Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

MANAJEMEN TEKNOLOGI MATERI 1 KONSEP DASAR TEKNOLOGI Much. Djunaidi, ST, MT Jurusan Teknik Industri Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta.

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "MANAJEMEN TEKNOLOGI MATERI 1 KONSEP DASAR TEKNOLOGI Much. Djunaidi, ST, MT Jurusan Teknik Industri Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta."— Transcript presentasi:

1 MANAJEMEN TEKNOLOGI MATERI 1 KONSEP DASAR TEKNOLOGI Much. Djunaidi, ST, MT Jurusan Teknik Industri Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

2 Konsep Dasar Teknologi Evolusi Teknologi: –Teori Perubahan Masyarakat, –Tingkat Perkembangan Teknologi Definisi Teknologi Siklus Hidup Teknologi Tingkat Teknologi Jenis Teknologi Klasifikasi Teknologi

3 Teori Perubahan Masyarakat Masyarakat tradisional, persiapan lepas landas, lepas landas, dorongan kearah kedewasaan, konsumsi masa tinggi (Rostow). Berkembang, lepas landas, industri, post- industri (Farmer, 1969). Masyarakat pertanian, masyarakat industri, masyarakat informasi (Toffler).

4 Teori Perubahan Masyarakat (TOFFLER) (1) Masyarakat Pertanian (8000 SM – 1700) –Gelombang pembaharuan  manusia menentukan & menerapkan teknologi pertanian –Manusia yang semula berpindah-pindah menjadi suka untuk tinggal menetap (desa) –Manusia menggunakan energi dari alam (otot binatang, matahari, angin & air) –Masyarakat produsen & sekaligus menjadi konsumen

5 Teori Perubahan Masyarakat (TOFFLER) (2) Masyarakat Industri (1700 – 1970) –Revolusi Industri ditandai dengan penggunaan mesin (melipat gandakan kekuatan fisik manusia) –Manusia menggunakan energi: minyak, batu bara & gas –Pemisahan antara masyarakat produsen dengan masyarakat konsumen (spesialisasi) –Terjadi perusakan alam akibat eksploitasi sumber daya –Penetrasi pasar internasional

6 Teori Perubahan Masyarakat (TOFFLER) (3) Masyarakat Informasi (1970 > 2000) –Penggunaan teknologi komunikasi dalam peradaban manusia –Penggunaan komputer & mikro elektronik sebagai teknologi inti –Pelipatgandaan kekuatan pikir manusia –Energi alternatif, energi baru, rekayasa genetik,bioteknologi

7 MATA RANTAI PERUBAHAN TEKNOLOGI Kemajuan teknologi mempengaruhi ilmu pengetahuan; merubah pola hidup manusia dan struktur sosial secara keseluruhan

8 TEKNOLOGI & MASYARAKAT

9 Definisi Teknologi (1) TEKHNOLOGIA (Greek) –Techné = art or skill –Logos = science or study Sekumpulan pengetahuan ilmiah, mesin, perkakas serta kemampuan organisasi produksi yang dikelola secara sistematik dan efektif ( JUDET & PERRIN, 1971 ) Technology is the totality of goods, tools, processes, methods, techniques, procedures and service that are invented and put into some practical use ( BAYRAKTAR, 1992 )

10 Definisi Teknologi (2) Teknologi: suatu input produksi yang penting & dapat diperjual-belikan di pasar dunia sebagai suatu komoditi. (UNCTAD) a) Barang modal (investasi). b) Tenaga kerja manusia (tenaga terampil – spesialisasi sangat tinggi). c) Informasi (sifat teknis atau komersial: pasar, hak cipta, dijual)

11 Definisi Teknologi (3) Suatu pengaturan yang berisikan atas tiga elemen atau komponen teknologi (paket) (SANDRETT) –Elemen material : mesin, peralatan, bahan baku, bahan setengah jadi, dll. –Elemen informasi : pengetahuan tentang prosedur, keterampilan individu & kolektif –Elemen organisasi : organisasi produksi, jabatan, situasi kerja & koordinasi

12 Definisi Teknologi (4)

13 Definisi Teknologi (5) Pengelompokan Konsep Teknologi dari perspektif sosio- ekonomi

14 Definisi Teknologi (6) Technology includes whatever it takes to convert resources into products and services (GAYNOR, 1992) All the knowledge, products, processes, tools, methods & system employed in the creation of goods or in providing services (KHALIL, 2002)

15 Definisi Teknologi (7) Komponen teknologi (TECHNOLOGY ALTAS PROJECT, 1989): –Technoware  peralatan manual, mesin otomatis, fasilitas terintegrasi –Humanware  kemampuan: operasional, memproduksi, memperbaiki, adaptasi, inovasi –Inforware  menilai, menjelaskan, menggunakan fakta, melakukan klasifikasi –Orgaware  individual, kelompok, organisasi, industri, nasional

16 Definisi Teknologi (8) Komponen teknologi (ZELENY, 1986): –Hardware: the physical structure & logical layout of the equipment or machinery that is to be used to carry out the required tasks –Software: The knowledge of how to use the hardware in order to carry out the required tasks –Brainware: The reasons for using the technology in particular way

17 Komponen Teknologi

18 Technology, Science & Engineering BETZ (1993) –Science is the discovery & explanation of nature –Technology is the knowledge of the manipulation of nature for human purposes –Engineering is the understanding & manipulation of nature for human purposes

19 Siklus Hidup Teknologi (1)  Technology development: basic technology  Technology application: technology + application  Application launch: technology + application + product launch  Application growth: technology + application + product sales  Technology maturity: technology + application + fall in product sales  Degraded technology: minimal product sales + loss of application + alternative technology

20 Siklus Hidup Teknologi (2)

21 TIPE TEKNOLOGI Materials Technology Production Technology Transport Technology Testing Technology Process Technology Machining Technology

22 Klasifikasi Teknologi (UNIDO) a. Teknologi yang terkandung dalam peralatan b. Teknologi yang terkandung dalam produk c. Teknologi yang terkandung dalam proses d. Teknologi yang terkandung dalam operasi

23 Klasifikasi Teknologi (Kahlil) (1) New technology : new introducted or implemented technology (explicit impact on the way a company produces products or provides services) Emerging technology : not yet fully commercialed but will become so within about five year High technology : refers to advanced or sophisticated technologies

24 Klasifikasi Teknologi (Kahlil) (2) Low technology : refers to technologies that have permated large segments of human society Medium technology : refers to mature technologies Appropriate technology : used to indicate a good match between the technology utilized and the resources required for its optimal use

25 Klasifikasi Teknologi Berdasarkan Unsur Unsur: proses-proses teknis yang tidak terdapat secara khusus pada sesuatu bidang. Lima Unsur Teknologi: 1.Technology of energy conversion and utilization 2.Technology of tools & machines 3.Technology of measurement, observation & control 4.Technology involved in the extraction & conversion of industrial raw materials 5.Technology of industrial production processes

26 Klasifikasi Teknologi Berdasarkan Unsur (1) Technology of energy conversion and utilization: –Major types of energy useful to man –Devices & techniques for the utilization of energy –Devices for energy conversion –Devices for energy concentration & control –Devices for unlimited production of energy

27 Klasifikasi Teknologi Berdasarkan Unsur (2) Technology of tools & machines –Hand tools –Machines & machine components –Machine tools: stationary power-driven machines for shaping & forming parts made of metal or other materials

28 Klasifikasi Teknologi Berdasarkan Unsur (3) Technology of measurement, observation & control –Theory of measurement –Units & standards of measurement –Principles & processes by which instruments of measurement operate –Common types of measuring instruments –Special instrument & apparatus used in scientific research –Major systems of measurement & observation –Instrumentation & control systems

29 Klasifikasi Teknologi Berdasarkan Unsur (4) Technology involved in the extraction & conversion of industrial raw materials –The world’s physical & biological resources –Technology of the extraction industries –Primary conversion of raw materials

30 Klasifikasi Teknologi Berdasarkan Unsur (5) Technology of industrial production processes –Materials processing: the operations that are used to transform industrial materials from a raw-material state into finished parts or products –Metallurgy –Materials handling in the production process –Technology of packaging

31 Klasifikasi Teknologi Berdasarkan Bidang Bidang: berbagai kebutuhan manusia, tujuan, barang & jasa yang mendatangkan kemajuan teknologi Delapan bidang pokok teknologi: –Construction technology –Technology of major industries –Technology of agriculture & food production –Transportation technology –Technology of information processing & of communications systems –Technology of the urban community –Military technology –Technology of earth & space exploration

32 Klasifikasi Teknologi Berdasarkan Bidang (1) Construction technology –General building construction –Construction of civil engineering works –Prefabrication & shop fabrication

33 Klasifikasi Teknologi Berdasarkan Bidang (2) Technology of major industries –Principles of organization of work & production –Manufacturing industries –The fabrication industries –The process industries –The construction industries –The service industries –The merchandising & marketing of consumer goods –Industrial research & marketing of consumer goods –Industrial research & development –Technology of industrial safety

34 Klasifikasi Teknologi Berdasarkan Bidang (3) Technology of agriculture & food production –Technology of agriculture –Crop farming, Flock & stock farming –Technology of hunting & fishing –Food processing, Food preservation –Techniques for controlling the quality of food –Food sources & new product development –The history of agriculture

35 Klasifikasi Teknologi Berdasarkan Bidang (4) Transportation technology –Roads & highways & their construction –Vehicles & devices for transportation across country & roads & highways –Rail transportation –Stationary conveyance systems –Water transportation –Air transportation –Air - cushion machines

36 Klasifikasi Teknologi Berdasarkan Bidang (5) Technology of information processing & of communications systems –Communication & information theory –Calculating devices, Office machines, Computers –General information recording devices –Sound recording & reproducing devices –Information recording by the production of visual image: the technology of photography –Information processing –Major systems of communication –Major system of detection & remote sensing –Electronic component & techniques used in communications

37 Klasifikasi Teknologi Berdasarkan Bidang (6) Technology of the urban community –Basic engineering services of the city –Technology of the basic social services of the city –Technological responses to new urban problems –History of city engineering

38 Klasifikasi Teknologi Berdasarkan Bidang (7) Military technology –Offensive & defensive delivery & payload systems –Logistic systems –Purely defensive equipment & systems

39 Klasifikasi Teknologi Berdasarkan Bidang (8) Technology of earth & space exploration –Techniques & equipment of surface & underground exploration –Techniques & equipment of space exploration –Techniques & equipment & space exploration

40 Parker (1982): 6 tingkat teknologi yang berhubungan dengan pengembangan produk baru. –Tingkat 1: repetitive, simple & general (craftsmen) –Tingkat 6: formulasi unambiguous highly technological goals, new knowledge, complex systems, sophisticated tools of measurement, analysis of abstract thinking. Lowe (1995): 5 tingkat teknologi.


Download ppt "MANAJEMEN TEKNOLOGI MATERI 1 KONSEP DASAR TEKNOLOGI Much. Djunaidi, ST, MT Jurusan Teknik Industri Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta."

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google