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THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK Introduction to Project Management.

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Presentasi berjudul: "THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK Introduction to Project Management."— Transcript presentasi:

1 THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK Introduction to Project Management

2 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Pergeseran Paradigma Manajemen  Manajemen Proyek  Studi KPMG thd 300 perusahaan, 65% mengalami permasalahan :  Anggaran melampaui target  Durasi menyimpang dari waktu yg ditetapkan  Tidak menghasilkan peningkatan kinerja secara cukup berarti

3 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Proyek Gagal  Sydney Opera House 1973, selesai 14 tahun, dengan anggaran 1400%  London Bigben, anggaran lebih tinggi 200%  (Bent Flyvbjerg Staits Times)

4 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Standish Group Study  53% proyek berakhir dengan peningkatan biaya 189%  84% proyek pengembangan perangkat lunak terlambat diselesaikan  58% hasil proyek gagal diberikan pada akhir proyek  31% proyek dibatalkan pelaksanaannya sebelum berakhir.

5 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Faktor Kegagalan Proyek  Kebutuhan yg tdk jelas 13.1%  Kurangnya keterlibatan user 12.4 %  Kurangnya sumber daya 10.6%  Harapan yg tdk realistis 9.9%  Kurangnya dukungaan dari pimpinan 9.3%  Perubahan kebutuhan dan spesifikasi 8.7%  Kurangnya kualitas proses perencanaan 8.1%  Kurangnya kebutuhan terhadap hasil proyek 7.5%  Kurangnya kemampuan mengelola T.Informasi 6.2%  Rendahnya tingkat pemahaman teknologi 4.3%  Lain-lain 9.9%

6 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx PROYEK  Definisi : Suatu usaha sementara yang dilaksanakan untuk menghasilkan suatu produk atau jasa yang unik.  Sementara berarti setiap proyek memiliki tanggal mulai dan selesai yang tertentu  Unik berarti produk atau jasa yang dihasilkan adalah berbeda dari produk atau jasa sejenis lainnya, tidak ada dua proyek yang 100% sama

7 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx What Is a Project?  A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to accomplish a unique purpose  Attributes of projects unique purpose temporary require resources, often from various areas should have a primary sponsor and/or customer involve uncertainty

8 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Contoh Proyek  Pembuatan Sistem Informasi pada suatu organisasi.  Pengadaan perangkat keras pada divisi suatu perusahaan  Pembuatan jaringan LAN pada suatu perusahaan  Membuka suatu kantor cabang baru  Mengembangkan suatu produk baru.

9 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Proyek vs Opersional NOPROYEKOPERASIONAL 1.Dinamis, non rutinBerulang, rutin 2.Siklus proyek relatif pendekBerlangsung dalam jangka panjang 3.Intensitas kegiatan berubah naik turun Intensitas kegiatan relatif sama 4.Kegiatan harus diselesaikan berdasarkan anggaran dan jadwal yang telah ditentukan Batasan anggaran dan jadwal tidak setajam proyek 5.Terdiri dari beragam kegiatan yang memerlukan berbagai macam disiplin ilmu Macam kegiatan tidak terlalu banyak 6.Keperluan sumber daya berubah, baik macam maupun volume nya Macam dan volume keperluan sumber daya relatif konstan

10 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Proyek vs Opersional  Perbedaan mendasar : Kegiatan operasi didasarkan pada konsep mendayagunakan sistem yang telah ada, apakah berbentuk pabrik, gedung, atau fasilitas yang lain, secara terus menerus dan berulang-ulang. Sedangkan kegiatan proyek bermaksud mewujudkan atau membangun sistem yang belum ada.

11 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx What is Project Management? Project management is “the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet project requirements” (PMI*, Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), 2000, p. 6) *The Project Management Institute (PMI) is an international professional society. Their web site is

12 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx What is Project Management?  Perencanaan, pemantauan dan pengontrolan terhadap semua aspek yang terdapat dalam sebuah proyek, serta motivasi yang ada didalamnya untuk mencapai tujuan proyek dengan waktu, biaya, kualitas dan performasi yang telah ditentukan (PRINCE2).

13 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Tujuan / Manfaat Manajemen Proyek Para praktisi bisnis meyakini bahwa “Planning is everything”. Konsep IPM selalu dimulai dengan bagaimana cara membuat sebuah rencana yang jelas dan dapat dimengerti, tantangan selanjutnya adalah bagaimana menyusun suatu rencana yang dapat beradaptasi dengan dinamika bisnis dari waktu ke waktu. Eksekusi proyek harus berdasarkan rencana yang telah disusun dan disepakati Tanpa adanya eksekusi yang baik proyek tidak akan memberikan value apappun terhadap perusahaan. Oleh karena itu IPM memfokuskan diri pada penanaman disiplin bagaimana proses eksekusi dapat dilakukan dengan sempurna seperti ditekankan oleh sejumlah pakar manajemen Larry Bossidy, Ram Charam, Mike Freedman dan Benjamin Tregoe.

14 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Tujuan / Manfaat Manajemen Proyek  Effisiensi, baik dari sisi biaya, sumber daya maupun waktu  Kontrol terhadap proyek lebih baik, sehingga proyek bisa sesuai scope, biaya, sumber daya dan waktu yang telah ditentukan.  Meningkatkan kualitas  Meningkatkan produktifitas  Bisa menekan risiko yang timbul sekecil mungkin.  Koordinasi internal yang lebih baik  Meningkatkan semangat, tanggung jawab serta loyalitas tim terhadap proyek, yaitu dengan penugasan yang jelas kepada masing-masing anggota tim.

15 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Advantages of Using Formal Project Management  Better control of financial, physical, and human resources  Improved customer relations  Shorter development times  Lower costs  Higher quality and increased reliability  Higher profit margins  Improved productivity  Better internal coordination  Higher worker morale

16 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx More Advantages of Project Management  Bosses, customers, and other stakeholders do not like surprises  Good project management (PM) provides assurance and reduces risk  PM provides the tools and environment to plan, monitor, track, and manage schedules, resources, costs, and quality  PM provides a history or metrics base for future planning as well as good documentation  Project members learn and grow by working in a cross- functional team environment

17 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Hasil Riset Ghosal & Peters Perusahaan yang telah menerapkan IPM berhasil menjadi pusat unggulan (Center of Excellent) dalam hal keberhasilan menjalankan eksekusi dari strategi yang telah disusun. Dengan kata lain, tidak cukup bagi sebuah perusahaan untuk memiliki strategi semata, mereka harus memiliki kemampuan untuk mengeksekusi strategi tersebut (faktor manusia dan proses) dengan kecepatan eksekusi yang memadai.(faktor teknologi)

18 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Aspek 3P pada IPM  Productivity  Profitability  Predictability

19 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Paradigma Shift  Strategy : the company as an economic entity  Structure : the organization as an aggregation of activities and tasks  System : people as replaceable parts  Purpose : the company as a social institution, ie share value, vision, identity  Process : the organization as a set of roles an relationship eg entreprenuurial process, integration process, renewal process  People: helping each individual become the best person they can be, ie skills, ideas, knowledge, competence

20 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx  IT Projects have a terrible track record A 1995 Standish Group study (CHAOS) found that only 16.2% of IT projects were successful and over 31% were canceled before completion, costing over $81 B in the U.S. alone  The need for IT projects keeps increasing In 1998, corporate America issued 200,000 new-start application development projects In 2000, there were 300,000 new IT projects, and In 2001, over 500,000 new IT projects were started Motivation for Studying Information Technology (IT) Project Management

21 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx The 2001 Standish Group Report Showed Decided Improvement in IT Project Success Rates From the 1995 Study  Time overruns significantly decreased to 63% compared to 222%  Cost overruns were down to 45% compared to 189%  78,000 U.S. projects were successful compared to 28,000  28% of IT projects succeeded compared to 16%

22 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx The Triple Constraint  Every project is constrained in different ways by its Scope goals: What is the project trying to accomplish? Time goals: How long should it take to complete? Cost goals: What should it cost?  It is the project manager’s duty to balance these three often competing goals

23 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx The Triple Constraint of Project Management

24 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Project Management Process Groups  Project management can be viewed as a number of interlinked processes  The project management process groups include initiating processes planning processes executing processes controlling processes closing processes

25 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Overlap of Process Groups in a Phase (PMBOK Guide, 2000, p. 31)

26 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Project Management Framework

27 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Project Stakeholders  Stakeholders are the people involved in or affected by project activities  Stakeholders include the project sponsor and project team support staff customers users suppliers opponents to the project

28 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Project Management Knowledge Areas  Knowledge areas describe the key competencies that project managers must develop 4 core knowledge areas lead to specific project objectives (scope, time, cost, and quality) 4 facilitating knowledge areas are the means through which the project objectives are achieved (human resources, communication, risk, and procurement management 1 knowledge area (project integration management) affects and is affected by all of the other knowledge areas

29 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Fifteen Project Management Job Functions*  Evaluate project requirements  Identify and evaluate risks Prepare contingency plan  Identify interdependencies  Identify and track critical milestones  Participate in project phase review  Secure needed resources  Manage the change control process  Report project status *Northwest Center for Emerging Technologies, "Building a Foundation for Tomorrow: Skills Standards for Information Technology,"Belleview, WA, 1999  Define scope of project  Identify stakeholders, decision-makers, and escalation procedures  Develop detailed task list (work breakdown structures)  Estimate time requirements  Develop initial project management flow chart  Identify required resources and budget

30 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Project Management Tools and Techniques  Project management tools and techniques assist project managers and their teams in various aspects of project management  Some specific ones include Project Charter and WBS (scope) Gantt charts, network diagrams, critical path analysis, critical chain scheduling (time) Cost estimates and earned value management (cost)

31 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Sample WBS for Intranet Project in Chart Form

32 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Sample Gantt Chart The WBS is on the left, and each task’s start and finish date are shown on the right using a calendar timescale.

33 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Sample Network Diagram Each box is a project task from the WBS. Arrows show dependencies between tasks. The bolded tasks are on the critical path. If any tasks on the critical path take longer than planned, the whole project will slip unless something is done.

34 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Sample Earned Value Chart

35 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx How Project Management (PM) Relates to Other Disciplines  Much of the knowledge needed to manage projects is unique to PM  However, project managers must also have knowledge and experience in general management the application area of the project  Project managers must focus on meeting specific project objectives

36 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Project Management and Other Disciplines

37 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx The Project Management Profession  A 1996 Fortune article called project management the “number one career choice”  Professional societies like the Project Management Institute (PMI) have grown tremendously  Average salaries for project managers are over $81,000

38 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx PM Knowledge Continues to Grow and Mature  PMI hosted their first research conference in June 2000 in Paris, France  The PMBOK Guide – 2000 Edition is an ANSI standard  PMI’s certification department earned ISO 9000 certification  Hundreds of new books, articles, and presentations related to project management have been written in recent years

39 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Project Management Certification  PMI provides certification as a Project Management Professional (PMP)  A PMP has documented sufficient project experience, agreed to follow a code of ethics, and passed the PMP exam  The number of people earning PMP certification is increasing quickly  PMI and other organizations are offering new certification programs

40 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Project Management Software  By 2001, there were tens of different products to assist in performing project management  Three main categories of tools: Low-end tools: Handle single or smaller projects well, cost under $200 per user Midrange tools: Handle multiple projects and users, cost $ per user, Project 2000 most popular High-end tools: Also called enterprise project management software, often licensed on a per-user basis


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