency reduction haz. substances =+ applying Eco-efficiency results in Eco-products… 5.2 Eco-design

29 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 29/57 Consequences for Composition and Amount of Solid Waste (3) Consequences for solid waste: Reduction of natural resource extractions (materials and energy) Reduction or elimination of hazardous materials within waste Reduction of toxic emissions during incineration Eco-products Improved material and energy content (quantity and quality) in products Reduced solid waste amount and hazardousness composition 5.2 Eco-design

30 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 30/57 Design for Environment (DfE): “the systematic consideration of design performance with respect to environmental, health, and safety objectives over the full product and process life cycle” ( Fiksel, 1996 in Wrisberg et al ). DfE… focuses on existing products and processes that fulfil a specific function (function-oriented systems) expands the design scope towards environmental and social implications of products and processes Related Concepts: Design for Environment, Sustainable Product Design (1) Design for Environment 5.2 Eco-design

31 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 31/57 Sustainable Product Design: investigates possibilities for improvement on a broader scale. Examples: Alternative Function Fulfilment (changes the way in which a specific function or need is fulfilled) System innovation (redesigning of product production systems, creating ‘closed-loop’ economies etc.) Related Concepts: Design for Environment, Sustainable Product Design (2) Sustainable Product Design 5.2 Eco-design

32

33 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 33/ Material Flow Analysis (MFA) Analysis of Material Flows in a Region in a Region 5.3 Material Flow Analysis

34 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 34/57 MFA suatu instrumen pengukuran yang menggabungkan aspek-aspek sumberdaya dan polusi dari masalah- masalah lingkungan didalam perekonomian kita. Material Flow Analysis (MFA MFA adalah suatu pengukuran sistematis dari aliran- aliran bahan di suatu kawasan. Ada dua jenis MFA yaitu bulk-MFA atau b-MFA yang difokuskan kepada aliran bahan (misalnya bahan-bahan bangunan, produk sampah elektronik) dan yang kedua adalah Substance Flow Analysis (SFA) yang bertujuan untuk menganalisis aliran zat tunggal atau kelompok zat (seperti logam berat, nitrogen organik). 5.3 Material Flow Analysis

35 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 35/57 Ada dua jenis MFA bulk-MFA atau b-MFA yang difokuskan kepada aliran bahan (misalnya bahan-bahan bangunan, produk sampah elektronik) Substance Flow Analysis (SFA) yang bertujuan untuk menganalisis aliran zat tunggal atau kelompok zat (seperti logam berat, nitrogen organik). 5.3 Material Flow Analysis

36 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 36/57 MFA dan Pengelolaan Sampah Modern. 5.3 Material Flow Analysis Definisi dan sasaran dari pengelolaan sampah terus mengalami perubahan. Pengelolaan sampah yang terorganisir muncul ketika manusia mulai mengumpulkan sampah dan membuangnya. Apa yang dilakukan ini merupakan langkah penting untuk menjaga kebersihan dan membantu mencegah munculnya wabah (epidemik) penyakit. Masalah baru. Pertama, (landfill) menyebabkan terjadi masalah polusi air tanah dan menghasilkan gas-gas rumah kaca. Kedua, lokasi landfill semakin langka pada kawasan-kawasan berpenduduk padat. Bahkan Sanitary landfilling tidak bisa memecahkan masalah-masalah ini dalam jangka panjang.

37 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 37/57 MFA dan Pengelolaan Sampah Modern. 5.3 Material Flow Analysis Saat ini, pengelolaan sampah merupakan suatu konsep terpadu yang terdiri dari praktik-praktik yang berbeda dan pilihan perlakuan yang terdiri dari strategi pencegahan dan pengumpulan; langkah-langkah terpisah untuk memproduksi barang yang bisa didaur ulang atau pemrosesan berikutnya dengan menggunakan teknologi pengolahan secara biologis, fisika, kimiawi, dan thermal; dan jenis-jenis landfill yang berbeda. Setiap orang saat ini memiliki kesempatan-kesempatan (dan juga tanggungjawab) untuk memisahkan antara kertas, kaca, logam, bahan yang bisa terurai, plastik, sampah berbahaya, dan bahan-bahan lainnya kedalam kelompoknya sendiri- sendiri. Tujuan dari pengelolaan sampah modern adalah untuk:

38 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 38/57 Why MFA? (1) …hence, material flows and stocks from the economy are crucial to the understanding of environmental problems Material flows and accumulations Quantity- aspect Throughput Quality- aspect Hazard potential Throughput Hazard potential 5.3 Material Flow Analysis

39 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 39/57 Why MFA? (2) … and eventually solutions are based on an analysis of environmental problems in material/physical terms ( Van der Voet, 1996 ) Environment: resource base Extractions of materials Natural Resource Depletion Environment: resource base Environment: waste sink Pollution Waste Absorption Quantitatively: lower materials throughput Qualitatively: less hazardous materials 5.3 Material Flow Analysis

40 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 40/57 What is MFA? (1) MFA is a tool for systematic research of flows and stocks of materials from ‘cradle to grave’ (LCA!) in a region: MFA is useful for: Identification of sources of environmental pollution Identification of accumulations of hazardous substances Identification of potential control points, useful for environmental management 5.3 Material Flow Analysis

41 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 41/57 What is MFA? (2) MFA describes the industrial ‘metabolism’ of a region: the transfer, storage and transformation of substances within an anthropogenic (=human controlled) system and the exchange of these substances with the environment ( Brunner and Rechberger 2004 ). Examples:  Sources, pathways and sinks for mercury in a watershed  Nitrogen flows and stocks in the Malang area Sometimes MFA is applied on systems of smaller scale; for example the flows and stocks of heavy metals in a waste incineration plant 5.3 Material Flow Analysis

42 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 42/57 Systematic analysis of regional material flows and stocks Systematic description of Flows and Stocks of materials in a region where activities in the anthroposhere are taking place There is an exchange of materials between and within anthropogenic (economic) and environmental subsystems Systematic overview of material flows in a region Economy-Environment Boundary Processes within subsystem ‘water’ Processes within subsystem ‘earth’ Processes within subsystem ‘air’ 5.3 Material Flow Analysis

43 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 43/57 Rationale of MFA: The Mass Balance Principle (1) Mass balance: the law of conservation of mass Mass output = Mass input + Mass accumulation X p-q : Material Flow from process ‘p’ to process ‘q’ X 0-1 = X X 1-3 X 1-2 = X 2-0 X 1-3 = X 3-0 X 0-1 = X X Material Flow Analysis

44 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 44/57 Advantages of applying Mass Balance Principle 1.Mass balances can be applied at different system levels: Single processes Complex combinations of processes at smaller and larger scales:  Household  Country  World 2.Valuable tool to calculate regional streams that are hardly measurable, like in waste residual outputs ( Ayres 1989 ). 3.Efficient way to obtain accurate results even when some data are missing 5.3 Material Flow Analysis

45 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 45/57 Framework of MFA (1) Goal and system definition Quantification of flows and stocks Interpretation Problem Material Flow Analysis

46 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 46/57 Framework of MFA (1) Goal definition = selection of substance or material to be investigated: single element (Substance Flow Analysis) or group of substances (Material Flow Analysis) System definition = definition of system boundaries and relevant processes a.Spatial boundary: Geographical or administrative boundary (e.g. watershed or country) b.Temporal boundary: Flows per hour or month or year. Often 1 year because of data availabillity c.Selection of relevant processes: Only processes that are significant to the substance(s) under investigation Material Flow Analysis

47 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 47/57 Framework of MFA (2) Quantification of stocks and flows:  Calculate mass flows of goods that enter and leave processes (measurements or applying mass balance)  Calculate substance flows within these flows (multiplying mass flows of goods with element concentrations)  Calculate stocks: is there any type of accumulation occuring? Example of mass flow of goods and a substance (Cadmium) in a municipal waste incinerator Material Flow Analysis

48 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 48/57 Framework of MFA (3) Interpretation of results:  What is the relative contribution of processes to certain flows?  Where are hotspots and potential control points?  Is there a possibility of problem shifting when certain flows will be restricted? Material Flow Analysis

49 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 49/57 Framework of MFA (4) MFA is a cyclical process: start with provisional data and rough estimations; refine and improve system until required data quality is achieved Systematic overview of MFA procedures 5.3 Material Flow Analysis

50 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 50/57 Applications of MFA: resource management Analysis and planning of resources Identification of depletion and accumulation of materials in society; forecasting of resource scarcities and ‘secondary’ sources (recycling, landfills)  Example: natural resources are transformed to ‘anthropogenic’ resources; stocks in landfills become important for future mining of substances 5.3 Material Flow Analysis

51 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 51/57 Applications of MFA; resource management Resource study: Copper cycle in Asia Copper cycle in Asia The units are Gg Cu/year; Lith=Lithosphere 5.3 Material Flow Analysis

52 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 52/57 Applications of MFA; environmental management Identification of existence, size and fate of hazardous substances in a region Identification of hotspots and control points Identification of problem shifts Example (hypothetical): “ A Material Flow Account of a harbour watershed shows a large flow of mercury in wastewater. Laboratories are relatively the largest contributors. In wastewater treatment plants, absorption and deposition to sludge are a major removal mechanism for mercury. When mercury flows in wastewater are restricted by means of imposing advanced treatment technology to wastewater treatment plants in the region, then mercury outflows to landfills are likely to increase.” substance source problem shift 5.3 Material Flow Analysis

53 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 53/57 Applications of MFA in soil management 5.3 Material Flow Analysis

54 5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 54/57 Applications of MFA; solid waste management MFA discerns between flows of ‘goods’ and ‘substances’  Important because substances cause environmental problems, while flows of substances can only be controlled indirectly via flows of the goods that contain the substances.  “It is not the good leachate of a landfill that imposes danger to the groundwater. The danger resides in the cocktail of hazardous substances in the leachate of the landfill.” ( Brunner and Rechberger 2004 ) MFA can identify appropriate recycling options  Elemental composition of materials determine whether a material is appropriate for recycling MFA identifies side-effects of recycling  Accumulation of heavy metals in soils when sewage sludge is used as agricultural fertilizer 5.3 Material Flow Analysis


Download ppt "5 – Environmental Assessment Tools 1/57 5.1 Life Cycle Analysis 5.2 Eco Design 5.3 Mass Flow Analysis Environmental Assessment Tools."

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google