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PERUSAHAAN LEMBAGA KEMAMPUAN : Kecerdasan Pengetahuan Keahlian Pergaulan Dapat dipercaya dsb Adaptasi – merubah diri Pengembangan diri  profesional.

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Presentasi berjudul: "PERUSAHAAN LEMBAGA KEMAMPUAN : Kecerdasan Pengetahuan Keahlian Pergaulan Dapat dipercaya dsb Adaptasi – merubah diri Pengembangan diri  profesional."— Transcript presentasi:

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2 PERUSAHAAN LEMBAGA KEMAMPUAN : Kecerdasan Pengetahuan Keahlian Pergaulan Dapat dipercaya dsb Adaptasi – merubah diri Pengembangan diri  profesional

3 Realistic Job Preview Employee Hiring Decision Psychological contract to achieve the best deliver what you’ve promised Employee service time in the company Performance Agreement  Review  DEVELOPMENT Planning Doing the job (Should be or is) Continuous Progress Review Com- pany goals

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5 Satu perusahaan. Satu visi ? Satu tujuan ? Intrik ? Klik ? Bersatu ? PERUSAHAAN LEMBAGA Adaptasi – merubah diri Pengembangan diri  profesional

6 Capital Competence Culture Core Value SDM-nya: Performance Drivers Strategic HR Development Performance Appraisal Competency HRM etc Rencana Strategik Organisasi IMPLEMENTASI SDM HR Enablers Sistem keseluruhan ( dari seleksi ke pengembangan dan reward ) Employment HRIS Etc H Y P E R C O M P E T I T I O N

7 KEBUTUHAN ORGANISASI KEBUT PERI-LAKU KERJA KEBUTUHAN BELAJAR TARGET KERJA KENYATAAN (AKTUAL) GAP Kontribusi Manusia Kontribusi Manusia KEINGINAN (Perilaku seharusnya) KENYATAAN (Perilaku Nyata) GAP K-S-A Faktor Lingkung- an Eksternal Faktor Lingkung- an Internal LINGKUNGAN KERJA YANG BERDAMPAK THDP MUNCULNYA GAP PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP MAP Pilihan Intervensi (development design) Coaching Compensation Culture change Job/work design Leadership / supervision Performance support Team building Mentoring–Coaching Counseling Training / Education

8 Membuat lebih paham Menambah Ilmu / Membuat ilmu bertambah

9 PELATIHAN : Peningkatan pengetahuan, ketrampilan, perilaku ( KSA ), agar dapat berprestasi secara bermutu tinggi  pengembangan karyawan. MUST KNOW SHOULD KNOW NICE TO KNOW BELAJAR proses perubahan perilaku berdasar- kan pengalaman / kondisi tertentu. TRAINING : should change human behavior – behavior is activity which can be seen, pictured, described or measured KSA jenis training pula

10 Ada berbagai gaya belajar VISUAL AUDITORI KINESTETIK Optimal dengan melihat Optimal dgn mendengar Optimal dgn melakukan visual aid, reading material, membaca instruksi, melihat ilustrasi melihat contoh diskusi tanya jawab, pemberitahuan lisan bergerak, melakukan sesuatu, menulis, role play Gunakakan berbagai metode yang mengakomodir berbagai gaya belajar

11 Training needs analysis Training & development objectives Program content Delivery methods ACTUALPROGRAM Knowledge Skill Attitudes of Employees Evaluation Steps in Training Process Training Outcomes : 1. Reactions by trainees 2. Knowledge 3. Changes in behavior 4. Measurable results/improvements

12 Proses pengumpulan data dan analisisnya untuk mengidentifikasi kinerja yang ditargetkan melalui performance individu/unit yang seharusnya, serta melakukan analisis GAP yang muncul untuk menyelesaikan masalahnya.

13 1.Tiga Tipe Training Needs Analysis Organizational-based Need Analysis Job Competency-based Need Analysis Person Competency-based Need Analysis 2.Metode dan Tahapan dalam Melakukan: Organizational-based NA Job Competency-based NA Person Competency-based NA

14 Job Competencies-based Need Analysis adalah analisa kebutuhan pelatihan yang didasarkan pada profil kompetensi yang dipersyaratkan untuk setiap posisi/jabatan Job Competencies-based Need Analysis Identifikasi Profil Kebutuhan Kompetensi Tiap Jabatan Memilih Modul Training yang Relevan sesuai dengan Kebutuhan Kompetensi

15 Clarify Organizational Strategy and Context Competency Identification Process Analyze Work Role and Process Gather Data via Behavior Event Interview and Focus Group Conduct Benchmark Study Validate, Refine and Implement Competency Identification Process

16 Position Competency Requirements Competency Description Relevant Training Modules Managers Customer Satisfaction Seeks information about the real, underlying needs and expectations of the customer Translates customer expectations into action steps Proposes actions to meet or exceed customer satisfaction Looks for long-term benefits for the customer and initiates action plans Strategies to Create Customer Satisfaction I (cover all description items) Problem Solving & Decision Making Analyzes and examines data needed to define problems or identify solutions Seeks additional information outside of immediate environment to make decisions Makes decisions that impact his/her own work Creative Problem Solving and Decision Making I (cover all description items) TeamworkTakes risks in trusting others by sharing responsibility, getting involvement and cooperation from multiple parties Values and respects individual differences and provides opportunities for all to contribute Participates in team’s goal setting and problem solving Involves others in the process to make them a part of the team and assists other team members in completing their assignments Building Productive Teamwork I (cover all description items) Training Matriks untuk Posisi Manajer

17 Training Title Training Matriks untuk Tiap Posisi

18 Didasarkan pada gap antara level kompetensi yang dipersyaratkan dengan level aktual karyawan Person Competencies-based Need Analysis Required competency level for certain position Competency Assessment Current competency level of the employee Training and Development Program Competency Gap

19 Managerial Competencies Level Kompetensi yang Dipersyaratkan Collaboration4 Problem Solving4 Leadership3 Planning and Organizing3 Functional Competency Training Need Analysis Skills4 Training Material Development4 Training Delivery Skills4 Training Evaluation Skills4 1 – basic 2 – intermediate 3 – advance 4 – expert Contoh : Competency Requirements untuk Training Manager

20 Training Skills Understanding of the learning process principal and ability to analyze training needs, develop training materials and curriculums and deliver training effectively 1/Basic2/Intermediate3/Advance4/Expert Understands training needs analysis and training requirement analysis process Identifies training needs based on competency profile and functions in PT. XYZ Examines current training needs and proposes revisions if any Develops training curriculum for functions in PT. XYZ Training Needs Analysis Skills Collects relevant data/information in developing training materials/modules Develops training materials/modules along with training instructions and provides technical guidance in design and development Examines current training materials/modules in order to ensure achievement of training objectives Revises and provides inputs for improvement towards training materi-als/modules. Coaches and teaches others in developing training materials/ modules Training Materials/ Modules Developme nt Identifies various training media and techniques Understands advantages/ disadvantages when applicable Differentiates media and techniques training which are suitable for particular audience/ situation/ condition Examines the media and techniques which are suitable for particular customer, which will results in achievement of objective, high level of comprehension and satisfaction Develops creative training media and techniques for different types of training Actively coaches others (“Training for Trainers”) on training media and techniques Training Delivery Skills Observes characteris-tics of effective training delivery Delivers training with supervision Delivers training inde- pendently. Provides logic answers to questions related to the topics Coaches others in de-livering training - pro-vides constructive feed-back and improvement Training Delivery Skills Identifies strengths and weaknesses of a training session Monitors how learning is taking place Determines ways to measure changes in behavior and interprets on bottom-line results Training Evaluation

21 Kuesioner Asesmen Kompetensi

22 Managerial Competencies Hasil Asesmen Collaboration4 Problem Solving4 Leadership3 Planning & Organizing2 Functional Competencies Training Need Analysis Skills3 Training Material Development3 Training Delivery Skills4 Training Evaluation Skills4 Kuesioner Asesmen Kompetensi

23 Managerial Competencies Diper- syaratkan Aktual LevelGAP Collaboration Problem Solving Leadership Planning & Organizing Functional Competency Training Need Analysis Skills Training Material Development Training Delivery Skills4 4 0 Competency Gap for Training Manager Trainingand Development Program

24  Trainees Analysis  Work Analysis  Context Analysis  Content Analysis  Training Suitability Analysis  Cost-Benefit Analysis

25 KARAKTERISTIK : usia, gender,pendidikan, pengalaman TINGKAT PEMAHAMAN terhadap materi METODE PEMBELAJARAN yang cocok dan efektif HARAPAN trainees terhadap pelatihan MINAT trainees untuk belajar KARAKTER pekerjaan dan jabatan trainees HASIL KERJA yang diharapkan KETRAMPILAN & PENGETAHUAN bagi pekerjaan tsb UKURAN untuk menilai hasilnya

26 Pelatihan yang pernah dilakukan - dampaknya Metode yang sesuai dengan budaya organisasi Kriteria untuk mengukur keberhasilan pelatihan Karakter kepemimpinan para eksekutif di organisasi Pola komunikasi & hubungan kerja di organisasi Komitmen atasan thd proses pembelajaran bawahan Manfaat yang didapatkan organisasi Peran pelatihan dalam peningkatan kinerja Biaya yang harus dikeluarkan untuk pelatihan Manfaat pelatihan melampaui biaya

27 Menyesuaikan materi dengan tuntutan kerja Metode pembelajaran yang paling tepat Penyusunan sistematika pelatihan Pengemasan dan penyampaian materi Informasi yang diperlukan untuk proses penerapan Sesuaikan training dengan permasalahan kerja Apa yang dapat kita lakukan melalui pelatihan untuk menjembatani kesenjangan antara tuntutan kerja dengan kinerja yang aktual?

28 Metode yang paling sesuai dengan kebutuhan informasi yang diperlukan Reviu Dokumen kepersonaliaan Survei Wawancara (individu/kelompok) Observasi Tes / kwesioner

29 C H E C K L I S T PESERTA - Siapa / jumlah - Datang sendiri / perusahaan - Pendidikan - Harapan WAKTU - Kapan - Durasi - Agenda LOKASI / PERALATAN - Di mana - Peralatan / alat bantu - Fasilitas SASARAN - Ketrampilan / tingkat kompetensi diharapkan - Materi pelatihan - Metode yang dipakai

30 AIMS LEARNING OBJECTIVES CONTENTS SkillKnowledgeAttitudes PLANNING MethodsResourcesDesign DELIVERING PresentingReinforcing EVALUATION AND FEEDBACK CourseSelf TERMINAL GOALS The systematic approach to the development of a course

31 SASARAN OUTLINE PELATIHAN TOPIK-TOPIK (MATERI Pe- latihan) - Sesuai sequence pengajaran - Berapa banyak bahan dapat diserap (sesuai tingkat pemahaman peserta) - Penekanan hal 2 penting dalam presen- tasi - Menentukan sequence pengajaran

32 o KELAS o Kelas - Kerangka o TEATER / AUDITORIUM o U-SHAPE o SETENGAH LINGKARAN o TABLE o ROUND TABLE o ROUND TABLES / GROUP

33 CONSULTANT help Client solve human performance problemsDESIGNER design programs & lesson plans: how adult people learn & change their job performanceTRAINER “Delivery Agent“ of learning system; manage the critical dynamic pro- cess : new behaviors * Analyzes the TNA * Recommend Solutions: - Training - Education - Development - Feedback System - Contingency Mgmt - Job Engineering - Organiz Developmt * Establishes Program Goals (with the Client) * Evaluation Programs * Counsels Designers * Selects Methods * Selects Media * Synthesizes Methods & Media into Integrated Program * Provides outlines & materials to imple- ment Program * Evaluates Try-out * Redesign Programs as evaluation result * Delivers Learning Design * Analyzes & responds to Learner Needs * Adapts Design to meet Learner Needs * Provides On Going Feed-back & Evaluation to Facilitate Learning * Counsels Learner * Feedback to Designer Resource : Approaches To Training & Development, Dugan Laird, 1978

34 ? Apakah perbedaan dalam hal belajar antara orang dewasa dengan cara belajar anak-anak ?

35 Anak2 Orang Dewasa Ketergantungan besar > materi ditentukan > perlu support eksternal Ketergantungan kecil > tahu yang dibutuhkan > motivasi internal Belajar unt manfaat di ms depanBelajar unt diaplikasikan lgsung Sedikit bisa berperan sebagai sumber pengetahuan bagi pengajar dan teman Merasa berhasil bila ada pengakuan eksternal (nilai, pujian) Berperan besar sebagai sumber pengetahuan bagi fasilitator dan rekan lain Keberhasilan dirasakan dalam internal diri (perasaan berprestasi, harga diri) Pengalaman sedikit > sedikit opini > mudah menerima hal baru Pengalaman banyak  punya opini  sulit menerima hal baru terutama yang bertentangan dgn kepercayaan lama

36 PEDAGOGI dan ANDRAGOGI Pedagogi - kurikulum 100% ditentukan guru - kontrol perilaku peserta sangat ketat - proses pacing pembelajaran ditentukan guru - hukuman merupakan bagian proses mengajar. Andragogi - peserta: orang yang mempunyai dignity, komit- men, kompetensi dan mempunyai kemauan sendiri (self-directed) - materi disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan peserta - harus diikut-sertakan proses pembelajaran partisipatif - mungkin “saling menggunakan” satu sama lain sebagai resources pembelajaran - ingin tahu progress selama pembelajaran.

37 JENIS EVALUASI REAKSI PESERTA – and Planned Action Puas, senang, antusias ? PENGETAHUAN / KETRAMPILAN tahu, paham, terampil, analisis, penerapan ? PERILAKU - Application berubah (banding sebelum vs sesudah) KINERJA - Business Impact ada peningkatan ? - BIAYA ROI - ROTI Kirkpatrick Jack J Philips

38 EVALUASI 4 TINGKAT Trainees Trained Results / Job Persons Performance TRAINING COURSE THE JOB/ ORGANI- ZATION I II X II I X IVIV

39 Indicators Level 1 – Reaction & Planned Action Level 2 – Learning Level 3 – Application Level 4 – Business Impact Level 5 – ROI Intangibles 7 Categories of Data provides macro-level perspective of success shows connection of training – bizz objectives integrates various types of data programs – strategic objectives – operating goals alignment

40 Case Study – A Company Indicators number of employees involved total hours of involvement hours per employee training investment as a percent of payroll cost per participant Level 1 – Reaction Data amount of new information importance of information relevance to job intention to use skills / knowledge effectiveness of facilitator(s) effectiveness of delivery system recommendation to others In-class Evaluation

41 Case Study – A Company Level 2 – Learning Self Assessment & Pre-Post Tests understanding of the skills/knowledge ability to use the skills/knowledge confidence in the use of the skills/knowledge Level 3 – Follow-up Application the importance of skills/knowledge in work (after applied on the job) the frequency of use of new skills/ knowledge (on the job) the effectiveness of the skills/ knowledge (as applied on the job) In-class Evaluation Post-class online survey

42 Case Study – A Company Level 4 – Linking to Business Measures Indicate the extent this program has influenced each of these measures in work unit, department or business unit : - productivity - cost control - quality- employee satisfaction - customer response time - customer satisfaction, etc Level 5 – R O I Benefit / Cost Ratio = Program Benefits / Program Costs R O I = Net Program Benefits / Program Costs Intangible Benefits List of intangible benefits (top 10) How intangibles were captured Post-class online survey Post-class online survey

43 Case Study – A Company - Implementation Intangible Benefits Qualitative, subjective, non-financial business results: habits – presence climate/condition – commitment, cooperations satisfaction – employee, customer initiative – strategic planning (Tangible Benefits) Quantitative, objective, financial business results: performance/result – productivity, speedness, profit quality – deviation, complaints, accident cost time – efficiency

44 Case Study – A Company - Implementation Enhancing Performance (EP) - 1-day program Business - increase productivity, increase diversity, improve job satisfaction Performance – effective communication (appropriate com- ment/behavior), “Model for Success – An Employee Life Cycle (attract, recruit, retain, develop, managing di- versity in work place) 1254 employees (Managers, Supervisors, Executives), 84 sess Level 1 – Reaction Result Satisfied with course4.37 Achieved stated objectives4.45 Content directly applied to job4.43 Able to apply learning on job4.41 Linkage of content to needs4.26 Recommend course4.43

45 Case Study – A Company - Implementation Level 2 – Learning Result Identify & list value of differences of each individual 4.34 Recognize/address in appropriate behavior/comment 4.45 Teach staff to be more aware of differences 4.43 Explain individual responsibility for supporting EP 4.41 Design initiatives that contribute to employee life cycle 4.26 React to & dissolve diversity-related issues, work-place 4.43 Level 3 – Application Result Change in Behavior ManagersEmployees Exhibiting responsibility 86% Appropriate address 81% Encouraging staff 78% 79% managers reported success in implementing action plan Exhibiting responsibility 65% Appropriate address 63% Encouraging colleagues 60% Also noted: need to change - no problem

46 Case Study – A Company - Implementation Retention Improvement & Value  Decrease in 2002 turnover : 2.22%  2.2% = 371 people  9.77% (% of reduced turnover attributed to EP)  371 x 9.77% = 36 people  $ 89,000 (average / person t.o cost – 1999 Saratoga Inst Study  36 x $ 89,000 = 3,204,000 annually Level 4 – Business Result Retention Improvement Results Factor Percentage EP Course 9.77 Courses Prior 8.95 Courses After 5.81 Organizational Changes11.48 Interactions11.28 Economy20.87

47 Case Study – A Company - Implementation Intangible Benefits – Employee Satisfaction Survey “…does a good job of valuing diversity of cultural back- grounds, personal styles, and ideas among its employees.” Level 5 – R O I Result Benefits:$ 3,204,000 annually Costs:$ 1,216,836 (fully loaded) Benefit-to-Cost-Ratio:2,6 : 1 Return-on-Investment:163% Additional Intangible Benefits Managers Improved relationship with direct reports Increase communication among staff Increase cooperation Increase diversity Employees Improved relationship with managers Increased communication among team members Increased cooperation Increased teamwork

48 Case Study – A Company - Implementation Barriers to Implementation Time constraints 60% Other priorities 35% Find activities to build team 24% Following through 12% Upper mgt support 63% Team to change resistence 8% Additional Suggestions for Building Inclusiveness Ideas, budgets, management support for teambuilding activities Ongoing EP training for new employees, and refreshing training for all employees Top management/Senior leadership to set the tone Reminders of key skills & knowledge via posters, re-training, s Continued management support

49 R O I 1.Isolasi pengaruh pelatihan – 3 strategi - Isolasi pengaruh pelatihan – bdk kelompok Peserta - Bukan - Bandingkan sebelum – sesudah pelatihan - Estimasi Peserta thd pengaruh pelatihan – 70% kinerja aki- bat pengaruhnya, 30% karena lain: belajar sendiri, feedback 2. Ubah hasil bisnis  nilai Finansial Mis proyek dikerjakan spt kalau dgn Konsultan $ 15 juta – Laporan estimasi: pengaruh diklat 70%  hasil bisnis $ 10,5 3. Hitung biaya terkait pelatihan TNA, desain-pengembangan, penyelenggaraan, overhead dll. 4. ROI – dengan rumus yang ada.

50 Trainer – Influence - Participants Trainer Influence Communication TRUST Participants do what we train them to

51 COHESIVENESS, PERFORMANCE NORM & PRODUCTIVITY HighHigh LowLow HighLow productivity High productivity Moderate productivity Moderate to Low productivity Harold P Robbins, 2005

52 Old Approach to DevelopmentNew Approach to Development Old Approach to Development New Approach to Development Development just happens Development is woven into fabric of the organization Development = training (only) Development primary means, too, challenging, experiences, coaching, feedback& mentoring The unit owns the talent; people The Comp owns talent; people don’t move across unitsmove easily around company Only poor performers have the Everyone has development needs development needs & receive coaching A few lucky people find mentors Mentors are assigned to every high potential persons Ed Michaels cs, War for the Talents TREND IN EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT


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