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Thinking in terms of “Systems” What is a system? A system is a collection of interrelated components (subsystems) that function together to achieve some.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Thinking in terms of “Systems” What is a system? A system is a collection of interrelated components (subsystems) that function together to achieve some."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Thinking in terms of “Systems” What is a system? A system is a collection of interrelated components (subsystems) that function together to achieve some outcome (e.g. biological system, computer system, social system) An information system is a collection of interrelated components that collect, process, store and provide as output the information needed to complete business tasks (e.g. payroll system)

2 Characteristics of Systems interrelated subsystems - Sistem dibangun dari sekumpulan subsistem yg saling berelasi interrelated subsystems - Sistem dibangun dari sekumpulan subsistem yg saling berelasi Functional decomposition – Setiap subsitem memiliki fungsi spesifik Functional decomposition – Setiap subsitem memiliki fungsi spesifik System boundary – adanya batasan yg tegas antara sistem dengan lingkungan sekitarnya System boundary – adanya batasan yg tegas antara sistem dengan lingkungan sekitarnya Automation boundary – dalam sistem dapat terbentuk bagian yg terotomatisasi dan bagian manual Automation boundary – dalam sistem dapat terbentuk bagian yg terotomatisasi dan bagian manual

3 General Depiction of a System output boundary interrelationship subsystem input

4 Overall production system (supersystem) Inventory Management System Manufacturing System Customer Maintenance Subsystem Order Entry Subsystem Catalog Maintenance Subsystem Order Fulfillment Subsystem Customer Support System

5 Manual Part of the System Automated Part of the System the System Automation boundary System boundary Environment Surrounding the System The system boundary and the automation boundary

6 Transaction processing systems (TPS) Transaction processing systems (TPS) Capture and record information about the transactions that affect the organization (e.g. the sale of an item, a withdrawal from an ATM etc.) Capture and record information about the transactions that affect the organization (e.g. the sale of an item, a withdrawal from an ATM etc.) Management Information Systems (MIS) Management Information Systems (MIS) Take information captured by the transaction processing system and produce reports management needs for planning and controlling business Take information captured by the transaction processing system and produce reports management needs for planning and controlling business Types of Information Systems

7 Executive Information Systems (EIS) Executive Information Systems (EIS) Provide information for executives to use in strategic planning (could be from organizational database, or outside sources like stock market reports) Provide information for executives to use in strategic planning (could be from organizational database, or outside sources like stock market reports) Decision Support Systems (DSS) Decision Support Systems (DSS) Support human decision making and allows users to explore the potential impact of available options or decisions (e.g. can ask “what if”) Support human decision making and allows users to explore the potential impact of available options or decisions (e.g. can ask “what if”) Closely related to “expert systems” or “knowledge- based” systems Closely related to “expert systems” or “knowledge- based” systems Types of Information Systems

8 Communication Support Systems Communication Support Systems Allow employees to communicate with each other (e.g. fax, , Internet access) Allow employees to communicate with each other (e.g. fax, , Internet access) Office Support Systems Office Support Systems Help employees create and share documents (e.g. reports, memos, proposals) Help employees create and share documents (e.g. reports, memos, proposals) Types of Information Systems

9 Pengembangan Sistem Project: merencanakan awal dan akhir dari sebuah upaya untuk membuat produk Project: merencanakan awal dan akhir dari sebuah upaya untuk membuat produk System development project: merencanakan upaya untuk menghasilkan sebuah sistem System development project: merencanakan upaya untuk menghasilkan sebuah sistem Aktivitas dalam pengembangan sistem baru: Aktivitas dalam pengembangan sistem baru: Analysis – to understand information needs Analysis – to understand information needs Design – define the system architecture (based on needs) Design – define the system architecture (based on needs) Implementation – the actual construction of the system Implementation – the actual construction of the system

10 The systems development life cycle (SDLC) is a general term used to describe the method and process of developing a new information system The systems development life cycle (SDLC) is a general term used to describe the method and process of developing a new information system Without the structure and organization provided by SDLC approach projects are at risk for missed deadline, low quality etc. Without the structure and organization provided by SDLC approach projects are at risk for missed deadline, low quality etc. SDLC provides SDLC provides Structure Structure Methods Methods Controls Controls Checklist Checklist Needed for successful development System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

11 Sets of related activities are organized into “phases”: Sets of related activities are organized into “phases”: (1) Project planning phase (2) Analysis phase (3) Design phase (4) Implementation phase (5) Support phase In “classical” life cycle these phases are sequential, but there are variations as we will see Phases in the SDLC

12 Pendefinisian masalah (dan batasan) Pendefinisian masalah (dan batasan) Konfirmasi kelayakan proyek Konfirmasi kelayakan proyek Menyusun jadwal proyek Menyusun jadwal proyek Menentukan staf proyek Menentukan staf proyek Proyek diajukan Proyek diajukan Setelah menentukan batasan masalah dan melakukan studi kelayakan, lakukan review dan meminta persetujuan, untuk selanjutnya proyek dimulai Setelah menentukan batasan masalah dan melakukan studi kelayakan, lakukan review dan meminta persetujuan, untuk selanjutnya proyek dimulai The Planning Phase

13 Tujuan Utama: untuk memahami serta mendokumentasikan kebutuhan-kebutuhan informasi serta proses yg diperlukan oleh sistem baru Tujuan Utama: untuk memahami serta mendokumentasikan kebutuhan-kebutuhan informasi serta proses yg diperlukan oleh sistem baru Pengumpulan Informasi (e.g. interview, read, observe etc.) Pengumpulan Informasi (e.g. interview, read, observe etc.) Mendefinisikan kebutuhan-kebutuhan sistem (reports, diagrams etc.) Mendefinisikan kebutuhan-kebutuhan sistem (reports, diagrams etc.) Membangun prototipe untuk menjawab kebutuhan-kebutuhan Membangun prototipe untuk menjawab kebutuhan-kebutuhan Perhatian utama adalah requirements Perhatian utama adalah requirements Generate and evaluate alternative solutions Generate and evaluate alternative solutions Review recommendations with management Review recommendations with management The Analysis Phase

14 Design Phase Objective: to design the solution Objective: to design the solution Activities Activities Design and integrate the network Design and integrate the network Design the application network Design the application network Design the user interfaces Design the user interfaces Design the system interfaces Design the system interfaces Design and integrate the database Design and integrate the database Prototype for design details Prototype for design details Design and integrate the system controls Design and integrate the system controls

15 System is built, tested and installed System is built, tested and installed Activities Activities Construct software components Construct software components Verify and test Verify and test Develop prototypes for tuning Develop prototypes for tuning Convert data Convert data Train and document Train and document Install the system Install the system Implementation Phase

16 Objective is to keep the system running after its installation Objective is to keep the system running after its installation Activities Activities Provide support to end users Provide support to end users Help desks Help desks Training programs Training programs Maintain and enhance the computer system Maintain and enhance the computer system Simple program error correction Simple program error correction Comprehensive enhancements Comprehensive enhancements upgrades upgrades Support Phase

17 Model Proses Pengembangan Sistem

18 Linear Sequential Model/ Waterfall Model/ Classical Model Analysis Design Code Test Bagian paling esensial ketika PL akan berinteraksi dgn. PK, users, BD Perekayasaan Sistem

19 Prototyping Model Build Mock up Customer Test Listen to Customer Pelanggan dan pengembang sepakat bahwa model ini digunakan untuk mendefinisikan kebutuhannya

20 Rapid Application Development Model (RAD) ModelBisnisModelData ModelProses BuatAplikasi Test ModelBisnisModelData ModelProses BuatAplikasi Test ModelBisnisModelData ModelProses BuatAplikasi Test Tim A Tim B Tim C 90 - hari

21 Analisa Desain Kode Tes Analisa Desain Kode Tes Analisa Desain Kode Tes Increment 1 Increment 2 Increment 3 Increment 4 Incremental Model

22 perencanaan Analisa Resiko Perekayasaan KonstruksiRelease EvaluasiPelanggan KomunikasiPelanggan Spiral Model

23 The Project Team

24 Like a “surgical team” – each member of the team performs a specialized task critical to the whole Like a “surgical team” – each member of the team performs a specialized task critical to the whole Project team varies over duration of the project Project team varies over duration of the project During planning team consists of only a few members (e.g. project manager and a couple of analysts) During planning team consists of only a few members (e.g. project manager and a couple of analysts) During analysis phase the team adds systems analysts, business analysts During analysis phase the team adds systems analysts, business analysts During design other experts may come in with technical expertise (e.g. database or network design) During design other experts may come in with technical expertise (e.g. database or network design) During implementation, programmers and quality control people are added During implementation, programmers and quality control people are added

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