8AdultPengertian : dilihat dari biologis (mukallaf), psikologis (bertanggung jawab), hukum (ada identitias), sosial (menikah)Belajar bukan mencari ilmu pengetahuan tapi kearifanPencarian ilmu : aktifPengalaman diperhitungkan
9Behavioral Hasil belajar merupakan perubahan perilaku Untuk itu perlu observasiAda alat ukur untuk mengukur perilaku
10Behavioral, lanjDasar pemikiran: manusia belajar dipengaruhi oleh stimulus dan lingkunganManusia belajar karena ada pembiasaan/dikondisikanDikondisikan merupakan inti pembelajaran
11Behavioral, lanjDikondisikan : berarti perilaku dipaparkan kepada sesuatu stimulus, sedemikian rupa sehingga membentuk suatu respon spesifikDilatih untuk berespon secara otomatis sampai menimbulkan efekLatihan dilakukan terus menerus, jika tidak dilatih perilaku yang sudah terbentuk akan hilang
12Behavioral, lanj Latihan diberikan sedikit demi sedikit Situasi/lingkungan yang menyenangkan menyebabkan perilaku dipertahankanDengan demikian terjadi proses pembelajaran pasif dan kurang melibatkan proses fikir
13Behavioral, lanjWatson (1926) : with appropriate stimulus children could be brought up to become manager, thieves, etcThorndikePavlovSkinner Contoh
14ThorndikeBehaviorism also called the learning perspective (where any physical action is a behavior),is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things which organisms do — including acting, thinking and feeling — can and should be regarded as behaviors.
15Thorndike , lanjThe school of psychology maintains that behaviors as such can be described scientifically without recourse either to internal physiological events or to hypothetical constructs such as the mind.
16Thorndike , lanjBehaviorism comprises the position that all theories should have observational correlates but that there are no philosophical differences between publicly observable processes (such as actions) and privately observable processes (such as thinking and feeling).
17From early psychology in the 19th century, the behaviorist school of thought ran concurrently and shared commonalities with the psychoanalytic and Gestalt movements in psychology into the 20th century; but also differed from the mental philosophy of the Gestalt psychologists in critical ways. Its main influences were Ivan Pavlov, who investigated classical conditioning, Edward Lee Thorndike, John B. Watson who rejected introspective methods and sought to restrict psychology to experimental methods, and B.F. Skinner who conducted research on operant conditioning.
19PavlovBehaviorisme terutama terkait dengan Pavlov (classical conditioning) di Rusia dan dengan Thorndike, Watson dan Skinner terutama di Amerika Serikat (instrumental conditioning).Behaviourism is dominated by the constraints of its (naïve) attempts to emulate the physical sciences, which entails a refusal to speculate about what happens inside the organism.Anything which relaxes this requirement slips into the cognitive realm.
20SkinnerThe theory of B.F. Skinner is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior.Changes in behavior are the result of an individual's response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment.A response produces a consequence such as defining a word, hitting a ball, or solving a math problem.
21Skinner, lanjWhen a particular Stimulus-Response (S-R) pattern is reinforced (rewarded), the individual is conditioned to respond.Reinforcement is the key element in Skinner's S-R theory.A reinforcer is anything that strengthens the desired response.It could be verbal praise, a good grade or a feeling of increased accomplishment or satisfaction.
22Skinner, lanjThe theory also covers negative reinforcers -- any stimulus that results in the increased frequency of a response when it is withdrawn (different from adversive stimuli -- punishment -- which result in reduced responses).A great deal of attention was given to schedules of reinforcement (e.g. interval versus ratio) and their effects on establishing and maintaining behavior.
23Skinner, lanjOne of the distinctive aspects of Skinner's theory is that it attempted to provide behavioral explanations for a broad range of cognitive phenomena.For example, Skinner explained drive (motivation) in terms of deprivation and reinforcement schedules.
24Skinner, lanjSkinner (1957) tried to account for verbal learning and language within the operant conditioning paradigm, although this effort was strongly rejected by linguists and psycholinguists.Skinner (1971) deals with the issue of free will and social control
25Example:By way of example, consider the implications of reinforcement theory as applied to the development of programmed instruction (Markle, 1969; Skinner, 1968)1. Practice should take the form of question (stimulus) - answer (response) frames which expose the student to the subject in gradual steps2. Require that the learner make a response for every frame and receive immediate feedback3. Try to arrange the difficulty of the questions so the response is always correct and hence a positive reinforcement4. Ensure that good performance in the lesson is paired with secondary reinforcers such as verbal praise, prizes and good grades
26Behavior Principles1. Behavior that is positively reinforced will reoccur; intermittent reinforcement is particularly effective2. Information should be presented in small amounts so that responses can be reinforced ("shaping")3. Reinforcements will generalize across similar stimuli ("stimulus generalization") producing secondary conditioning
27Hobson, 1986 Kategori wadah penemuan pengetahuan: Sekolah, komunitas, alam/tanpa batasSekolah: sikap, keyakinan dan nilai-nilai diperoleh di sekolahKomunitas : sikap, keyakinan dan nilai-nilai diperoleh di masyarakat, seperti budayaTanpa batas : keingintahuan (saat ini sangat berkembang IT)
29Theories and Models of Learning for Educational Research and Practice This knowledge base features learning theories that address how people learn.A resource useful for scholars of various fields such as educational psychology, instructional design, and human-computer interaction.
30Learning TheoriesIn psychology and education, learning theories are attempts to describe how people and animals learn, thereby helping us understand the inherently complex process of learning. There are three main categories (philosophical frameworks) under which learning theories fall: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Behaviorism
31Skinner Radical Behaviorism is a pragmatic approach to psychology . It is an approach to psychology which supports that learning is the result of operant conditioning.Operant conditioning is a process both named and investigated by B. F. Skinner.The word ‘operant’ refers to the way in which behavior ‘operates on the environment’.
32SkinnerBriefly, a behavior may result either in reinforcement, which increases the likelihood of that behavior occurring again;or punishment,which decreases the likelihood of the same behavior recurring in the future.The issues surrounding are relatively complex.For example, a reinforcer or a punisher is defined within behaviorism by its effect on behavior.
33SkinnerTherefore a punisher is not considered to be punishment if it does not result in the reduction of a particular behavior.As a result, behaviorists are particularly interested in measurable changes in behavior, which is itself a basic premise of the scientific method.Educational approaches such as applied behavior analysis, curriculum based measurement, and direct instruction have emerged from this model.
34Cognitive historySince the Cognitive Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, learning theory has undergone a great deal of change.Much of the empirical framework of Behaviorism was retained even though a new paradigm was begun.
35Cognitive historyCognitive theories look beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning.Cognitivists consider how human memory works to promote learning.So for example how the natural physiological processes of encoding information into short term memory and long term memory become important to educators.
37Cognitive historyNew cognitive frameworks of learning began to emerge during the 1970s, 80s, and 90s.Today researchers are concentrating on topics like Cognitive load and Information Processing Theory.These theories of learning are very useful as they guide the Instructional design.
38ConstructivismConstructivism views learning as a process in which the learner actively constructs or builds new ideas or concepts based upon current and past knowledge. In other words, “learning involves constructing one’s own knowledge from one’s own experiences.”
39ConstructivismConstructivist learning, therefore, is a very personal endeavor, whereby internalized concepts, rules, and general principles may consequently be applied in a practical real-world context.The teacher acts as a facilitator who encourages students to discover principles for themselves and to construct knowledge by working to solve realistic problems.
40ConstructivismThis is also known as knowledge construction as a social process (see social constructivism).We can work to clarify and organize their ideas so we can voice them to others.It gives us opportunities to elaborate on what they learned.We are exposed to the views of others.
41ConstructivismIt enables us to discover flaws and inconsistencies by learning we can get good results.Constructivism itself has many variations, such as Active learning, discovery learning, and knowledge building.Regardless of the variety, constructivism promotes a student’s free exploration within a given framework or structure.
42Kolb’s Learning StyleWhatever influences the choice of style, the learning style preference itself is actually the product of two pairs of variables,Concrete Experience - CE (feeling) -----V-----Abstract Conceptualization - AC (thinking)Active Experimentation - AE (doing)-----V----- Reflective Observation - RO (watching)
44Penjelasan ModelA typical presentation of Kolb's two continuums is that the east-west axis is called the Processing Continuum (how we approach a task), and the north-south axis is called the Perception Continuum (our emotional response, or how we think or feel about it).
45Penjelasan ModelThese learning styles are the combination of two lines of axis (continuums) each formed between what Kolb calls 'dialectically related modes' of 'grasping experience' (doing or watching), and 'transforming experience' (feeling or thinking):
46KolbThis suggests that there are four stages in learning which follow from each other: Concrete Experience is followed by Reflection on that experience on a personal basis. This may then be followed by the derivation of general rules describing the experience, or the application of known theories to it (Abstract Conceptualisation), and hence to the construction of ways of modifying the next occurrence of the experience (Active Experimentation), leading in turn to the next Concrete Experience. All this may happen in a flash, or over days, weeks or months, depending on the topic, and there may be a "wheels within wheels" process at the same time.
47The word 'dialectically' is not widely understood, and yet carries an essential meaning, namely 'conflicting' (its ancient Greek root means 'debate' - and I thank P Stern for helping clarify this precise meaning). Kolb meant by this that we cannot do both at the same time, and to an extent our urge to want to do both creates conflict, which we resolve through choice when confronted with a new learning situation. We internally decide whether we wish to do or watch, and at the same time we decide whether to think or feel.
48The result of these two decisions produces (and helps to form throughout our lives) the preferred learning style, hence the two-by-two matrix below. We choose a way of 'grasping the experience', which defines our approach to it, and we choose a way to 'transform the experience' into something meaningful and usable, which defines our emotional response to the experience. Our learning style is a product of these two choice decisions