INTERNAL FACTOR ANALYSIS Ign Teodore Teddy Saputra MBA Chapter / Week VI Reference Concepts Strategic Management Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson. 9E
Pertemuan ke : MateriBahan 1Dasar-dasar Manajemen StrategiBuku 3: 1 dan 2 2Evolusi Manajemen StrategiBuku 1: 1 3Lingkungan EkternalBuku 2: 2 4Presentasi Lingkunan EkternalBuku 2: 2 5Lingkungan InternalBuku 2: 3 6Presentasi Lingkungan InternalBuku 2: 3 7Review dan Kuis 8UTS 9Business Level strategy dan Corporate Level StrategyBuku 2: 4 dan 6 10Identifikasi Key Success FactorBuku 1: 4 11Perancangan Pengukuran Performance of Business Process untuk tumbuh secara berkelanjutan Buku 1: 8 dan 9 Buku 2:12 Buku 3: 9 dan 6 12Perancangan Pengukuran Performance of Business Process untuk tumbuh secara berkelanjutan Buku 1: 8 dan 9 Buku 2:12 Buku 3: 9 dan 6 13Kuis 14Management Strategi dan EntrepreneurshipBuku 2: 13 15Management Strategi dan Family BusinessBuku 1:3 16UAS +kumpul paper
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Sumber daya / Resources Terbatas sedangkan Pemain didalam satu Industri semakin bertumbuh dengan pertumbuhan konsumen tertentu
Strategy competitive advantage Integrated and coordinated set of commitments and actions designed to exploit core competencies and gain a competitive advantage Adalah komitment dan Action yang terintegrasi dan terkordinasi dengan baik untuk menemukan core kompetensi dan memperoleh competitive advantage pada satu perusahaan / firm
A firm has a competitive advantage when it implements a strategy that creates superior value for customers and competitors are unable to duplicate or find too costly to try to imitate Perusahaan mempunyai competitive advantage waktu perusahaan berhasil menciptakan dan mengimplementasikan strategi yang menciptakan value yang sangat berharga bagi stakeholders dan kompetitor tidak mudah untuk menirunya
Avarage Returns Are Return Equal To Those An Investor Expects to earn from other investments with a similiar amount of risk Above avarage return Are Returns is excess of what an investor expects to earn from other invesment with a similiar amout of risk
Firm 1 Industry GE External E Internal E Firms mutually dependent Firm 2 Firm 3 Firm 4
Analysis Of The Firm’s Internal Organization
Apakah Model Business anda menghasilkan Value bagi customer anda ?
Traditional Factors For Competitive Advantage Labor Cost Access To Financial resources Access To Raw Material resources Regulated Market
RESOURCES, CAPABILITIES, CORE COMPETENCIES AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Noted : Resources, Capabilities and Core Comptencies are the foundation Of Competitive Advantage
Component Of Internal Analysis Leading to CA and Strategic Competitiveness
Resources Tangible and Intangible resources
Capabilities..... Exist when resources have been purposely integrated to achive task or set of tasks
Core Competencies.... Are Capabilities that serve as a source of competitive advantage for a firm over its rival
Jelaslah anda harus membangun Core Competencies (CC), karena CC akan menghasilkan Competitive Advantage sebagaimana kita harus ciptakan untuk memenangi persaingan
Building Core Competencies Firm achieve strategic competitiveness and earn above avarage return firms achieve strategic competitiveness and earn above-average returns when their unique core competencies are effectively acquired, bundled, and leveraged to take advantage of opportunities in the external environment in ways that create value for customers
Two Tools Help Firms Identify and build their core competencies Four Specific Criteria of Sustainable Competitive Advantage Value Chain analysis
Two Tools Help Firms Identify and build their core competencies Four Specific Criteria of Sustainable Competitive Advantage Capability yang tidak memenuhi salah satu dari 4 kriteria ini tidak dapat dikatakan sebagai core competencies Please NOTED : All Competitive Advantage have a limited life
Valuable Capabilities Allow The firm to exploit oppotunities or neutralize threats in its external environment
Rare Capabilities Are capabilities that few, if any, competitor possess How many Rival firms possess these valuable capabilities ??
Costly to imitate Capabilities that other firms cannot easily develop
Nonsubstitutable capabilities Capabilities that do not have strategic equivalents
Two Tools Help Firms Identify and build their core competencies Value Chain analysis Allows the firm to understand the parts of its operations that create value and those that do not. Understanding these issues is important because the firm earns above-average returns only when the value it creates is greater than the costs incurred to create that value.
VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS
What should a firm do about primary and support activities in which its resources and capabilities are not a source of core competence and, hence, of competitive advantage? Outsourcing is one solution to consider.
Outsourcing Capabilities that do not have strategic equivalents Is The Purchase of a value creating activity from an external supplier Firm Engaging in Effective Outsourcing Increase Their Flexibility, mitage risk and reduce Their capital Investment
Understanding the Model To understand the Boston Matrix you need to understand how market share and market growth interrelate. Market share is the percentage of the total market that is being serviced by your company, measured either in revenue terms or unit volume terms. The higher your market share, the higher proportion of the market you control. The Boston Matrix assumes that if you enjoy a high market share you will normally be making money (this assumption is based on the idea that you will have been in the market long enough to have learned how to be profitable, and will be enjoying scale economies that give you an advantage).
Understanding the Model The question it asks is, "Should you be investing your resources into that product line just because it is making you money?" The answer is, "not necessarily." This is where market growth comes into play. Market growth is used as a measure of a market's attractiveness. Markets experiencing high growth are ones where the total market is expanding, which should provide the opportunity for businesses to make more money, even if their market share remains stable. By contrast, competition in low growth markets is often bitter, and while you might have high market share now, what will the situation look like in a few months or a few years? This makes low growth markets less attractive.
Understanding the Model Note: The origin of the Boston Matrix lies with the Boston Consulting Group in the early 1970s. It was devised as a clear and simple method for helping corporations decide which parts of their business they should allocate their available cash to. Today, this is as important as ever because of the limited availability of credit. However, the Boston Matrix is also a good tool for thinking about where to apply other finite resources: people, time and equipment.
The Matrix Itself The Boston Matrix categorizes opportunities into four groups, shown on axes of Market Growth and Market Share:
Dogs: Low Market Share / Low Market Growth In these areas, your market presence is weak, so it's going to take a lot of hard work to get noticed. Also, you won't enjoy the scale economies of the larger players, so it's going to be difficult to make a profit.
Cash Cows: High Market Share / Low Market Growth Here, you're well-established, so it's easy to get attention and exploit new opportunities. However it's only worth expending a certain amount of effort, because the market isn't growing and your opportunities are limited.
Stars: High Market Share / High Market Growth Here you're well-established, and growth is exciting! These are fantastic opportunities, and you should work hard to realize them.
Question Marks (Problem Child): Low Market Share / High Market Growth These are the opportunities no one knows what to do with. They aren't generating much revenue right now because you don't have a large market share. But, they are in high growth markets so the potential to make money is there. Question Marks might become Stars and eventual Cash Cows, but they could just as easily absorb effort with little return. These opportunities need serious thought as to whether increased investment is warranted.
How to Use The Tool: To use the Boston Matrix to look at your opportunities, use the following steps: Step One: Plot your opportunities in terms of their relative market presence, and market growth on a blank matrix or a worksheet. Step Two: Classify them into one of the four categories. If a product seems to fall right on one of the lines, take a real hard look at the situation and rely on past performance to help you decide which side you will place it.
Step Three: Determine what you will do with each product/product line. There are typically four different strategies to apply:
Build Market Share: Make further investments (for example, to maintain Star status, or turn a Question Mark into a Star) Hold: Maintain the status quo (do nothing) Harvest: Reduce the investment (enjoy positive cash flow and maximize profits from a Star or Cash Cow) Divest: For example, get rid of the Dogs, and use the capital to invest in Stars and some Question Marks.
Key Points The Boston Matrix is an effective tool for quickly assessing the options open to you, both on a corporate and personal basis. With its easily understood classification into "Dogs", "Cash Cows", "Question Marks" and "Stars", it helps you quickly and simply screen the opportunities open to you, and helps you think about how you can make the most of them.
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