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Chapter 5 Internal Memory Pokok pokok penting –Dua saluran dasar semikonduktor RAM Dynamic RAM (DRAM) Static RAM (SRAM) –SRAM lebih cepat dan lebih mahal,

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Presentasi berjudul: "Chapter 5 Internal Memory Pokok pokok penting –Dua saluran dasar semikonduktor RAM Dynamic RAM (DRAM) Static RAM (SRAM) –SRAM lebih cepat dan lebih mahal,"— Transcript presentasi:

1 Chapter 5 Internal Memory Pokok pokok penting –Dua saluran dasar semikonduktor RAM Dynamic RAM (DRAM) Static RAM (SRAM) –SRAM lebih cepat dan lebih mahal, (digunkan untuk cache memory) –DRAM digunakan untuk main memory –Digunakan teknik koreksi kesalahan pada sistem memori, dgn penambahan bit tambahan –Untuk mengimbangi kecepatan yg relatif rendah dari DRAM beberapa organisasi DRAM diperkenalkan al: Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM), Rambus DRAM (RDRAM)

2 Chapter 5 Internal Memory Semiconductor Memory Types

3 Semiconductor Memory Pada Komputer generasi awal memori utama sering disebut dgn Core (inti), karena dibuat dari ferro-magnetis. RAM –all semiconductor memory is random access –Read/Write –Volatile –Temporary storage –Static or dynamic

4 Semiconductor Memory Organisasi –Elemen dasar : sel memori –Sel memori memiliki sifat-sifat: Memiliki dua keadaan stabil semi-stabil untuk merepresentasikan bil biner 0 atau 1 Sel memori mempunyai kemampuan untuk ditulis (menetapkan keadaan) Sel memori mempunyai kemampuan untuk dibaca (membaca keadaan) –Memiliki 3 terminal: Control (r atau w), Select dan Data in / sense

5 Memory Cell Operation

6 Dynamic RAM Bits stored as charge in capacitors Charges leak ( ada kebocoran shg lama-lama isi kapasitor bisa habis) Need refreshing even when powered Simpler construction Smaller per bit Less expensive Need refresh circuits Slower Main memory Sel DRAM merupakan perangkat analog, dan level muatan akan menentukan nilai logika 1 atau 0

7 Dynamic RAM Structure

8 DRAM Operation Address line active when bit read or written –Transistor switch closed (current flows) Write –Voltage to bit line High for 1 low for 0 –Then signal address line Transfers charge to capacitor Read –Address line selected transistor turns on –Melalui bit line muatan kapasitor dibandingkan dengan nilai referensi untuk menentukan logika 0 atau 1 –Capacitor charge must be restored

9 Static RAM Bits stored as on/off switches No charges to leak No refreshing needed More complex construction Larger per bit More expensive Does not need refresh circuits Faster Digunakan untuk Cache memory Rangkaian Digital : menggunakan flip-flops

10 Stating RAM Structure

11 Static RAM Operation Transistor arrangement gives stable logic state State 1 –C 1 high, C 2 low –T 1 T 4 off, T 2 T 3 on State 0 –C 2 high, C 1 low –T 2 T 3 off, T 1 T 4 on Address line transistors T 5 T 6 is switch Write – apply value to B & compliment to B Read – value is on line B

12 SRAM vs DRAM Both volatile –Power needed to preserve data Dynamic cell –Simpler to build, smaller –More dense (lebih padat / banyak untuk ukuran luas yang sama dgn SRAM) –Less expensive –Needs refresh –Larger memory units Static –Faster –Cache

13 Read Only Memory (ROM) Permanent storage –Nonvolatile (tdk perlu sumber tegangan untuk menjaga data/nilai) Aplikasi penting dari ROM: –Microprogramming (pada bab berikutnya) –Library subroutines –Systems programs (BIOS) –Function tables ROM dibuat dlm IC: –Pengisian data memerlukan biaya tetap besar (satu atau ribuan ) –Tidak ada ruang untuk salah, Jika ada satu bit salah, maka seluruh keping ROM harus dibuang

14 Types of ROM Written during manufacture –Very expensive for small runs Programmable (once) –PROM –Untuk memprogram peralatan khusus. Read “mostly” –Erasable Programmable (EPROM) Erased by UV –Electrically Erasable (EEPROM) Waktu untuk write lebih lama dari read –Flash memory Termasuk Semiconductor memory (diantara EPROM dan EEPROM) Data dpt dihapus per block, dgn electric 1 bit per Transistor dan dpt dihapus dengan single action =>Flash

15 Organisation in detail A 16Mbit chip can be organised as 1M of 16 bit words A bit per chip system has 16 lots of 1Mbit chip with bit 1 of each word in chip 1 and so on A 16Mbit chip can be organised as a 2048 x 2048 x 4bit array –Reduces number of address pins Multiplex row address and column address 11 pins to address (2 11 =2048) Adding one more pin doubles range of values

16 Refreshing Refresh circuit included on chip Memerlukan waktu Menghambat Kinerja

17 Typical 16 Mb DRAM (4M x 4) RAS = Row Address Select CAS = Column Address Select WE = Write Enable OE=Output Enable

18 Packaging

19 Module Organisation

20 Module Organisation (2)

21 Error Correction Hard Failure – Permanent defect (Cacat Permanen) Soft Error –Random, non-destructive (tdk bersifat merusak) –No permanent damage to memory –Biasanya disebabkan oleh Power suppy, atau partikel-partikel alpha. Detected using Hamming error correcting code

22 Error Correcting Code Function Error Correction bit

23 Hamming Error – Correction code 4 – bit Data Parity Bit ditambah agar jumlah bit 1 genap Error Terjadi Posisi bit yg error dpt diketahui

24 Hamming Error – Correction code Contoh : Terjadi 2 bit yang error lihat hal 151 Untuk data lebih dari 4-bit (lihat di hal )

25 Advanced DRAM Organization Basic DRAM sama dengan RAM chips (saat awal) Enhanced DRAM –Contains small SRAM –SRAM holds last line read (c.f. Cache!) Cache DRAM –Larger SRAM component –Use as cache or serial buffer

26 Perbandingan Beberapa DRAM SDRAM : clock 166 MHz, Transfer rate 1.3GB/s, Access time 18 ns DDR DRAM: 200 MHz, 3.2GB/s, 12.5 ns RDRAM: 600 MHz, 4.8GB/s, 12 ns

27 Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) Access is synchronized with an external clock Address is presented to RAM RAM finds data (CPU waits in conventional DRAM) Since SDRAM moves data in time with system clock, CPU knows when data will be ready CPU does not have to wait, it can do something else Burst mode allows SDRAM to set up stream of data and fire it out in block DDR-SDRAM sends data twice per clock cycle (leading & trailing edge)

28 IBM 64Mb SDRAM

29 SDRAM Operation

30 RAMBUS Dikembangkan oleh Rambus Adopted by Intel for Pentium & Itanium Main competitor to SDRAM Vertical package – all pins on one side Data exchange over 28 wires, < 12 cm long Bus addresses up to 320 RDRAM chips at 1.6 Gbps Asynchronous block protocol –480ns access time –Then 1.6 Gbps

31 RAMBUS Diagram

32 Cache DRAM (CDRAM) Dikembangkan oleh Mitsubishi Mengintegrasikan cache SRAM kecil ke suatu keping DRAM yang umum.

33 Latihan Hamming Code Soal lihat dibuku hal 160

34 There are two main physical formats for memory: SIMMs - Single Inline Memory Modules, and DIMMs - Dual Inline Memory Modules SIMMs must be installed in pairs. So there will be either two or four SIMMs installed in their slots, never one or three. DIMMs on the other hand may be installed in any number

35 Memory is also called RAM, or Random Access Memory. The main types of RAM are: 1) FPDRAM - Fast Page Dynamic RAM, 2) EDO - Extended Data Out, and 3) SDRAM - Synchronous Dynamic RAM. Fast Page RAM is the original type of RAM used in computers up until the Pentium. Typical memory access time was 100 ns (nanoseconds). EDO RAM was introduced with the Pentium class of computers, but was short-lived. The advantage of EDO RAM was that it had faster read / write (access) times than Fast Page RAM. Typical access times were 70, 60, and 50 ns. The smaller the number, the faster the access time, and the more desirable it is for fast computing. Not all computers that use EDO RAM could use the same speed of EDO RAM. Some computers could only use 70 ns chips. SDRAM was introduced with the Pentium II and has the fastest memory access times at 9 nsec. The three types of RAM are not compatible with all motherboards. Each motherboard can only use one specified type of RAM. The amount of RAM on any given motherboard is limited by the motherboard's memory controller, which is specified by the manufacturer. Putting more RAM on a motherboard means that only the maximum amount of memory the motherboards can use will be used. The rest of the memory will not be used.


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