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JOB ANALYSIS. JOB ANALYSIS (Analisis Pekerjaan) Apa yang dimaksud dengan job analysis Apa manfaat dari job analysis ? Metode job analysis Pelaksanaannya.

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Presentasi berjudul: "JOB ANALYSIS. JOB ANALYSIS (Analisis Pekerjaan) Apa yang dimaksud dengan job analysis Apa manfaat dari job analysis ? Metode job analysis Pelaksanaannya."— Transcript presentasi:

1 JOB ANALYSIS

2 JOB ANALYSIS (Analisis Pekerjaan) Apa yang dimaksud dengan job analysis Apa manfaat dari job analysis ? Metode job analysis Pelaksanaannya dan masalah

3 JOB ANALYSIS A Job is a pattern of tasks, duties, and responsibilities that can be done by a person Jobs are the link between organizations and their human resources Job - Consists of a group of tasks that must be performed for an organization to achieve its goals Position - Collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person; there is a position for every individual in an organization

4 JOB ANALYSIS What is a job? Sekelompok posisi yang mencakup elemen-elemen pekerjaannya, tugas- tugas dan tanggung jawab yang dicakup dalam suatu deskripsi pekerjaan Similar, but different concepts: –position: kombinasi kewajiban2 yang dibutuhkan oleh seseorang dalam menunaikan suatu pekerjaan. –occupation: kategori pekerjaan yang dijumpai pada perusahaan-perusahaan.

5 JOB ANALYSIS Identifies components of job by answering 4 questions: What does incumbent actually do? What are duties, responsibilities, & performance expectations? What KSAs (knowledge, skill and attitude) are needed for success? What are conditions, location, physical & social needs, supervision needs, etc. under which job is performed?

6 JOB ANALYSIS What is job analysis? Proses yang sistematis dari menghimpun informasi dari tugas, kewajiban dan tanggung jawab dari pekerjaan tertentu. An important part of Human Resources (HR) planning

7 JOB ANALYSIS Job analysis is systematic process for collecting (collected, evaluated, and organized) information on the important work-related aspects of a job (tasks, duties, and responsibilities) Job analysis - Systematic process of determining the skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing jobs in an organization

8 JOB ANALYSIS Provides information about jobs that distinguishes between jobs Provides the necessary information to distinguish between different performance levels within the job Essential Characteristics of Job Analysis Data

9 JOB ANALYSIS Manfaat Job Analysis? Telaah dan Perencanaan Kerja Suksesi Manajemen Pelatihan dan pengembangan Jalur karir Kriteria seleksi Evaluasi pekerjaan

10 JOB ANALYSIS Manfaat Job Analysis? Analisis penyusunan kepegawaian: Informasi pekerjaan. Analisis penyusunan kepegawaian: Informasi pekerjaan. Desain organisasi : menganalisis elemen, menyusun posisi org. Desain organisasi : menganalisis elemen, menyusun posisi org. Redesain pekerjaan : untuk meningkatkan metode penyusunan pegawai, mengurangi kesalahan, eliminasi yang tidak perlu, perbaikan kinerja. Redesain pekerjaan : untuk meningkatkan metode penyusunan pegawai, mengurangi kesalahan, eliminasi yang tidak perlu, perbaikan kinerja.

11 JOB ANALYSIS Major Human Resources Management Actions that Rely on Job Analysis Information : 1.Evaluate how environtmental challenges affect individual jobs 2.Eliminate unneeded job requirements that can cause discrimination in employment 3.Discover job elements that help or hinder the quqlity of work life 4.Plan for future human resources requirements 5.Match job applicants and job openings 6.Determine training needs for new and experienced employees 7.Create plans to develop employee potential 8.Set realistic performance standards 9.Place employees in jobs that use their skills effectively 10.Compensate jobholders fairly

12 JOB ANALYSIS Siapa yang melakukan JOB ANALYSIS ? Pakar job analysis Job Analyser dari luar Supervisor Manager Individu yang sungguh memahami orang-orang, pekerjaan dan keseluruhan sistem organisasi.

13 JOB ANALYSIS Pertimbangan Strategik dalam JOB ANALYSIS Tingkat partisipasi karyawan dalam proses job analysis. Pelaksanaan job analysis (rincian proses) Waktu pelaksanaan job analysis Keputusan penggunaan orientasi (tradisional / masa depan)

14 JOB ANALYSIS ASPEK PEKERJAAN JOB ANALYSIS Keluaran pekerjaan (penyusunan staff, penetapan standar dan tujuan kerja, evaluasi nilai kerja) Aktivitas yang dilaksanakan. (tujuan perancangan kerja, struktur org., persyaratan kerja dan jalur karir, kebutuhan pelatihan dan pengembangan, pendefinisian kebutuhan suksesi manajemen, perencanaan tinjauan kerja.

15 JOB ANALYSIS ASPEK PEKERJAAN JOB ANALYSIS Kompetensi (definisi persyaratan kerja untuk seleksi, penempatan, jalur karir, rencana desain org. kebutuhan pelatihan). Struktur balas jasa (administrasi gaji).

16 JOB ANALYSIS TasksResponsibilitiesDuties Job Analysis Job Descriptions Job Specifications KnowledgeSkillsAttitudes Human Resource Planning Recruitment Selection Training and Development Performance Appraisal Compensation and Benefits Safety and Health Employee and Labor Relations Legal Considerations Job Analysis for Teams Job Standards

17 Processes of Job Analysis Job Analysis: The determination through observation and study, of pertinent information about a job, including specific tasks and necessary abilities, knowledge, and skills Job Description: The formal, written description of a specific job, such as the job title, tasks to be performed, physical and mental skills required, duties, and responsibilities Job Specification: The written description of the qualifications necessary for a specific job, such as education, experience, personal characteristics, and physical characteristics

18 JOB ANALYSIS Don’t Mix These Up!! Job Analysis: Proses yang sistematis dari menghimpun informasi dari tugas, kewajiban dan tanggung jawab dari pekerjaan tertentu. Job Description: pernyataan faktual dan terorganisasi perihal kewajiban dan tanggung jawab pekerjaan tertentu. Job Specification: menunjukkan kualitas yang disyaratkan bagi pelaksanaan yang dapat diterima. Job Evaluation: proses sistematik dan beruntun untuk menentukan nilai suatu pekerjaan (menentukan kompensasi).

19 Job Descriptions A Job Description is a written statement that explain the duties (what the job is, how it is done and why), working conditions and other aspects of a specified job. It’s a profile of the job

20 Job Specifications A Job Specification describes the job demands on the employees who do it and the human skills that are required (experience, training, education and the ability to meet physical and mental demand). It’s a profile of the human characteristics

21 Job Standards Job Standards are a key part of any control system (standards, measures, correction, and feedback) which have two functions: first; become the targets for employee efforts, second; used as criteria against which job success is measured. It’s a target as well as criteria

22 JOB ANALYSIS TEKNIK JOB ANALYSIS Observasi –Analisis Pekerjaan Fungsional Wawancara Kuesioner –Kuesioner disesuaikan –Kuesioner Informasi Analisis Pek. –Kuesioner lengkap –Kuesioner analisis posisi Catatan harian karyawan.

23 OBSERVASI Mengobservasi orang yang melaksanakan pekerjaan Pekerjaan diasumsikan konstan sepanjang waktu. Tujuan : untuk menganalisis persyaratan dari pekerjaan, bukan menilai.

24 Analisis Pekerjaan Fungsional The Department of Labor Job analyst uses observation methods to gather information about an employee Information organized into 3 categories Data People Things

25 Contoh Analisis Pekerjaan Fungsional Work Functions Data Orang Barang 0. Pensintesaan0. Penasihatan0. Penetapan 1. Koordinasi1. Negosiasi1. Bekerja cermat 2. Analisis2. Instruksi 2. Pengendalian 3. Pengumpulan3. Penyeliaan3. Dorongan 4. Komputasi4. Peragaman4. Manipulasi 5. Penyalinan5. Pembujukan5. Pemeliharaan 6. Pembandingan6. Pembicaraan6. Pemberian 7. Pelayanan7. Penanganan 8. Melayani Skor ditemukan dengan melakukan observasi, nilai 0 untuk nilai tertinggi

26 WAWANCARA Ada 3 jenis ( inidividu, kelompok karyawan, kelompok supervisor) Validitas tgt pada : Penggunaan metode sistematik Sampel yang diambil Kelemahan : distorsi informasi Diperlukan informasi tambahan.

27 KUESIONER Kuesioner yang disesuaikan dengan aktivitas organisasi. Kuesioner terbitan Informasi untuk membongkar tugas, tanggung jawab, kemampuan, standar kinerja pekerjaan. Kuesioner : analisis kuantitatif

28 KUESIONER ANALISIS POSISI Position Analysis Quest. Berisi 194 butir (6 dimensi), menggambarkan pentingnya suatu unsur dasar. PAQ menyajikan skor kuantitatif: Informasi input Proses mental Output kerja Relationship Job contex

29 Catatan Harian Karyawan Pencatatan secara berkala tugas, aktivitas karyawan Analisis yang membutuhkan waktu, ketelitian yang tinggi dan biaya yang mahal. Berguna untuk menganalisis struktur kerja, organisasi, persyaratan staff, kebutuhan pelatihan.

30 KRITERIA TEKNIK JOB ANALYSIS Keandalan (reliability) : Ukuran konsistensi Validitas : ukuran akurasi Menghimpun data dari kary dan superv. Tujuan analisis

31 Masalah2 dalam JOB ANALYSIS Ketakutan karyawan (ancaman pekerjaan, tingkat gaji, tingkat produksi). Mengumpulkan informasi yang mutakhir.

32 Keberhasilan JOB ANALYSIS Komitmen manajemen puncak Keterlibatan serikat pekerja Keterlibatan karyawan Komunikasi yang efektif Penugasan personalia untuk pelaksanaan Penggunaan pakar Pengumpulan data Penggunaan alat dan teknik yang tepat. Penggunaan komite untuk pengawas.

33 General familiarity with organization and type of work Job identification Questionnaire development Data collection Application : Job descriptions Job specifications Job standards Addition to HRIS Base information for : Job design HR planning Recruitment, selection and training Performance evaluation Compensation and benefit EEO Compliance JOB ANALYSIS

34

35 Job design is a systematical process by which jobs are characterized and engineered based on its elements to gain organizational productivity and employee satisfaction Organizational elements Environmental elements Behavioral elements Job designProductive and satisfying job Feedback JOB DESIGN

36 Organizational elements Environmental elements Behavioral elements Efficiency  Mechanistic approach  Work flow  Work practices  Ergonomics Potential employee and values Individual needs  Autonomy  Variety  Task identity  Task significance  Feedback  Employee abilities and availability  Social cultural expectations JOB DESIGN

37 JOB REDESIGN UNDER SPECIALIZATION OVER SPECIALIZATION  Job rotation  Job enlargement  Job enrichment  Autonomous work teams  Work simplification  Reengineering JOB REDESIGN

38 Job enrichment - Basic changes in the content and level of responsibility of a job, so as to provide greater challenge to the worker Job enlargement - Changes in the scope of a job to provide greater variety to the worker Reengineering - Fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service and speed JOB REDESIGN

39 PLAN DO CONTROL


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