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1.PENDAHULUAN 2.PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME 3.STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI SEL MIKROORGANISME 4.PERTUMBUHAN MIKROORGANISME 5.GENETIKA MIKROORGANISME 6.BIOENERGETIKA.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1.PENDAHULUAN 2.PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME 3.STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI SEL MIKROORGANISME 4.PERTUMBUHAN MIKROORGANISME 5.GENETIKA MIKROORGANISME 6.BIOENERGETIKA."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1.PENDAHULUAN 2.PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME 3.STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI SEL MIKROORGANISME 4.PERTUMBUHAN MIKROORGANISME 5.GENETIKA MIKROORGANISME 6.BIOENERGETIKA MIKROORGANISME 7.PENGENDALIAN PERTUMBUHAN MIKROORGANISME 8.INTERAKSI DAN PENYEBARAN MIKROORGANISME 9.PERANAN MIKROORGANISME POKOK BAHASAN MIKROBIOLOGI DASAR

2 I.PENDAHULUAN II.EVOLUSI DAN KERAGAMAN MIKROBA III.TINGKATAN TAKSONOMI IV.SISTEM KLASIFIKASI V.KARAKTERISTIK UTAMA YANG DIGUNAKAN DALAM TAKSONOMI VI.PERKIRAAN ( ASSESSING) FILOGENI MIKROBA VII.DIVISI UTAMA ORGANISME VIII.BERGEY’S MANUAL OF SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY IX.GARIS BESAR FILOGENI DAN KERAGAMAN PROKARIOT X.MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA POKOK BAHASAN 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME

3 A.ARCHAEA B.BACTERIA C.FUNGI D.ALGAE E.PROTOZOA F.VIRUS X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME POKOK BAHASAN

4 X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME E.PROTOZOA POKOK BAHASAN 1.P ENDAHULUAN 2.D ISTRIBUSI 3.N ILAI PENTING 4.M ORFOLOGI 5.N UTRISI DAN METABOLISME 6.E NCYSTMENT AND EXCYSTMENT 7.O RGANEL PERGERAKAN 8.R EPRODUKSI 9.P ENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA

5 X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME E.PROTOZOA  Protozoa are a polyphyletic group of organisms  Protozoa are unicellular, eucaryotic protists that are usually motile  Protozoology is the study of protozoa  Some protozoa are anaerobic (e.g., Trichonympha lives in the gut of termites)  Most anaerobic protozoa do not have mitochondria or CYTOCHROMES, and have an INCOMPLETE TCA CYCLE  Some anaerobic protozoa contain HYDROGENOSOMES - small membrane- delimited organelles containing a unique ELECTRON TRANSFER SYSTEM that uses protons as terminal electron acceptors to form molecular hydrogen 1.PENDAHULUAN

6 X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME E.PROTOZOA  Primarily in moist habitats (because they lack a cell wall), including freshwater (ponds, streams, lakes) and marine (oceans)  Some live in moist soil, beach sand, and decaying organic matter  Most are free living, free-living, critical members of plankton drifting organisms that form the basis of aquatic food chains  Some are parasitic in plants and animals  Very few are pathogens 2.DISTSRIBUSI

7 X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME E.PROTOZOA  Serve as an important link in food chains and food webs (zooplankton)  Food chain-series of organisms, each feeding on the preceding one  Food web-complex interlocking series of food chains  Important in the study of biochemistry and molecular biology because they use the same metabolic pathways as multicellular eucaryotes  Causative agents of some important diseases in humans and other animals 3.NILAI PENTING

8 X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME E.PROTOZOA  Protozoa have some unique features  ECTOPLASM is the gelatinous cytoplasm just inside the plasma membrane; it provides some rigidity and shape  PELLICLE consists of the plasma membrane and the structures immediately beneath it  ENDOPLASM is the more fluid cytoplasm in the interior of the cell  Some have one nucleus, some have two or more identical nuclei, and some have two distinct types of nuclei  The MACRONUCLEUS is associated with trophic activities and regenerative processes  The MICRONUCLEUS controls reproductive activities by sequestering genetic material for exchange during reproduction  VACUOLES are usually present  CONTRACTILE VACUOLES are osmoregulatory  PHAGOCYTIC VACUOLES are sites of food digestion  SECRETORY VACUOLES usually contain enzymes for specific functions, such as excystation 4.MORFOLOGI

9 X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME E.PROTOZOA  In holozoic nutrition, nutrients are acquired by PHAGOCYTOSIS; some ciliates have a specialized structure, called a CYTOSOME, for phagocytosis  In SAPROZOIC NUTRITION, nutrients are acquired by PINOCYTOSIS, DIFFUSION, or CARRIER-MEDIATED TRANSPORT (facilitated diffusion or active transport) 5.NUTRISI

10 X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME E.PROTOZOA  ENCYSTATION is the development of a resting stage structure called a cyst  The cyst is a dormant form that has a wall and greatly reduced metabolic activity  Functions of cysts  Protect against adverse changes in the environment  Function as sites for nuclear reorganization and cell division  Serve as a means of transfer from one host to another for parasitic species  EXCYSTATION is the escape of vegetative forms, called trophozoites, from the cyst; it is usually triggered by a return to a favorable environment (e.g., such as entry into a new host for parasitic species) 6.ENCYSTMENT AND EXCYSTMENT

11 X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME E.PROTOZOA  A few protozoa are nonmotile  Most use one of three major types of locomotory organelles  Pseudopodia-cytoplasmic extensions  CILIA-filamentous extensions (short)  FLAGELLA-filamentous extensions (long) 7.ORGANEL PERGERAKAN flagellum.swf

12 X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME E.PROTOZOA  The most common method of ASEXUAL reproduction is:  BINARY FISSION, which involves mitosis followed by cytokinesis  The most common type of SEXUAL reproduction is:  conjugation, an exchange of gametic nuclei between paired protozoa of complementary mating types 8.REPRODUKSI

13 X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME E.PROTOZOA  The most accepted scheme classifies protozoa as a subkingdom of protists, containing SEVEN PHYLA; classification is based primarily on types of nuclei, mode of reproduction, and mechanism of locomotion  Recently, other schemes have been suggested  CAVALIER-SMITH has proposed elevating the protozoa to the status of a kingdom with 18 phyla  Molecular classification schemes suggest that the protozoa do not exist as an evolutionary taxon, but rather that the protozoa are polyphyletic 9.PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA

14 X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME E.PROTOZOA 1)S ARCOMASTIGOPHORA 2)L ABYRINTHOMORPHA 3)A PICOMPLEXA 4)M ICROSPORA 5)A CETOSPORA 6)M YXOZOA 7)C ILIOPHORA 9.PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA PHYLUM:

15 X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME E.PROTOZOA 1) SARCOMASTIGOPHORA 9.PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA This phylum includes protists with:  a single type of nucleus and flagella or pseudopodia;  they reproduce asexually and sexually

16 X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME E.PROTOZOA 1) SARCOMASTIGOPHORA (lanjutan) 9.PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA  Subphylum MASTIGOPHORA  contains both phytoflagellates (chloroplast-bearing flagellates) and zooflagellates;  ZOOFLAGELLATES have the following characteristics:  Do not have chlorophyll; are holozoic or saprozoic  Asexual reproduction occurs by LONGITUDINAL BINARY FISSION; sexual reproduction is known for a few species, and ENCYSTMENT is common  One group, the kinetoplastids, has mitochondrial DNA in a special region called the KINETOPLAST  Some are free living; some are ENDOSYMBIOTIC (e.g., Trichonympha species in the intestines of termites  Many are important HUMAN PARASITES (e.g., Trichomonas vaginalis, Giardia lamblia, and Trypanosoma brucei )

17 X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME E.PROTOZOA 9.PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA  Subphylum SARCODINA  contains amoeboid organisms  Found in aquatic and terrestrial habitats, where they take up nutrients by PHAGOCYTOSIS and PINOCYTOSIS  Reproduction is usually by simple ASEXUAL BINARY FISSION; some form CYSTS  Some have a loose-fitting shell called a TEST (e.g., foraminiferans and radiolarians, which are primarily marine amoebae; a few occur in fresh or brackish water)  Some are ENDOSYMBIONTS and can be either commensals or parasites; some are free-living, disease-causing amoebae 1) SARCOMASTIGOPHORA (lanjutan)

18 X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME E.PROTOZOA 9.PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA 2) LABYRINTHOMORPHA  PROTISTS with:  spindle-shaped or spherical, nonamoeboid, vegetative cells;  some move by gliding motion on mucous tracks  Most members are marine organisms and are either SAPROZOIC or PARASITIC on algae

19 X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME E.PROTOZOA 9.PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA 3) APICOMPLEXA  Often called SPOROZOANS because they have a spore-forming stage in their life cycle; lack locomotory organelles, except the male gametes and the zygotes (ookinetes);  are either intra- or intercellular parasites having a characteristic structure called the APICAL COMPLEX  APICAL COMPLEX - a unique arrangement of fibrils, tubules, vacuoles, and other organelles at one end of the cell  One or two polar rings at the apical end  CONOID-spirally arranged fibers adjacent to the polar rings  SUBPELLICULAR MICROTUBULES radiate from the polar rings and probably serve as support elements  RHOPTRIES extend to the plasma membrane and secrete their contents at the cell surface (probably aids in host cell penetration)  MICROPORES take in nutrients

20 X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME E.PROTOZOA 9.PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA 3) APICOMPLEXA (lanjutan)  Have complex life cycles involving two different hosts (usually mammal and often a mosquito)  Life cycle has both asexual and sexual phases and is characterized by an alternation of haploid and diploid generations  At some point in the life cycle, they undergo schizogony, a rapid series of mitotic events producing a large number of small infective organisms through the formation of uninuclear buds  Sexual reproduction involves the formation of a thick-walled oocyst after fertilization; meiosis within this structure then produces haploid infective spores

21 X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME E.PROTOZOA 9.PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA  This group includes some very important pathogens  Plasmodium-malaria  Cryptosporidium-cryptosporidiosis  Toxoplasma-toxoplasmosis  Eimeria-coccidiosis 3) APICOMPLEXA (lanjutan)

22 X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME E.PROTOZOA 9.PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA 4) MICROSPORA  Obligately intracellular parasites lacking mitochondria and transmitted by a RESISTANT SPORE  Several economically important pathogens of insects  There has been increased interest in their use as BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL  Recently, five genera have been implicated in human diseases in immunosuppressed patients (e.g., AIDS patients)

23 X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME E.PROTOZOA 9.PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA 5) ACETOSPORA  PARASITIC PROTISTS:  Spores that lack polar caps or polar filaments, parasitic in mollusks

24 X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME E.PROTOZOA 9.PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA 6) MYXOZOA  parasitic protists with resistant spores having one to six coiled polar filaments;  parasitic on freshwater and marine fish;  can cause a major economic problem in cultured salmon

25 X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME E.PROTOZOA 9.PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA 7) CILIOPHORA  The largest of the seven phyla; these organisms are distinguished by the use of cilia as locomotory organelles  Cilia arranged in longitudinal rows or spirals  Oblique stroke of cilia causes ciliates to rotate as they swim  Can move forward or backward  Numerous interesting morphological characteristics are observed: slipper- shaped cells, stalked cells, tentacles, and threadlike darts called toxicysts

26 X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME E.PROTOZOA 9.PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA 7) CILIOPHORA  Feeding behavior  Food is captured by action of cilia around the buccal cavity; food enters the cytostome and passes to phagocytic vacuoles that fuse with lysosomes, where digestion occurs  After digestion the vacuoles fuse with a special region of the pellicle, called the cytoproct, which empties the cell's waste material to the outside4.Most have two types of nuclei  Micronucleus-diploid; functions in mitosis and meiosis  Macronucleus-polyploid for some genes; maintains routine cellular functions  Asexual reproduction is by transverse binary fission; sexual reproduction usually is by conjugation  Most are free-living; some are harmless commensals; others are disease- causing parasites

27

28 X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME E.PROTOZOA 4.MORFOLOGI a)ECTOPLASM b)PELLICLE c)ENDOPLASM d)MACRONUCLEUS e)MICRONUCLEUS f)CONTRACTILE VACUOLES g)PHAGOCYTIC VACUOLES h)SECRETORY VACUOLES ECTOPLASM is the gelatinous cytoplasm just inside the plasma membrane; it provides some rigidity and shape PELLICLE consists of the plasma membrane and the structures immediately beneath it ENDOPLASM is the more fluid cytoplasm in the interior of the cell The MICRONUCLEUS controls reproductive activities by sequestering genetic material for exchange during reproduction The MACRONUCLEUS is associated with trophic activities and regenerative processes CONTRACTILE VACUOLES are osmoregulatory PHAGOCYTIC VACUOLES are sites of food digestion SECRETORY VACUOLES usually contain enzymes for specific functions, such as excystation 9

29 Nuclear Division

30

31 Cytokinesis (Cytoplasmic Division) Typically occurs simultaneously with telophase of mitosis Typically occurs simultaneously with telophase of mitosis In some algae and fungi, may be postponed or not occur at all In some algae and fungi, may be postponed or not occur at all Results in multinucleated cells called coenocytes Results in multinucleated cells called coenocytes

32 Cytokinesis

33 Schizogony Plasmodium, which causes malaria, reproduces asexually within red blood cells and liver cells by a special type of reproduction called schizogony Plasmodium, which causes malaria, reproduces asexually within red blood cells and liver cells by a special type of reproduction called schizogony Multiple mitoses form multinucleate schizont Multiple mitoses form multinucleate schizont Cytokinesis occurs releasing numerous daughter cells called merozoites Cytokinesis occurs releasing numerous daughter cells called merozoites Classic fever and chills associated with release Classic fever and chills associated with release

34 Schizogony

35 Classification Eukaryotic Organisms Trouble classifying Trouble classifying For us: For us: Protozoa Protozoa Fungi Fungi Algea – will skip Algea – will skip Others: Parasitic Helminths and Vectors Others: Parasitic Helminths and Vectors

36 Protozoa Diverse group defined by three characteristics Diverse group defined by three characteristics Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Unicellular Unicellular Lack a cell wall Lack a cell wall With exception of apicomplexans, they are also motile by means of cilia, flagella, and/or pseudopodia With exception of apicomplexans, they are also motile by means of cilia, flagella, and/or pseudopodia Study is protozoology; protozoologist Study is protozoology; protozoologist

37 Distribution of Protozoa Require moist environments because they lack a cell wall Require moist environments because they lack a cell wall Most live worldwide in ponds, streams, lakes, and oceans; critical members of plankton – free-living, drifting organisms that form the basis of aquatic food chains Most live worldwide in ponds, streams, lakes, and oceans; critical members of plankton – free-living, drifting organisms that form the basis of aquatic food chains Some live in moist soil, beach sand, and decaying organic matter Some live in moist soil, beach sand, and decaying organic matter Very few are pathogens Very few are pathogens

38 Morphology of Protozoa Characterized by great morphologic diversity Characterized by great morphologic diversity Some have two nuclei (Paramecium) Some have two nuclei (Paramecium) Macronucleus (50n) contains many copies of genome – controls metabolism, growth, and sexual reproduction Macronucleus (50n) contains many copies of genome – controls metabolism, growth, and sexual reproduction Micronucleus – involved in genetic recombination, sexual reproduction, and regeneration of macronuclei Micronucleus – involved in genetic recombination, sexual reproduction, and regeneration of macronuclei

39 Morphology of Protozoa

40 Variety in number and kinds of mitochondria Variety in number and kinds of mitochondria Some have contractile vacuoles Some have contractile vacuoles All produce trophozoites – motile feeding stage; some produce cysts – resting stage All produce trophozoites – motile feeding stage; some produce cysts – resting stage One trophozoite forms one cyst; to allow intestinal protozoa to pass from one host to another and to survive harsh environments One trophozoite forms one cyst; to allow intestinal protozoa to pass from one host to another and to survive harsh environments

41 Protozoan Life Cycle

42 Nutrition of Protozoa Most are chemoheterotrophic Most are chemoheterotrophic Obtain nutrients by phagocytizing bacteria, decaying organic matter, other protozoa, or the tissues of host Obtain nutrients by phagocytizing bacteria, decaying organic matter, other protozoa, or the tissues of host Few absorb nutrients from surrounding water Few absorb nutrients from surrounding water Dinoflagellates and euglenoids are photoautrophic Dinoflagellates and euglenoids are photoautrophic

43 Reproduction in Protozoa Most reproduce asexually only (binary fission or schizogony) Most reproduce asexually only (binary fission or schizogony) Few also have sexual reproduction Few also have sexual reproduction Some become gametocytes that fuse to form diploid zygote Some become gametocytes that fuse to form diploid zygote Some utilize a process called conjugation Some utilize a process called conjugation

44 Conjugation in Paramecium

45 Ciliates Plasmodium – malaria Plasmodium – malaria Babesia – anemia Babesia – anemia Toxoplasma - toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma - toxoplasmosis

46 Dinoflagellates Pfiesteria – neurotoxin, most potent; poison when handled can cause memory loss, confusion, headache, respiratory difficulties, skin rash, muscle cramps, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting – possible estuary-associated syndrome (PEAS) Pfiesteria – neurotoxin, most potent; poison when handled can cause memory loss, confusion, headache, respiratory difficulties, skin rash, muscle cramps, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting – possible estuary-associated syndrome (PEAS)

47 Pfiesteria

48 Amoebae Pseudopodia for movement Pseudopodia for movement Naegleria – primary amoebic meningoencephalitis Naegleria – primary amoebic meningoencephalitis Acanthamoeba spp. – amoebic encephalitis Acanthamoeba spp. – amoebic encephalitis Entamoeba histolytica – amoebic dysentery Entamoeba histolytica – amoebic dysentery


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