Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Systems Design: Job-Order Costing 2/16/04 Chapter 3.

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "Systems Design: Job-Order Costing 2/16/04 Chapter 3."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Systems Design: Job-Order Costing 2/16/04 Chapter 3

2 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Types of Costing Systems Used to Determine Product Costs Process Costing Job-order Costing  Banyak produk yang berbeda dalam tiap periode.  Produk dibuat berdasarkan pesanan.  Biaya dilacak atau di alokasikan ke tiap pesanan.  Catatan biaya harus dibuat dengan baik untuk tiap produk atau pekerjaan.  Banyak produk yang berbeda dalam tiap periode.  Produk dibuat berdasarkan pesanan.  Biaya dilacak atau di alokasikan ke tiap pesanan.  Catatan biaya harus dibuat dengan baik untuk tiap produk atau pekerjaan. Chapter 4

3 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Job Order Costing System Process Costing Job-order Costing Typical job order cost applications:  Special-order printing  Building construction Also used in the service industry  Hospitals  Law firms Typical job order cost applications:  Special-order printing  Building construction Also used in the service industry  Hospitals  Law firms

4 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Process Cost System Perusahaan membuat banyak unit yang sama dalam periode yang panjang Examples: orange juice concentrate, paper, mixing and bottling beverages, gasoline. Biaya diakumulasikan ke tiap departemen Total biaya dibagi dengan jumlah unit yang diproduksi untuk memperoleh biaya per unit

5 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Quick Check Which of the following companies would be likely to use job-order costing rather than process costing? a. Scott Paper Company for Kleenex. b. Architects. c. Heinz for ketchup. d. Caterer for a wedding reception. e. Builder of commercial fishing vessels. Which of the following companies would be likely to use job-order costing rather than process costing? a. Scott Paper Company for Kleenex. b. Architects. c. Heinz for ketchup. d. Caterer for a wedding reception. e. Builder of commercial fishing vessels.

6 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Job-Order Costing Direct material Direct labor Manufacturing overhead (OH) Applied to each job using a predetermined rate Manufacturing overhead (OH) Applied to each job using a predetermined rate Traced directly to each job The Job

7 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Manufacturing Overhead Job No. 1 Job No. 2 Job No. 3 Membebank an biaya bahan baku dan tenaga kerja ke tiap perkerjaan yang dilakukan. Sequence of Events in a Job- Order Costing System Direct Materials Direct Labor

8 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Tetapkan nilai overhead dengan predeter- mined rate. Sequence of Events in a Job- Order Costing System Direct Materials Direct Labor Job No. 1 Job No. 2 Job No. 3 Manufacturing Overhead

9 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Job-Order Cost Accounting The primary document for tracking the costs associated with a given job is the job cost sheet. Let’s investigate

10 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin PearCo Job Cost Sheet Job Number A - 143Date Initiated Date Completed Department B3Units Completed Item Wooden cargo crate Direct MaterialsDirect LaborManufacturing Overhead Req. No.AmountTicketHoursAmountHoursRateAmount Cost SummaryUnits Shipped Direct MaterialsDateNumberBalance Direct Labor Manufacturing Overhead Total Cost Unit Product Cost Job-Order Cost Accounting

11 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Job-Order Cost Accounting Let’s see one Materials requisition form digunakan untuk menentukan bahan baku yang digunakan di tiap pekerjaan.

12 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Materials Requisition Form Will E. Delite

13 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Materials Requisition Form Will E. Delite Type, quantity, and total cost of material charged to job A-143. Cost of material is charged to job A-143.

14 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Job-Order Cost Accounting

15 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Job-Order Cost Accounting Pekerja menggunakan time tickets untuk mencatat waktu untuk menyelesaikan tiap pesanan. Let’s see one

16 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Employee Time Ticket

17 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Job-Order Cost Accounting

18 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Job-Order Cost Accounting Apply manufacturing overhead to jobs using a predetermined overhead rate of $4 per direct labor hour (DLH). Let’s do it

19 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Job-Order Cost Accounting

20 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Estimated total manufacturing overhead cost for the coming period Estimated total units in the allocation base for the coming period POHR = The predetermined overhead rate (POHR) digunakan untuk membebankan overhead pada pekerjaan yang ditentukan sebelum pekerjaan itu dimulai. Application of Manufacturing Overhead Idialnya, dasar pengalokasian biaya adalah pemicu biaya dari overhead.

21 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Jumlah aktual dari allocation base seperti unit yg diproduksi, jam kerja karyawan, atau jam kerja mesin yg terjadi dalam satu periode. Berdasarkan pada perkiraan, dan ditetapkan sebelum awal periodebegins. Application of Manufacturing Overhead Overhead applied = POHR × Actual activity

22 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Application of Manufacturing Overhead Recall the wooden crate example where: Overhead applied = $4 per DLH × 8 DLH = $32 Overhead applied = POHR × Actual activity

23 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Penggunaan predetermined rate memungkinkan untuk melakukan estimasi biaya total diawal. Actual overhead dalam satu periode tidak dapat diketahui hingga akhir periode The Need for a Predetermined Manufacturing Overhead Rate $

24 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin PearCo menerapkan overhead berdasarkan direct labor hours. Total estimated overhead dlm satu th $640,000. Total estimated labor cost adalah $1,400,000 dan total estimated labor hours adalah 160,000. Berapa Pear Co.’s predetermined overhead rate per haurs(jam)? Overhead Application Example

25 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin For each direct labor hour worked on a job, $4.00 of factory overhead will be applied to the job. Overhead Application Example POHR = $4.00 per DLH $640, ,000 direct labor hours (DLH) POHR = Estimated total manufacturing overhead cost for the coming period Estimated total units in the allocation base for the coming period POHR =

26 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Overhead Application Example What amount of overhead will PearCo apply to Job X-32?

27 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Overhead Application Example

28 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Quick Check Job WR53 at NW Fab, Inc. required $200 of direct materials and 10 direct labor hours at $15 per hour. Estimated total overhead for the year was $760,000 and estimated direct labor hours were 20,000. What would be recorded as the cost of job WR53? a. $200. b. $350. c. $380. d. $730. Job WR53 at NW Fab, Inc. required $200 of direct materials and 10 direct labor hours at $15 per hour. Estimated total overhead for the year was $760,000 and estimated direct labor hours were 20,000. What would be recorded as the cost of job WR53? a. $200. b. $350. c. $380. d. $730.

29 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Quick Check Job WR53 at NW Fab, Inc. required $200 of direct materials and 10 direct labor hours at $15 per hour. Estimated total overhead for the year was $760,000 and estimated direct labor hours were 19,000. What would be recorded as the cost of job WR53? a. $200. b. $350. c. $750. d. $730. Job WR53 at NW Fab, Inc. required $200 of direct materials and 10 direct labor hours at $15 per hour. Estimated total overhead for the year was $760,000 and estimated direct labor hours were 19,000. What would be recorded as the cost of job WR53? a. $200. b. $350. c. $750. d. $730.

30 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Allocation Base Cost Driver adalah faktor yang secara langsung menyebabkan biaya overhead muncul Cost Driver harus merupakan hal umum untuk semua perusahaan jasa dan produksi. Yang termasuk Cost Drivers adalah machine-hours, direct labor, computer time, direct material cost, etc. Penentuan Cost Drivers yang tepat merupakan hal yang penting untuk kelayakan alokasi overhead

31 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Let’s summarize the document flow in a job-order costing system. Job-Order Costing Document Flow Summary

32 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Job-Order Costing Document Flow Summary Job Cost Sheets Materials Requisition Manufacturing Overhead Account Direct materials Indirect materials Materials used may be either direct or indirect.

33 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Job-Order Costing Document Flow Summary Job Cost Sheets Employee Time Ticket Manufacturing Overhead Account An employee’s time may be either direct or indirect. Direct Labor Indirect Labor

34 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Job-Order Costing Document Flow Summary Manufacturing Overhead Account Other Actual OH Charges Job Cost Sheets Applied Overhead Materials Requisition Employee Time Ticket Indirect Material Indirect Labor

35 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Job-Order System Cost Flows Let’s examine the cost flows in a job-order costing system..

36 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Raw Materials Material Purchases Mfg. Overhead Work in Process (Job Cost Sheet) Direct Materials Indirect Materials ActualApplied Job-Order System Cost Flows

37 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Mfg. Overhead Salaries and Wages Payable Work in Process (Job Cost Sheet) Direct Materials Overhead Applied Overhead Applied to Work in Process Direct Labor Indirect Labor, All Other Indirect Labor Indirect Materials ActualApplied If actual and applied manufacturing overhead are not equal, a year-end adjustment is required. Job-Order System Cost Flows

38 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Finished Goods Cost of Goods Mfd. Cost of Goods Sold Work in Process (Job Cost Sheet) Direct Materials Direct Labor Overhead Applied Cost of Goods Sold Job-Order System Cost Flows

39 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Job-Order System Cost Flows Let’s return to PearCo and see what we will do if actual and applied overhead are not equal.

40 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin PearCo’s actual overhead for the year was $650,000 for a total of 170,000 direct labor hours. How much total overhead was applied to PearCo’s jobs during the year? Use PearCo’s predetermined overhead rate of $4.00 per direct labor hour. PearCo’s actual overhead for the year was $650,000 for a total of 170,000 direct labor hours. How much total overhead was applied to PearCo’s jobs during the year? Use PearCo’s predetermined overhead rate of $4.00 per direct labor hour. Overhead Application Example SOLUTION Applied Overhead = POHR × Actual Direct Labor Hours Applied Overhead = $4.00 per DLH × 170,000 DLH = $680,000 PearCo has overapplied overhead for the year by $30,000. What will PearCo do?

41 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Work in Process Finished Goods Cost of Goods Sold $30,000 may be allocated to these accounts. Overapplied and Underapplied Manufacturing Overhead $30,000 may be closed directly to cost of goods sold. Cost of Goods Sold PearCo’s Method OR

42 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Overapplied and Underapplied Manufacturing Overhead PearCo’s Mfg. Overhead Actual overhead costs $650,000 $30,000 overapplied PearCo’s Cost of Goods Sold Unadjusted Balance $30,000 Adjusted Balance Overhead Applied to jobs $680,000

43 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Quick Check What effect will the adjustment of over- applied overhead have on Pear Co’s cost of goods sold? a. Cost of goods sold will increase. b. Cost of goods sold will be unaffected. c. Cost of goods sold will decrease. What effect will the adjustment of over- applied overhead have on Pear Co’s cost of goods sold? a. Cost of goods sold will increase. b. Cost of goods sold will be unaffected. c. Cost of goods sold will decrease.

44 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Quick Check What effect will the overapplied overhead have on PearCo’s net operating income? a. Net operating income will increase. b. Net operating income will be unaffected. c. Net operating income will decrease. What effect will the overapplied overhead have on PearCo’s net operating income? a. Net operating income will increase. b. Net operating income will be unaffected. c. Net operating income will decrease.

45 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin If Over/Under significant, Allocate Between Accounts Determine the amount of overhead applied to WIP, Finished Goods and COGS Calculate the % of total Overhead applied to each account Multiply the Over/Under amount times the %’s and allocate to each account See example on page 115

46 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Tiger, Inc. had actual manufacturing overhead costs of $1,210,000 and a predetermined overhead rate of $4.00 per machine hour. Tiger, Inc. worked 290,000 machine hours during the period. Tiger’s manufacturing overhead is a. $50,000 overapplied. b. $50,000 underapplied. c. $60,000 overapplied. d. $60,000 underapplied. Tiger, Inc. had actual manufacturing overhead costs of $1,210,000 and a predetermined overhead rate of $4.00 per machine hour. Tiger, Inc. worked 290,000 machine hours during the period. Tiger’s manufacturing overhead is a. $50,000 overapplied. b. $50,000 underapplied. c. $60,000 overapplied. d. $60,000 underapplied. Quick Check Overhead Applied $4.00 per hour × 290,000 hours = $1,160,000 Underapplied Overhead $1,210,000 - $1,160,000 = $50,000 Overhead Applied $4.00 per hour × 290,000 hours = $1,160,000 Underapplied Overhead $1,210,000 - $1,160,000 = $50,000

47 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003 McGraw-Hill/Irwin End of Chapter 3


Download ppt "Systems Design: Job-Order Costing 2/16/04 Chapter 3."

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google