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Konvensi dan Protokol terkait Perlindungan Ozon Dr. Andri G. Wibisana.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Konvensi dan Protokol terkait Perlindungan Ozon Dr. Andri G. Wibisana."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Konvensi dan Protokol terkait Perlindungan Ozon Dr. Andri G. Wibisana

2 Outline I.Scientific Background II.Konvensi Vienna III.Protokol-protokol ttg Pengurangan BPO IV.Respon Indonesia 2

3 I. Scientific Background Stratospheric ozone layer Manfaat ozon Keseimbangan penghancuran dan pembentukan lapisan ozon Pengrusakan lapisan ozon: laporan Rowland dan Molina (1974) Kerusakan terparah di wilayah kutub Setiap 1% penurunan ozon setara dengan 2% kenaikan radiasi UV-B 3

4 4

5 Dampak – Human health – Plants – Aquatic Ecosystem and Wildlife – Materials damage Penggunaan BPO (ODSs): – CFC – Halons – Carbon tetrachloride – Methyl Chloroform – Methyl Bromide 5

6 II. Konvensi Vienna 1985 Latar belakan politik: perbedaan posisi Jerman&Inggris vs. AS Prinsip (preambule): 1.“Recalling ….in particular principle 21, which provides that “States have, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law, the sovereign right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental policies, and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction” 2.Mindful also of the precautionary measures for the protection of the ozone layer which have already been taken at the national and international levels 3.Aware that measures to protect the ozone layer from modifications due to human activities require international co-operation and action, and should be based on relevant scientific and technical considerations, 6

7 Kewajiban (pasal 2): 1.The Parties shall take appropriate measures in accordance with the provisions of this Convention and of those protocols in force to which they are party to protect human health and the environment against adverse effects resulting or likely to result from human activities which modify or are likely to modify the ozone layer. 2.To this end the Parties shall, in accordance with the means at their disposal and their capabilities: a.Co-operate by means of systematic observations, research and information exchange in order to better understand and assess the effects of human activities on the ozone layer and the effects on human health and the environment from modification of the ozone layer; b.Adopt appropriate legislative or administrative measures and co-operate in harmonizing appropriate policies to control, limit, reduce or prevent human activities under their jurisdiction or control should it be found that these activities have or are likely to have adverse effects resulting from modification or likely modification of the ozone layer; c.Co-operate in the formulation of agreed measures, procedures and standards for the implementation of this Convention, with a view to the adoption of protocols and annexes; d.Co-operate with competent international bodies to implement effectively this Convention and protocols to which they are party. 7

8 3.The provisions of this Convention shall in no way affect the right of Parties to adopt, in accordance with international law, domestic measures additional to those referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 above, nor shall they affect additional domestic measures already taken by a Party, provided that these measures are not incompatible with their obligations under this Convention. 4.The application of this article shall be based on relevant scientific and technical considerations. 8

9 III. MONTREAL PROTOCOL on substances that deplete the ozone layer Reaksi thd Konvensi Vienna Prinsip (preambule): – Determined to protect the ozone layer by taking precautionary measures to control equitably total global emissions of substances that deplete it – Acknowledging that special provision is required to meet the needs of developing countries for these substances Evolusi: Amandemen atau adjustments melalui London Amendment (MOP 2,1990), Copenhagen Amendment (MOP 4, 1992), Vienna Amendment (MOP 7, 1995), Montreal Amendment (MOP 9, 1997), Beijing Amendment (MOP 11, 1999) 9

10 Cara Penghitungan Komitmen Freeze and scheduled Phase out Pasal 3:  Consumption= production + imports – exports  Basket strategy: multiplying annual production of each substance by the ozone depleting potential) Contoh: sampai tahun 1993, level konsumsi bahan dalam Group I Annex A tidak melebihi level tahun 1986 (pasal 2 par 1 Protokol Montreal) – pada tahun 1986 produksi negara A untuk CFC 11 (ODP = 1) adalah 10 ton, produksi untuk CFC 113 (ODP = 0,8) adalah 10 ton.  (10 x 1 ODP) + (10 x 0.8 ODP) = 18 ODP; Asumsikan import dan export tetap, maka level konsumsi sampai 1993: » 18 ton CFC 11, 0 CFC 113; atau 0 ton CFC 11, 22.5 ton CFC 113 » 14 ton CFC 11, 4 ton CFC 113 » 5 ton CFC 11, ton CFC

11 Perdagangan dengan negara non-party (to the protocol)—pasal 4: – Larangan import BPO dari non-party – Mulai 1 januari 1993, dilarang export BPO ke negara non- party Pasal 3 (c): sejak 1 jan. 1993, export ke negara non-party tidak dapat digunakan dalam perhitungan tingkat konsumsi (tidak dianggap sebagai pengurangan) – Sejak 1 januari 1992, membuat list produk yang mengandung BPO – Sejak 1 januari 1994 hrs menentukan larangan atau pembatasan import dari non-party atas produk yang tidak mengandung BPO tapi dibuat dengan proses yang memerlukan BPO – Larangan import hanya dapat dikecualikan dengan persetujuan dalam pertemuan para pihak (MOP) 11

12 Pasal 2 Protokol Montreal: Umum Awalnya hanya mengenai CFC (grup I Annex A) dan Halon (grup II Annex A) Setelah berbagai amandemen, pasal ini kemudian dipecah menjadi pasal 2, 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F, 2G, 2H, dan 2I Pasal 2 par. 5 : transfer of calculated level of production  bukan transfer BPO, tapi transfer jatah – Total level produksi antara pelaku dan penerima tetap memperhatikan batas level produksi untuk tiap bahan – Transfer hanya dimungkinkan setelah pemberitahuan kepada sekretariat Pasal 2 par. 6: fasilitas pembuat CFC dan Halon yang sedang dibangun sebelum 16 September 1987 dapat dihitung sebagai produksi tahun 1986 (baseline utk CFC dan Halon), dengan syarat: – Fasilitas tersebut telah selesai dibangun pd thn 31 Des 1990 – Level produksi tersebut tidak akan membuat tingkat produksi menjadi lebih dari 0.5 kg/kapita 12

13 Art 2 par 7: joint implementation (utk anggota organisasi ekonomi regional, mis. EU) 13

14 PASAL 2A: Grup 1 Annex A (CFCs) Antara 1989-july 1991: – Developed countries = Non Art 5 countries (Non A5C): level konsumsi dan produksi tidak lebih dari level kon dan prod tahun 1986 – Developing countries = Art 5 countries (A5C): produksi utk basic domestic needs (BDN) dapat bertambah maksimum 10% dari level 1986 (untuk konsumsi = level 1986) Pada Jul 91-des 92: total Prod dan Kon ≤ 150% dari level 1986  London (artinya: annually, prod dan kon max 50% dari level 1986) Sejak Jan 94: Prod dan Kon max. 25% dari level 1986  London  Copen Sejak Jan 96:  Copen  Beij – Non A5C: Prod dan Kon = 0 – A5C: prod dan kon utk BDN = rata2 level utk BDN thn Sejak Jan 2003:  Beij – A5C: prod dan kon utk BDN max 80% dari rata2 level utk BDN thn Sejak 2006:  Beij – A5C: prod dan kon utk BDN max. 50% dari rata2 level utk BDN thn

15 Jan 2007:  Beij – A5C: prod dan kon utk BDN max. 15% dari rata2 level utk BDN thn Jan 2010:  Beij – A5C: prod dan kon utk BDN = 0 15

16 Pasal 2B: Grup II Annex A (Halons) Sejak Jan 92:  London – Non A5C: Prod dan Kon = level 1986 – A5C: Prod utk BDN boleh naik max 10% di atas level 1986 Sejak Jan 94: London  Copen  Beij A.Non A5C: Prod dan Kon = 0 – A5C: Antara Jan 94-Jan 2002: Prod utk BDN boleh lebih dari A, max sampai 15% dari level 1986 Setelah Jan 2002: Prod utk BDN boleh lebih dari A, max sa,a dengan rata2 prod utk BDN thn Sejak Jan 2005:  Beij – Prod utk BDN max. 50% dari rata2 prod utk BDN thn Sejak Jan 2010:  Beij – Prod utk BDN = 0 16

17 Pasal 2C: Grup I Annex B (other fully halogenated CFCs) Sejak Jan 93:  Copen A.Non A5C: Prod dan Kon max. 80% dari prod dan kon tahun 1989 – A5C: Prod utk BDN boleh lebih dari A; kelebihan itu max 10% dari level 1989 (80% + 10% = 90% level 1989?) Sejak Jan 94:  Copen A.Non A5C: Prod dan Kon max. 25% dari prod dan kon tahun 1989 – A5C: Prod utk BDN boleh lebih dari A; kelebihan itu max 10 % dari level 1989 (25% + 10% = 35% level 1989?) 17

18 Sejak Jan 96:  Copen  Beij A.Non A5C: Prod dan Kon = 0 – A5C: : Prod utk BDN boleh lebih dari A; kelebihan itu max 15% dari level 1989 (0% + 15% = 15% level 1989?) Stlh 2003: Prod utk BDN boleh lebih dari A; kelebihan itu max 80% dari rata2 level prod thn Sejak Jan 2007:  Beij – A5C: Prod utk BDN max. 15% dari rata2 level prod thn Sejak Jan 2010:  Beij – A5C: Prod utk BDN = 0 18

19 Pasal 2D: Grup II Annex B (Carbon Tetrachloride) Sejak Jan 95:  Copen A.Non A5C: prod & kon max 15% dari level 1989 – A5C: Prod utk BDN boleh lebih dari A, tapi kelebihannya max 10% dari level prod utk BDN thn 1989 (15% + 10% = 35% level 1989?) Sejak Jan 96:  Copen A. Non A5C: prod & kon = 0 – A5C: Prod utk BDN boleh lebih dari A, tapi kelebihannya max 15% dari level prod utk BDN thn 1989 (0% + 15% = 15% level 1989?) 19

20 Pasal 2E: Grup III Annex B (1,1,1-Trichloroethane/Methyl Chloroform) Sejak Jan 93:  Copen A.Non A5C: prod & kon max sama dengan level 1989 – A5C: Prod utk BDN boleh lebih dari A, tapi kelebihannya max 10% dari level prod utk BDN thn 1989 (100% + 10% = 110% level 1989?) Sejak Jan 94:  Copen A.Non A5C: prod & kon max 50 % dari level 1989 – A5C: Prod utk BDN boleh lebih dari A, tapi kelebihannya max 10% dari level prod utk BDN thn 1989 (50% + 10% = 60% level 1989?) Sejak Jan 96:  Copen A.Non A5C: prod & kon = 0 – A5C: Prod utk BDN boleh lebih dari A, tapi kelebihannya max 15% dari level prod utk BDN thn 1989 (0 + 15% = 15% level 1989?) 20

21 Pasal 2F: Grup I Annex C (Hydrochlorofluorocarbons) Sejak Jan 96:  Copen  Vien A.Kon max. 2.8% dari level kon CFCs thn level kon HCFCs tahun 1989 (artinya kon max. 2.8% x [CFCs HCFCs 1989]) – Sejak Jan 2004:  Copen Kon max 65% dari A – Sejak Jan 2010:  Copen Kon max 35% dari A – Sejak Jan 2015:  Copen Kon max 10% dari A – Sejak Jan 2020:  Copen Kon max 0.5% dari A, tapi hanya utk pemakaian AC dan refrigerator – Sejak Jan 2030:  Copen Kon = 0 21

22 Jan 2004:  Beij A.Non A5C: Prod max (a + b)/2; a = 100% level konsumsi HCFC thn % level konsumsi CFC thn 1989; b = 100% level prod HCFC thn % level prod CFC thn 1989; – A5C: Prod max. A + 15% dari A Kaitan dengan Pasal 5 (A5C): – Sejak 2016:  Vienn Kon max level kon thn 2015 – Sejak 2040:  Vienn: Kon = 0 22

23 2007 Montreal Adjusments utk HCFC A. Non A5C: Non Article 5 Parties Non Article 5 Committments Existing Commitments Under the 2007 Montreal Adjustment Baseline: 2.8% of 1989 CFC levels + Unchanged 100% of 1989 HCFC levels Freeze in 1996 Unchanged 35% reduction by 2004 Unchanged 65% reduction by % reduction by % reduction by 2015 (Consonly) 90% reduction by % reduction by 2020* Unchanged Phase out by 2030 Unchanged * 0.5% is restricted to the servicing of refrigeration and airconditioning equipment existing during the period and subject to review in

24 B. A5C Article 5 Parties Article 5 Commitments Existing Commitments Under the 2007 Montreal Adjustment Baseline: 2015 levels Average of 2009 and 2010 production and consumption Freeze by 2016 Freeze by 2013 No obligation 10% reduction by 2015 No obligation 35% reduction by 2020 No obligation 67.5% reduction by 2025 No obligation 100% reduction by 2030* *the annual average of 2.5% is restricted to the servicing of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment existing on 1 January 2030 for the period and subject to review in

25 Pasal 2G: Grup II Annex C (Hydrobromofluorocarbons) Sejak Jan 96:  Copen – Prod dan Kon = 0 25

26 Pasal 2H: Annex E (Methyl Bromide) Sejak Jan 95:  Copen  Vien A.Non A5C: Prod dan Kon max. level prod dan kon thn 1991 – A5C: prod utk BDN max. 10% dari level prod BDN thn 1991 Sejak Jan 99:  Vien  Montr A.Non A5C: Prod dan Kon max. 75% level prod dan kon thn 1991 – A5C: prod utk BDN boleh lebih dari A; tapi kelebihannya max 10% dari level prod BDN thn 1991 (75% + 10% = 85% 1991?) Sejak Jan 2001:  Vien  Montr A.Non A5C: Prod dan Kon max. 50% level prod dan kon thn 1991 – A5C: prod utk BDN boleh lebih dari A; tapi kelebihannya max 10% dari level prod BDN thn 1991 (50% + 10% = 60% 1991?) Sejak Jan 2003:  Vien  Montr A.Non A5C: Prod dan Kon max. 30% level prod dan kon thn 1991 – A5C: prod utk BDN boleh lebih dari A; tapi kelebihannya max 10% dari level prod BDN thn 1991 (30% + 10% = 40% 1991?) 26

27 Sejak Jan 2005:  Montr  Beij A.Non A5C: Prod dan Kon = 0 – A5C: S.d Jan 2002: prod utk BDN boleh lebih dari A; tapi kelebihannya max 15% dari level prod BDN thn 1991 (0% + 15% = 15% 1991?) Stlh 2002: Prod utk BDN boleh lebih dari A; tapi kelebihannya max. rata2 prod BDN thn Sejak Jan 2005:  Beij – Prod utk BDN max. 80% dari rata2 prod BDN thn Sejak Jan 2015:  Beij – Prod utk BDN = 0 27

28 Pasal 2I: Grup III Annex C (Bromochloromethane) Sejak Jan 2002:  Beij – Kon dan Prod = 0 28

29 Skema kontrol atas BPO 29

30 Pasal 5: Perhatian Khusus untuk Negara Berkembang A5C: 1.Developing countries; 2.Pada thn 1989, Konsumsi per kapita tahunan bahan Grup I Annex A (CFC) max 0.3 kg; Hak: – Menunda pelaks penaatan 10 thn thd pasal 2A s.d 2E, dengan syarat: Semua kententuan yang ditetapkan melalui pertemuan London thn 1990 hrs ditaati (lihat pasal 2A dan 2B) Pengecualian hrs didasarkan pada review 30

31 Notifikasi: – Ketidakmampuan memperoleh supply yg memadai atas bahan diatur dalam pasal 2A-2I – Ketidakmampuan penaatan atas kewajiban, karena kurangnya mekanisme keuangan (pasal 10) dan transfer teknologi (pasal 10A) Setelah adanya notifikasi, mekanisme penilaian ketidaktaatan menjadi tidak berlaku Notifikasi akan direview pada MoP berikutnya, yang dapat memutus: – Delay 10 th atas penaatan thd kewajiban (control measures) yg diambil pada pertemuan London 1990 terkait Annex A – Delay 10 th atas penaatan thd kewajiban (control measures) yg diambil pada pertemuan London 1990 terkait Annex B – Terkait Annex C: 2016:  Vienn – Kon ≤ level kon thn :  Vienn: – Kon = 0 Lihat 2007 Montreal Adjustments 31

32 – Terkait Annex E (lihat pasal 2H): Jan 2002:  Vienn – S.d Jan 2002: prod utk BDN boleh lebih dari A; tapi kelebihannya max 15% dari level prod BDN thn 1991 (0% + 15% = 15% 1991?) – Stlh 2002: Prod utk BDN boleh lebih dari A; tapi kelebihannya ≤ rata2 prod BDN thn Jan 2005:  Beij – Prod utk BDN ≤ 80% dari rata2 prod BDN thn Jan 2015:  Beij – Prod utk BDN = 0 32

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41 IV. Respon Indonesia Ratifikasi Konvesi Vienna 1985 dan Protocol Montreal 1987 melalui: Keppres No. 23 thn1992 Ratifikasi Protokol Copenhagen melalui Keppres No. 92 thn 1998 Pelaksanaan: – KepMenPerindag No. 110/MPP/Kep/1/1998  ditujukan utk produksi BPO dan peralatan yang menggunakan BPO – KepMenPerindag No. 111/MPP/Kep/1/1998  ditujukan untuk import BPO – Serangkaian perubahan terhadap kedua keputusan menteri ini, yang terakhir adalah: KepMenDag No. 24/M-DAG/PER/6/2006 KepMenIndustry No. 33/M-IND/PER/4/2007. Keputusan2 Menteri tersebut terkait dua hal: A.Import BPO B.Rencana phase out utk BPO 41

42 A.Import BPO on, the number of importing companies expanded up to six comInitially, the importation of ODS could only be carried through three appointed companies. Later panies (three companies were the importer of CFCs and three other were the importer of methyl bromide). Through the Minister Decree No. 24 of 2006, the importation is “liberalized”: every company may now apply for permits as registered importer or producer importer. In addition to the permits, the Minister Decree No. 24 of 2006 sets forth several requirements for the importation of ODS, such as: The importation can only be carried out through six ports in Indonesia The obligation to obtain a written approval prior to the importation The obligation to report the importation  The violation of these requirements may lead to the suspension or even revocation of the permits. In this case, the ODS that are still owned by a company whose permit has been revoked should be re-exported or destroyed on the company’s expenses. 42

43 B. Rencana Phase Out B.1. The ODS that are banned for production and use KepMenPerindag No. 110/MPP/Kep/1/1998 specified several ODS and equipment using the ODS of which production was banned. The Decree, however, allowed the ODS and equipment already in the market to be traded and used until 1 January The banned ODS included CFCs, Carbon Tetra Chloride (CTC), Tri Chloroethane (TCA), Methyl Bromide (MBr), Halon, and R- 502; The banned ODS using equipment included mobile air conditioner, refrigerator, and fire extinguisher. 43

44 This production ban has been revised several times as follows: The Decree of the Minister of Industry and Trade No. 410/MPP/Kep/9/1998 excludes Methyl Bromide from the banned ODS so long as the substance is traded and used for the fumigation in the quarantine and pre-shipment process. This limited purpose should clearly be stated in the label of the substance. The Decree of Minister of Industry and Trade No. 790/MPP/Kep/12/2002 excluded CFCs 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 from the list of banned ODS, so long as the CFCs were used for foam, aerosols, and solvents. In addition, the Decree also extended the deadline for the ODS to be traded and used until 31 December The latest changes are set forth in the Regulation of the Minister of Industry No. 33/M-IND/Per/4/2007. The regulation reiterates the Decree No. 110 of 1998 which banned the production of listed ODS. In addition to this ban, the Regulation also prohibits the use of listed ODS for air conditioner, household refrigerator, and fire extinguisher. However, the Regulation states that the listed ODS may be used in the production of foam, aerosol, and refrigerator until 30 June Beyond this date, the ODS can be used only for the purpose of “maintenance of goods”. 44

45 Critiques: – the list of ODS specified in the Regulation includes in Methyl Bromide. By including Methyl Bromide in the list, the Regulation allows this substance to be traded and used for the production of foam, aerosol, and refrigerator and for the maintenance of goods. This is clearly in contravention with other regulations which allow the substance only for quarantine and pre-shipment. – the Regulation does not specify what it means by “maintenance of goods”. This means that whether the use and trade of ODS are prohibited will largely depend on how narrow the phrase “maintenance of goods” is interpreted. This is an unfortunate situation because the development of regulations concerning ODS has been started by a clear prohibition, but has ended up in such a vague provision. 45

46 B.2. The ODS that are banned for importation KepMenPerindag No. 111/MPP/Kep/1/1998 banned the import of CFCs, Carbon Tetra Chloride (CTC), Tri Chloroethane (TCA), Methyl Bromide (MBr), Halons, and R-502. This import ban has been changed by several ministerial decrees, by which most of these substances have been lifted from import ban and changed into substances temporarily allowed to be imported. 46

47 B.3. The ODS that are still allowed for import until a certain date Initially, KepMenPerindag No. 111/MPP/Kep/1/1998, the only substance that was still allowed to be imported until 31 December 2003, was CFC 12. This status has changed dramatically through several ministerial decrees, namely: – the Decree of the Minister of Industry and Trade No. 411/MPP/Kep/9/1998, which stated that for the needs of after sales service for refrigerators that were already in the market, the CFC-12 (Dichloro difluoro Methane) was still allowed to be imported until 31 December The Decree also allowed the import of Methyl Bromide for the purpose of the fumigation in the quarantine and pre-shipment process. – In addition to CFC-12, through the Decree of the Minister of Industry and Trade No. 789/MPP/Kep/12/2002 CFCs-11, 13, 14, and 15 were also excluded from the list of ODS banned for importation. The deadline for importation of these substances was also extended until 31 December – The Regulation of the Minister of Trade No. 24/M-DAG/Per/6/2006 lists only five substances that are clearly prohibited for the importation at the date of the stipulation of the Regulation. They are Halon 1211 (Bromo Chlorodifluoride Methane), Halon 1301 (Bromo Triflouride Methane), Halon 2402, (Dibromo Tetrafluoride Ethane), CTC (Carbon Tetrachloride), and TCA (Trichloroethane). Most of the substances that were banned for import according to the Decree No. 111 of 1998 have been lifted from the ban, and allowed for import until 31 December

48 The provision on the importation of Methyl Bromide has changed by several ministerial decrees, the latest one by the Regulation of the Minister of Trade No. 51/M- DAG/PER/12/2007. – This regulation restates the limited purpose of the import, namely for the fumigation in the quarantine and pre-shipment process. – The Regulation clearly states that after 1 January 2008, it is prohibited to import the substance for purposes other than the fumigation. – The reason for this new deadline can be found in the Regulation of the Minister of Trade No. 24/M_DAG/Per/6/2006 which includes Methyl Bromide in the list of ODS allowed for import before 31 December

49 B.4. The ODS that are still allowed for import The Minister of Trade’s Regulation No. 24 of 2006 lists 40 HCFCs that can be imported after 31 December


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