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What Is Leadership? Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals.

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Presentasi berjudul: "What Is Leadership? Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals."— Transcript presentasi:

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3 What Is Leadership? Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals.

4 Some Characteristics of Managers Versus Leaders in the Twenty-First Century Manager CharacteristicsLeader Characteristics  Administrator  A Copy  Maintains  Focuses on System and Structure  Relies on Control  Short-range View  Asks How and When  Eye on The Bottom Line  Imitates  Accepts The Status Quo  Classic Good Soldier  Does Things Right  Innovates  An Original  Develops  Focuses on People  Inspires Trust  Long-range Perspective  Asks What and Why  Eye on The Horizon  Originates  Challenges The Status Quo  Own Person  Does The Right Things Sumber : Luthans (1995 : hal. 342)

5 Empirical Results… (Castile, 2006) Regression analysis showed a strong positive correlation between leadership and organisational performance (<0.05) But … although independent variables where found to be jointly significant they are individually insignificant (hence not independent) - (multicollinearity) Factor analysis generated a 2 Factor model  F1 Generates and manages a vision  F2 Empowers others

6 Teori Kepemimpinan (Robbins, 2002) Teori Kepemimpinan Teori Sifat (Traits Theory) Teori Keprilakuan (Behavioral Theory) Teori Kemungkinan (Contigency Theory)

7 Leadership Theories... Born Heroic Characteristics Trait Theory Style Theory Situational Theory Transformational Theory Emerging Models Made Behaviours Made Context Situational Flexibility Born and Made Situational Born and Made Primal Leadership Servant Leadership Results Focus Capability Focus

8 Trait Theories Leadership Traits: Ambition and energyAmbition and energy The desire to leadThe desire to lead Honest and integrityHonest and integrity Self-confidenceSelf-confidence IntelligenceIntelligence High self-monitoringHigh self-monitoring Job-relevant knowledgeJob-relevant knowledge Leadership Traits: Ambition and energyAmbition and energy The desire to leadThe desire to lead Honest and integrityHonest and integrity Self-confidenceSelf-confidence IntelligenceIntelligence High self-monitoringHigh self-monitoring Job-relevant knowledgeJob-relevant knowledge Traits Theories of Leadership Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from nonleaders.

9 Sifat Pemimpin Yang Dikagumi (Kouzes & Posner)

10 Behavioral Theories Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made.Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made. Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught.Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught. Behavioral Theories of Leadership Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders.

11 The Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton)

12 Contigency Theory (Situational Leadership)

13 Transformational Vs Transactional Leadership Transactional Leadership Leaders who engage in “transactions” with employees, such as using rewards to encourage good performance and punishment for inadequate performance. Transactional leaders rely heavily on power from their organizational position and status. Research shows that most men describe themselves this way.

14 Transformational leadership “Transformational” leaders are focused on “transforming” their employees’ priorities to reflect the interest of the group. This involves the use of collaboration and open communication. Transformational leaders influence people and events. Most women identify themselves this way.

15 Variables of Transformational Leadership Transformational Leadership Idealized Influence Inspiration Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration Transformational Leadership Idealized Influence Inspiration Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration Transactional Leadership Contingent reward Management by exception (active or passive) Laissez faire Transactional Leadership Contingent reward Management by exception (active or passive) Laissez faire Performance beyond expectations Agreed upon performance Broadening and elevating follower goals Leader/follower exchange

16 Human Resources Management in HealthCare Oleh : Arief Alamsyah

17 Pasien Tukang parkir Satpam Petugas Pendaftaran Petugas Pendaftaran Dokter Kasier Perawat Petugas Rontgent Petugas Apotik Petugas Apotik Lab. Moment of Truth (MOT)

18 National Health System Components

19 RS terkesan Doctor Oriented Padahal SDM RS sangat Kompleks : - Perawat - Ahli Gizi - Ekonom - Analis - Fisioterapis - Radiografer - Satpam - Tukang Cuci (Laundry)

20 Peraturan Pemerintah (PP) No.32 Tahun 1996 Tenaga Kesehatan terdiri atas :  Tenaga Medis  Tenaga Keperawatan  Tenaga Kefarmasian  Tenaga Kesehatan Masyarakat  Tenaga Gizi  Tenaga Keterapian Fisik, ex : physiotherapist, speech therapist  Tenaga Keteknisian Medis, ex : radiografer

21 The lack of unity for health Health Professions Communities Policy Makers Source: Dr. Charles.Boelen, Towards Unity for Health, WHO Geneva, 2000 Health Managers Academic Institutions Dr ButCare Mrs TalkWell Mr AllDone Prof KnowAll WantAll

22 Sub Cultures In Healthcare Organization Basic Assumptions Sub Culture MedicalNursingManagerial Relationship to Environment Basic Identity Relevant environments Position vis- a vis environment Nature of Reality & Truth Basic Orientation Criteria of verifiability Time Orientation Essence of Human Nature Basic Nature Mutability Nature of Human Relationship Relationship between people Relationship between organization Expert, specialist Scientific, Technical Dominant Physical, External criteria Scientific Test, authorities Past & Present Neutral Own group members mutable, doubting others Inviduality, competition Paternalism, collegial Helpers, supporters Socio-cultural Harmonious & symbiotic Physical, social Traditional, moral dogma Past & present Neutral Same Collaterality, group consensus Participation, delegation Public autorities Economic, political Dominant Physical Authorities, rational-legal Past &Present Neutral Same Collaterality, autocratic Paternalism, consultation

23 Serangkaian keputusan untuk mengelola hubungan ketenagakerjaan (calon pegawai, pegawai & pensiunan) secara optimal mulai dari rekruitmen, seleksi, penempatan, pemeliharaan (kompensasi &kesejahteraan) dan pengembangan, (karir, pendidikan & pelatihan ) serta terminasi, untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi (memelihara dan meningkatkan performansi) Definisi MSDM

24 Aktivitas Manajemen SDM Perencanaan SDM Rekruitmen dan Seleksi Penilaian Kinerja Pelatihan dan Pengembangan Pemberian Kompensasi Pemeliharaan Karyawan Hubungan Karyawan

25 Aktivitas MSDM Kompensasi Pelatihan & pengembangan Perencanaan Rekrutmen Seleksi Penilaian Kinerja Pemeliharaan (karir) Hubungan Karyawan Kompetensi Yang Dibutuhkan

26 Recuitment is the act or process of an organization attempting to obtain additional manpower for operational purpose Recutiment including the identification and evaluation of source, is major step in the total staffing process. It continues with inventories of capabilities, recuitment, selection, placement and orientation

27 Tingkat Absensi (TA) TA Hari Kerja yang Hilang Hari Karyawan Bekerja + Hari Karyawan Tidak berkerja = Seorang ahli gizi full timer total hari kerja sebulan rata- rata 25 hari, bekerja 13 hari, jumlah hari tidak bekerja 12 hari TA = 12/ 25 X 100% = 50%

28 Turn Over Accession Rate (AR), karena keluar Separation Rate (SR), karena pemecatan Andaikata suatu RS memiliki 800 karyawan, dimana selama itu terjadi 16 kali karyawan keluar dan 24 kali pemecatan maka AR 16/800 X 100% = 2 % SR 24/800 X 100% = 3% Replacement rate minimal sama dengan AR

29 Selecting is chossing. The selection process involves picking out by preference some objects from among others.

30 Success Profile What I Know (Knowledge) What I can Do (Competency) What I have Done (Experience) Personal Traits (Personality)

31 Selection Process Successive Hurdles Harus lulus secara bertahap Compensatory Kekurangan di salah satu faktor dapat ditutup oleh faktor lain

32 Successive Hurdles Seleksi Berkas TesWawancara Personality Check Cek Kesehatan Diterima STOP

33 Compensatory Cek Kesehatan Personality Tes Berkas Diterima STOP

34 Orientasi Disebut juga proses induksi. Memperkenalkan para karyawan baru terhadap peranan atau kedudukan mereka di organisasi dan dengan para karyawan lain

35 Manfaat Program Orientasi Tenaga kerja baru (new comers) menjadi faham terhadap organisasi di mana mereka bekerja Mengurangi rasa kekhawatiran bagi tenaga kerja baru akan masa depanya Penyelia, atasan langsung,rekan sekerja akan lebih yakin, bahwa tenaga kerja baru akan bekerja dengan baik dan benar Mengurangi akan turn over

36 Orientasi Masalah Organisasional Sejarah Singkat Organisasi Struktur, visi, misi,values, ritual Nama dan jabatan direktur Lay out Rumah Sakit Periode Percobaan Policy, aturan, sangsi Buku Pedoman Karyawan Proses Pelayanan Hal lain penting masalah pelayanan Perkenalan Dengan Supervisor Dengan instruktur (CI) Dengan rekan sekerja Dengan bagian HRD Ke HRD-an (Tunjangan-tunjangan Karyawan) Skala Penggajian Cuti dan Liburan Jam Istirahat Latihan dan Pendidikan Konseling Asuransi Program Pensiun Pelayanan organisasi terhadap Karyawan Lain-2 misal Kopkar Tugas-tugas Jabatan (Khusus) Lokasi Pekerjaan Tugas-tugas Pekerjaan Alur Orientasi Fungsi jabatan SOP-SOP Hubunganya dengan pekerjaan lain

37 Contoh Alur Orientasi perawat baru UGD 1 minggu Poli 1 minggu Ruangan Kelas 3 1 minggu Ruangan Kelas 1 dan 2 2 minggu Penempatan Tes Dengan CI Specific care 3 hari

38 Pelatihan dan Pengembangan Definisi Pelatihan Pelatihan adalah serangkaian aktivitas yang dirancang untuk meningkatkan keahlian-keahlian, pengetahuan, pengalaman, ataupun perubahan sikap seorang individu. Pelatihan berkenaan dengan perolehan keahlian-keahlian atau pengetahuan tertentu.

39 Two-Sides of Skills Hard Skills Soft Skills

40 PENGERTIAN : Bentuk suatu perencanaan sistematis program pelatihan yang mencakup: Tujuan pelatihan yang akan dicapai Lingkup materi pelatihan Strategi pelaksanaan pelatihan Sumber / referensi Program Satuan Pelatihan (PSP)

41 1. Topik / pokok bahasan 2. Prasyarat kemampuan peserta 3. Tujuan pelatihan 4. Materi pelatihan 5. Kegiatan belajar mengajar 6. Alat, media, dan bahan pelatihan 7. Evaluasi Komponen PSP

42 Format PSP

43 Motivating people …

44 Relationship of Various Needs Theories Hygiene Factors Need for Achievement Need for Power Need for Affiliation Self-Actualization Esteem Affiliation Security Physiological Motivators Relatedness Existence Growth Maslow AlderferHerzberg McClelland

45 Motivation Motivation as… Energizing condition of organism that serves to direct that organism toward the goal of certain class Motivation is…. An inner impulse that determines what people do and the energy and enthusiasm with which they do it (WHO,1992, On Being in Charge)

46 The Motivational Process (Gibson, Ivancevich, Donnelly, 1994) Need Deficiences Search for ways to Satisfy needs Goal directed Behaviour Performance (Evaluation of goal Accomplished) Reward or Punishments Need deficinecies reassessed By the employee The Employee

47 A Hierarchy of Work Motivation (5 stages Original Version, Maslow) Biological & Physiological Needs Food, shelter,sex, sleep Safety Needs Protection, security, law Belongingness & Love Needs Relationship, work grooup Esteem Needs Status Symbols,reputation Self Actualization Needs Personal growth Realization of potential

48 Alderfer’s ERG Theory (Luthans 9 th, 2002) Existence needs Existence needs : Kebutuhan yang berhubungan dengan eksistensi pegawai (Makan, minum, pakaian, gaji, keamanan kerja) Relatedness needs Relatedness needs : Kebutuhan interpersonal yaitu kepuasan berinteraksi Growth needs Growth needs : Kebutuhan untuk mengembangkan diri

49 McClelland’s Learned needs Theory (Gibson, Ivancevich, Donnelly, 1994) Need for achievement Need for achievement : Kebutuhan untuk berprestasi yang merupakan refleksi dari dorongan akan tanggungjawab untuk memecahkan masalah Need for affiliation Need for affiliation : Kebutuhan untuk berafiliasi yang merupakan dorongan untuk berinteraksi dengan orang lain Need for Power Need for Power : Kebutuhan untuk kekuasaan yang merupakan refleksi dari dorongan untuk mencapai otoritas dan mempengaruhi orang lain

50 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation (Luthans 9 th, 2002) Hygiene Factors (Dissatisfiers)Motivators Company Policy & Administration SupervisorSalary Interpersonal Relation Working Conditions AchievementRecognition Work Itself ResponsibilityAdvancement

51 KOMPENSASI FinansialNon Finansial Langsung Gaji Pokok Upah Gaji Penghasilan Tidak Tetap Bonus Insentif Opsi saham Tak Langsung 1.Program proteksi 2.Pensiun 3.Fasilitas 4.Bayaran di luar jam kerja Pekerjaan 1.Tugas yang menarik 2.Tantangan 3.Tanggung jawab 4.Pengakuan 5.Pencapaian Lingkungan 1.Kebijakan yang sehat 2.Rekan kerja yang mendukung 3.Supervisi yang kompeten 4.lingkungan yang nyaman

52 Thank You For Your Kind Attention


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