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Produk Indigenous Sebagai Pangan Fungsional Fransiska Rungkat Zakaria Materi 8.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Produk Indigenous Sebagai Pangan Fungsional Fransiska Rungkat Zakaria Materi 8."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Produk Indigenous Sebagai Pangan Fungsional Fransiska Rungkat Zakaria Materi 8

2 Body needs both omega 3 and 6 Linoleic linolenic

3 Jenis Asam LemakMinyak Kelapa Minyak Inti Sawit (%) a Sawit (%) b (%) b Asam Kaprat 4,9 – 9,5 Asam Kaprilat 5,5 – 9,5 - 3 – 4 Asam Kaproat 0,0 – 0,8 - 3 – 7 Asam Laurat 44,0 – 52,046 – 52 Asam Miristat 13,0 – 19,01,1 – 2,514 – 17 Asam Palmitat 7,5 – 10,540 – 466,5 – 9 Asam Palmitoleat 0,0 – 13,1 Asam Stearat 1,0 – 3,03,6 – 4,71 – 2,5 Asam Oleat 5,0 – 8,039 – 4513 – 19 Asam Linoleat 1,5 – 2,57 – 11 0,5 - 2 Asam Arakhidonat 0,0 – 0,4

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5 Contoh: tempe, tahu, oncom, bir pletok, wedang jahe, cincau, tape beras, peujeum, dodol, kredok, urap, asinan, sayur asin, kacang rebus, tauge sayuran dan buah- buahan tropis, bahan lalapan, rumput laut, dsbnya DEFINISI Pangan tradisional BERBAHAN LOKAL: Bahan baku atau resep makanan dan minuman yang terbuat dari bahan-bahan yang terdapat di Indonesia dan telah dikenal sejak dahulu. Pangan fungsional Makanan atau minuman yang berpengaruh positif terhadap kesehatan, Kegiatan fisik dan mental, disamping kandungan zat-zat gizinya

6 Pangan fungsional/functional foodPangan rekayasa/deigner food PharmafoodsNutraceuticals Pangan tradisional Fungsional/ Biologis ? Fungsional: Fungsi biologis seluler: sintesis protein, enzim, hormon, DNA, RNA, senyawa metabolik

7 Jenis sel: endotelium, hati dan organ-organ lain, darah merah, imun, syaraf, kulit, penglihatan, dsbnya Sistem: vaskuler, imun, hormon, syaraf, pencernaan regenerasi/pertumbuhan sel (kanker), energi Kesehatan: Tanggung jawab bersama Ilmu dan teknologi pangan dengan farmakologi dan kedokteran

8 Paradigma sehat SEHAT SAKIT MENJADI SEMBUH = TIDAK SAKIT TETAP TIDAK OBAT MAKANAN (FUNGSIONAL)

9 Pendahuluan: Hubungan antara makanan dan tubuh Eat What Your Body is Made For Cells dlm organ tubuh Pangan/bahan alami: segar,.olahan Metabolisme (pembongkaran)

10 WHO 2002 Pencegahan Perawatan Pengobatan SEHAT SAKIT USAHA KEDOKTERAN FARMASI USAHA PENCEGAHAN: PANGAN, NATURAL PRODUCTS PARADIGMA SEHAT

11 World Cancer Research Funds (WCRF) & American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) 1997: 670 halaman It is abundantly clear that the incidence of all the common cancers in human is being determined by various potentially controllable external factors. This is surely the most comforting fact to come out of all cancer research, for it means that cancer is, in large part, a preventable diseases.

12 Pangan/makanan/bahan nabati/natural products yang dapat mencegah kanker dapat mencegah penyakit jantung, pembuluh darah, diabetes, dan penyakit degeneratif lainnya

13 Pangan/makanan yang dapat mencegah kanker Berbagai jenis sayuran Antosianin Klorofil serat Karotenoid, terpenpoid Daun cincau Flavonoid/fenolik Isotiosianat

14 Bagaimana terjadinya kanker ? 85% kejadian kanker disebabkan oleh faktor dari luar tubuh: Karsinogen (Polusi makanan /Minuman/ udara/air), sinar UV, virus, infeksi Hanya 15% disebabkan oleh keturunan

15 Polusi udara, pencemaran makanan, UV/sinar matahari,,kegemukan, hormon Gen Polusi udara, pencemaran makanan, Uvsinar matahari,, virus, infeks: 85% Keturunan: 15%i Sel & Gen Normal Sel & gen Tidak normal Gen Bagaimana terjadinya kanker ?

16 Sel tidak normal,gen tidak normal, menghasilkan jaringan kanker/tumor METASTASE MENYEBAR Polusi: makanan minuman udara, air, sinar, kegemukan, hormon Bagaimana terjadinya kanker ? Gen

17 Diperngaruhi oleh: Aktivitas fisik, kegemukan, makanan yang dikonsumsi Hormon dan faktor pertumbuhan Diperngaruhi oleh: Zat gizi tertentu spt karotenoid, retinol Serat, bakteri kolon, asam lemak yang mudah menguap, pre/probiotik Gen pembetul Gen Normal DNA Kerusakan gen lanjut Gen Sel normalSel tidak normalSel bunuh diri

18 PanganTanaman obat Zat gizi: protein,lemak, karbohidrat, vitamin, mineral, serat Sumber utama Komponen fungsional/bioaktif Non-gizi Kadar rendahKadar tinggi Rasa, textur, volume, Kemungkinan toksik Penting Sangat kecil tidak penting Besar

19 “Functionality” berdasarkan komponen: KomponenJenisFungsiSumber Zat-zat gizi makroProtein, lemak, karbihidrat Zat pembangun, Energi, pelindung Esensial Biji-bijian, Kacang- kacangan, Daging, ikan, dll Vitamin dan Mineral esensial A, B, C, D, E, K, Folat, pantotenat, Niasin, biotin Metabolisme Seluler normal Esensial Sayuran dan buah-buahan, Rumput laut, sintetik SeratSelulosa, pektin, hemiselulosa Gum, oligoskarida Prebiotik, Kontrol kolesterol, Pencernaan,ImunitasDia betes, kanker, kegemukan Sayuran dan buah-buahan, Rumput laut Sintetik

20 KomponenJenisFungsiSumber Gula alkohol Eritritol Arabitol, ribitol, xilitol Sorbitol, manitol, Sebaian prekursor glikogen, antiketogenik, substitusi gula rendah kalori, kambah, laxative, Anti caries, anti tumor Ganggang, jamur, Exudat tanaman, molases, rumput laut Asam amino,Arginin Aspartat/gin Glutamat Triptofan Tirosin Fenilalanin Antihipertensi Fatig kronik, sirosis hati Anti epilepsis Anti insomnia Analgesik Anti depresi/ Parkinson’s diseases Anti depresi/hiperaktif Protein “Functionality” berdasarkan komponen:

21 KomponenJenisFungsiSumber PeptidaCasomorphin Imunopeptida Caseinophosphopepti da Peptida bioaktif Anti diarea Stimulasi imunitas Absorpsi Ca Antihipertensi Kasein susu Hidrolisa protein kacang-kacangan, ikan Bakteri asam laktat Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium,dll Lactose intolerant Probiotik: diarea, anti kolesterol/ kanker/ konstipasi imunostimulan, Produk fermentasi Susu, sayuran, dll PUFA,  -6,  -3 LA, LNA, DHAMetabolisme arakhidonat, anti penyakit kronis Lemak tanamn Daun, biji-bijian, ikan. “Functionality” berdasarkan komponen:

22 KomponenJenisFungsiSumber ThioallylCH2=CH-CH2- X X=struktur organik Hypolipidemic Antitrombotik Anti kanker Bawang putih Protese inhibitorKunitzAnti kankerKedele, kacang- kacangan ChlorophyllinsKhlorofol tanaman AntikankerKhlorofol tanaman LignansAntikanker Estrogen Kedle, gandum PEITC (Phenethyl isothiocyanate) AntikankerCruciferous Curcumin I, IIIDiferuroilmetanAntikankerKunyit “Functionality” berdasarkan komponen:

23 KomponenJenisFungsiSumber KarotenoidAnti penyakit degeneratif Antioxidan Sayuran, buah- buahan, teh Gingerols, shogaol Antioxidan, anti ateroskelosis, Pencernaan, Anti kanker Jahe Ubiquinone s, ubiquinols Antioxidan Imunomodulator (AIDS) Minyak jagung, kacang-kacangan FlavonoidsQuercetin, galangin,Ruti n, diosmin katekin Antioxidan, anti kankerTanaman Teh Fenol sederhana Khlorogenat,e lagat,protokat ecuat, ferulat Antioxidan, anti kankerTanaman

24 “Functionality” berdasarkan komponen: KomponenJenisFungsiSumber Isotiosianatsulfofranantikankerbrokoli Actoxikavikol asetat Fenil propanoidAnti kankerLanguas galanga Aurapten (AURA)D-limonenAnti kankerSitrus ResveratrolTrihidroxistilbenAnti kankerAnggur merah LaktoferinProteinAnti kankerSusu FitosterolB-sitosterol, kampesterol Anti kanker Hipokholesterol Sayruan, biji- bijian SaponinGlikosidaAnti kankerKedele Fitoestrogen, lignanisoflavonAntioxidan, Anti kanker Kedele, sorgum, MomordisinAnti kankerparia CucurbitasinAnti cacingLabu

25 Penggunaan komoditi tanaman pangan sebagai bahan obat (POM) Budidaya: Temulawak Jahe Lengkuas Kencur Cengkeh Kunyit Bengle Pare Tan hutan: Alang-alang Lempuyagn wangi Curcuma xanthoriza Zingiber officinale Roxb Languas galanga (L) Stuntz Kaempferia galanga L Eugenia aromatica L. O.K. Curcuma domestica Val Zingiber purpureum Roxb Momordica charantina L Imperata cylindrica (L) Beauv Zingiberis aromaticum Vahl

26 Potensi pangan tradisional sebagai pangan fungsional Bahan baku:prinsipal/suplemen: sayuran buah-buahan, rempah-rempah, ganggang, rumput laut, mikroorganisme, jamur Diet/menu: gado-gado, asinan, rujak, kredok, bubur manado, sayur asam, lodeh, sayur tumis, pindang ikan, sop buntut/kaki ayam, bubur kacang, cincau, wedang jahe, bir pletok, manisan buah, selai Perlu standardisasi bahan/pengolahan dan uji khasiat

27 Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) extracts increase in vivo human LDL resistance to oxidation and prevent in vitro cholesterol accumulation in mouse macrophage Fransiska Rungkat-Zakaria (1, Aisyah T. Septiana (2 and Sulistiyani (3. 1) Dept Food Technology and Human Nutition, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia 2) University of Jend. Soedirman, Indonesia 3) Faculty of Math & Natural Sciece, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

28 Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizoma

29 INTRODUCTION GINGER Zingiber family The rhizome is commonly accepted as a source of flavor : cooking, drinks, baking Grows well in tropical rainforest climate Traditional beliefs: prevention of common cold, physiological and stomach disorders, inflammation, diarrhea, etc (Tang and Eisenbrand, 1992)

30 Antioxidant capacity of ginger extract (oleoresin fractions) in linoleic acid system > a-tocopherol (Kikuzaki and Nakatani,1993) Oleoresin fractions gingerol, shogaol Suppress 5-lipoxygenase or prostaglandin synthetase (Flynn and Rafferty, 1986) Protect TPA induced ear edema, epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity, skin tumor promotion in female ICR mice (Park et al, 1998) Protect lymphocytes and hybridoma cells from induced oxidative stress, reduced intracellular free radicals, increase natural killer lysing function toward target cancer cells (Zakaria et al, 1999) Increase Ca++ATPase activities in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (Antipenko, et al.1999) Scientific Reports

31 Modified LDL ( Ox – LDL, Ac LDL) LDL Phagocytosis Pinocitosis LDL Reseptor Lysosome receptor synthesis Acetate Cholesterol Endosome Scavenger Reseptor UC EC Translocation HDL Cholesterol up take Cholesterol processing Cholesterol exclussion Macrophage cholesterol Metabolism UC

32 LDL Lipid oxidation Protein modification Uptake LDL ROS entry differentiation Macrophage Foam cells Adhesion MonocyteLipid streaks Initiation mechanism of atherosclerosis

33 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES To find out whether drinking ginger water extract can 1. Lower plasma cholesterols 2. Protect plasma LDL against oxidation To find out whether the protection of LDL can prevent further accumulation of cholesterol in macrophage

34 METHODOLGY Subjects: 24 healthy male students living in the same religious dormitory two groups: treated group and control/placebo group Ginger drinks: water extract, pasteurized 85 0 C, added with sugar syrup standardized acceptable drink given every afternoon at 17:00 placebo group received syrup without ginger extract Plasma analysis: 1. Total cholesterol (CHOD-PAP method, Boehringer-Mannheim, kit) 2. LDL-C (PVS method, Boehringer-Mannheim, kit) 3. HDL-C (phosphotungstic acid)

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42 LDL isolation: 8 ml plasma + 5 ml NaCL 0.9% + EDTA 0.01% incubation in polyalomer tubes Ultracentrifugation at rpm 4 0 C, 20 hours Tube cutting  VLDL LDL + LDL (d> g/ml) Scaled tubes g KBr/ml Mixing Transfer to new polyaomer tubes + 4 ml KBr in NaCl-EDTA Ultracentrifuse, C 24 hrs LDL (upperpart, d, g/ml) LDL, dialized

43 LDL oxidation: The isolated LDL was oxidized with 5  M CuSO4 at 37 0 C conjugated dienes was monitor continuously at 234 nm for 30 minutes MDA LDL analysis: Extraction with butanol measurement at 515 nm exitation, 553 nm emission (Conti et al 1991)

44 Cholesterol accumulation in macrophages: Plasma from one healthy male was incubated with 430  g/ml ginger dichloromethane extract, 1  M a-tocopherol or none for 3 hrs at 37 0 C Mouse was injected with thioglycolate macrophages, 2-3x10 6, isolated from peritoneal, were incubated in RPMI 1640 containing 1% BSA and incubated for 4 hrs at 37 0 C, 5% CO 2 cells were washed and cholesterol was extracted with isopropanol total cholesterol, esterified cholesterol, free cholesterol analysis was done by HPLC

45 RESULTS

46 Figure 1. HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol, and triglyceride in plasma of male student subjects before and after treatment with ginger drink for 30 days (n=12) and those in control placebo subjects (n=12)

47 Figure 2. Significant protective effects of drinking ginger for 30 days in male student subjects (n=12) on resistance of the isolated LDL against oxidation by CuSO4 for 100 minute, measured by conjugated dienes as the oxidation product during.

48 Figure 3. Cholesterol profiles in macrophages incubated with oxidized human LDL that have been supplemented with ginger dichloromethane extract (430  g/ml),  -tocopherol (1  M) or unsupplemented (control)

49 CONCLUSSION 1.Drinking ginger water extract for 30 days did not lower blood cholesterol levels nor reduce plasma MDA 2.However there was significant resistance to oxidation of the LDL against induced oxidative stress 3.The resistance of LDL to oxidation prevent cholesterol accumulation in macrophage cells similar to  -tocopherol

50 IMMUNO ENHANCER ACTIVITY OF GINGER (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) WATER EXTRACT IN HEALTHY MALE STUDENT SUBJECTS Fransiska Rungkat-Zakaria 1, Nurrahman 2, Dondin Sayuthi 3, Francine Belleville 4, and Pierre Nabet 4 1. Dept Food Technology & Human Nutr, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia 2. School of Nutrition, Semarang, Indonesia 3. Deparment of Chemistry, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia 4. School of Medicine, Henri POINCARE University, Nancy, France

51 No Parameters Subjects Average values Day 0Day 30 1 SI of cells cultured with Con A Treated group 3.33 ( ) 0.63 ( ) Control group7.87 ( ) ( ) 2 SI of cells cultured with LPS Treated group1.39 ( ) 2.07 ( ) Control group1.74 ( ) 2.05 ( ) 3 SI of cells cultured with by paraquat Treated group1.15 ( ) 2.15 ( ) Control group1.28 ( ) 1.62 ( ) 4 MDA cells (  mol/l) Treated group3.33 ( ) 0.63 ( ) Control group3.03 ( ) 0.83 ( ) 5 Percentage of CD3+ cells Treated group82.42 ( ) ) Control group79.52 ( ) ( ) Table. Average and range values of lymphocyte cell analysis of proliferation activities (SI) in the presence of Con A, LPS or paraquat; of MDA cell; and of percentage of CD3 cells

52 Figure 1.Increasing NK lysing activity of 12 healthy male subjects given ginger drink..Blood was withdrawn for lymphocyte isolation at before treatment (A) and after treatment (B) from control and treated groups. Ginger drink was given for 30 days every afternoon and the cells were incubated with target cells which had been treated with H3-thymidine with the ratio of 100:1 or 50:1. Data was expressed as count per minute of the unlysed target cells. A B

53 Figure 2. MDA and vitamin E content in plasma of subjects before (0 day) and after receiving ginger drink for 30 days (n=12). The subjects were healthy male students living in the same dormitory. MDA was analyzed using the method of Conti et al (1991).Vitamin E was analyzed using spectrofluorometer.

54 Retention time (min) A B C Figure. HPLC chromatogram of ginger oleoresin (A), of plasma from control subjects (B) and of plasma from subjects received ginger drinks for 30 days (C). All samples were extracted with ethanol and injected in Lichosphere 5  OD2 column.

55 CONCLUSSION In human study, using male adult healthy subjects, there is improvement in T cells proliferation activities and percentage. Improvement on T cells was accompanied by resistance of lymphocyte cells against oxidative stress. This improvement was demonstrated by the cells obtained from the subjects drinking ginger Resistance of the lymphocytes was not accompanied by decrease in MDA cell Beside the role of ginger compounds as protectant against oxidative stress, they appeared to have other immunoenhancement activity, notably in improving NK cell activity. This improvement in NK cell activity had been observed in the male student studied receiving ginger drink for 30 days analysis of ginger substances in the plasma reveal the presence of the assumed gingerol group in the plasma of subjects drinking ginger, higher than that of the control group. Since NK cells are known to have specific activity in lysing mutated or infected cells, the results of this research has shown the scientific support of the traditional beliefs that ginger can improve body resistance to common cold.

56 LITERATURE REVIEW 1. Tang W and Eisenbrand G Chinese Drugs of Plant Origin: Chemistry, Pharmacology and Use in Traditional and Modern Medicine. Springer-Verlag, New York. 2. Nakatani N Natural antioxidants from spices. In: Huang M, Ho C, Lee CY (Eds). Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on health II. Am Chem Soc., Washington DC. 3. Hikino H, Kiso Y, Kato N, Hamada Y, Shioiri T, Aiyama R, Itokawa H, Kiuchi F and Sankawa U Antihepatotoxic actions of gingerols and diarylheptanoids. J Ethnopharmacol 14: Kikuzaki H. and Nakatani N Antioxidant effects of some ginger constituents. J Food Sci, 58: Zakaria-Rungkat, F, Darsana L and Wijaya H Immunity enhancement and cell protection activity of ginger buds and fresh ginger on mouse spleen lymphocytes. Symp Non-Nutritive Health Factors for Future Foods. Korean Soc. Food Sci and Technol, Korea 6. Antipenko, AY, Spielman AI, and Kirchberger MA Interactions of 6-Gingerol and Ellagic Acid with the Cardiac Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase. J Pharmacol Exp Therapeutics, 290, Conti M, Morand PC, Levillain P, and Lemonnier A Improved fluorometric determination of malonaldehyde. J Clin Chem, 37/7: Fritz KL, Nelson TL, Ruiz-Velasco V, and Mercurio SD Acute intramuscular injection of oils or oleic acid component protects mice against paraquat lethality. J Nutr. 194: Meydani SN, Wu D. Santos MS and Hayek MG Antioxidants and immune response in aged persons: Overview of present evidence. Am J Clin Nutr. 62: 146S-147S 10. Zakaria-Rungkat, F., Nurahman, Prangdimurti, E., Tejasari Antioxidant and Immunoenhancement Activities of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Extracts and Compounds in In Vitro and In Vivo Mouse and Human System. Nutraceuticals and Foods.8; ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This reseach was funded by the University Research Graduate Education)-Project III ’ , Department of Higher Education, Ministry of National Education

57 AKTIFITAS ANTI KANKER GEL CINCAU HIJAU (Cyclea barbata L.Miers) Fransiska Rungkat-Zakaria, Endang Prangdimurti, Edna Ananta, Albertus Seno Pandoyo HEALTHY DESSERT MAKANAN PENCUCI MULUT SEHAT MAKANAN PENCUCI MULUT FUNGSIONAL PANGAN (PENCUCI MULUT) FUNGSIONAL

58 PENDAHULUAN Secara tradisional, tanaman cincau hijau (Cyclea barbata L. Miers) digunakan sebagai obat penurun panas, obat radang lambung, mual, dan penurun tekanan darah tinggi. Minuman cincau merupakan produk olahan yang berbentuk gel dan dibuat dari daun cincau hijau melalui proses extraksi dingin. Beberapa laporan hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tanaman cincau mempunyai aktivitas sitotoksik dan antimalaria (Guinaudeau, 1993). Aktivitas sitotoksik ini dihipotesiskan dapat menghambat proliferasi sel kanker atau sel tumor di dalam tubuh..

59 Informasi ilmiah mengenai khasiat gel cincau hijau akan mendukung perkembangan produk pangan fungsional yang berbentuk “healthy dessert”, yang akhir-akhir ini amat digemari karena dapat mengimbangi konsumsi diet mengandung lemak dan protein hewani tinggi dan kadar serat rendah. Kanker merupakan penyakit yang diawali dari mutasi gen seluler, yang diketahui sebagian besar disebabkan oleh faktor external seperti polutan kimia baik pada makanan maupun lingkungan, virus, dan radiasi. Mekanisme pencegahan mutasi gen dapat terjadi melalui aktifitas antioxidan, perbaikan imunitas, atau sitotoksik (WCRF&AICR, 1997; Zakaria-Rungkat et al., 2001)

60 METODA PENELITIAN Extraksi air daun segar dengan aquades dilakukan secara manual karena terbentuk gel yang kemudian didinginkan untuk memperoleh cairan sineresis. Extrak air daun, akar dan batang dikeringbekukan. Extrak etanol dan hexan dilakukan pada daun, akar dan batang keringbeku. Extrak di tambahkan pada media kultur sel-sel kanker K562 (turunan sel leukimia) dan Hela (turunan sel kanker servix) dan pada kultur sel limfosit yang diisolasi dari darah tepi seorang mahasiswa sehat, dengan 5 tingkat konsentrasi: C1 (1/2 C2); C2 (setara dengan konsumsi segelas minuman cincau), C3 (2xC2); C4 (4xC2); C5 (8xC2).

61 Gambar 1. Efek sitotoksik extrak air (ai), etanol (et) dan hexan (he) dari daun (d), batang (b) dan akar (a) tanaman cincau hijau terhadap pertumbuhan sel leukemia (K562). Extrak air akar mempunyai persentase penghambatan diatas 61%, air batang diatas 30%, sedang air daun diatas 37% setelah konsentrasi diatas C3. Peningkatan konsentrasi > C3 (2x 2 gelas muniman gel cincau) tidak nyata menaikkan aktifitas sitotoksik.

62 Gambar 2. Aktifitas sitotoksik extrak air (ai), etanol (et) dan hexan (he) dari daun (d), batang (b) dan akar (a) tanaman cincau hijau terhadap kehidupan sel kanker servix (Hela).Ekstrak Aia hingga konsentrasi C4 (setara 4 gelas minuman gel cincau) menghambat pertumbuhan sebesar 31%, extrak aid 22% pada konsentrasi C4.

63 Sam- pel C1C2C3C4C5 Aid Etd *7 Hed49 *16831*38 * Aib *-39 *-3 Etb *14 Heb-22 * Aia *-52 * Eta *10 Hea (*) menunjukkan perbedaan nyata terhadap kontrol pada selang kepercayaan 95% Bilangan negatif menunjukkan penurunan nilai absorbansi. Tabel 1. Aktifitas sitotoksik (persen) extrak gel cincau pada sel limfosit manusia yang dikultur dalam media RPMI 1640 lengkap. Sel hidup dianalisa dengan MTT

64 Sam- pel Pelar ut *) Scopolamin* ) Tropic acid % b.b% b.k% b.b% b.k Daun Air Etanol Hexan Bata ng Air Etanol Hexan Akar Air Etanol Hexan *) pendekatan terhadap standar Tabel 2. Kadar alkaloid extrak cincau. Analisa dilakukan dengan HPLC dengan menggunakan asam scopolamin-HBr dan tropic sebagai standard.

65 KESIMPULAN 1 Minuman tradisional gel cincau hijau merupakan pangan fungsional yang dapat mencegah terjadinya penyakit kanker 2Extrak yang paling bersifat sitotoksik adalah extrak air akar pada sel K562 (leukimia) yang menghambat kehidupan sel sampai 61% dan pada sel Hela (kanker servix) sampai 31% 3Rasa extrak akar yang amat pahit dapat merusak cita rasa minuman gel cincau, sedang nilai ekonomisnya amat tinggi 4Secara keseluruhan semua extrak pada konsentrasi setara dengan satu gelas minuman gel cincau bersifat sitotoksik pada sel K562 dan Hela. tetapi 5Semua extrak pada konsentrasi setara dengan satu gelas minuman gel cincau tidak bersifat sitotoksik pada sel limfosit normal manusia Ucapan Terimakasih Ucapan terimakasih disampaikan pada Poyek QUE-TPG IPB yang telah mendanai penelitian ini dengan anggaran tahun

66 Bogor Agricultural University Campus IPB Darmaga, Bogor Improvement of lymphocyte activity and liver antioxidant in tumour bearing mice after feeding with green gel leaf (Cyclea barbata L Miers) powder Fransiska R. Zakaria 1, Sri Yadial Chalid 2, Rosanti Setiawati 1, Budi Agus Pranoto 2, Puspita Eka Wuyung 3, and Kusmardi 3 1,2) Department of Food Technology and Human Nutrition, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16001, Indonesia 3) Anatomy Pathology, Medical School, Indonesia Univ, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia

67 INTRODUCTION Tumour growth: oxidative stress, immunological disorder, malnutrition Potential role for oxidative-induced injury in the cancer process specifically during the promotion stage (Klaunig et al, 1998) Sources of ROS : from inflammatory cells (Cerutti and Trump, 1991) A need in research to find suitable food for cancer patients Green gel leaf Cyclea barbata L.Miers common refreshing drink in South East Asian countries known traditionally to have cooling and anti inflammation effects in the body

68 This gel /extracts of the leaf had been reported to have : cytotoxic activity on cancer cell lines non toxic on normal human lymphocyte cells (Zakaria-Rungkat et al, 2001) In this study, the leaves were processed to produce powder products which included all parts and fibres in the leaves

69 C3H Mice n=5 Fed with powder for 4-wk (12.1g/kg) Tumor transplantation Tumor latent period (days) Tumor volume (Moving pen, Tajima) Killed, Day 57 Liver Tumor Healthy and necrotic

70 Spleen Spleen cells Resistance to H2O2 (MTT) T cell (Rosette) In vitro cytotoxic toward tumor cell Tumor cells

71 LIVER CATALASE Colometri, Sinha 1972 SOD (Adenochrome asay Misra. H.P. GSH-PX (Paglia and Valentine, 1967 Total Glutathion DTNB, Ellman MDA (TBA, Buege and Aust)

72 Healthy tumor tissue Necrotic tumor tissue

73 Figure. Latent period of tumor growth in mice fed leaf powder then implemented with tumor cells (LP+T) and in mice implemented with tumor (T). There is no difference in the latent period; the leaf did not prevent tumor growth in mice

74 Figure. Tumor volume in mice fed leaf powder then implemented with tumor cells (LP+T) and in mice implemented with tumor (T). The leaf powder decrease tumor volume in mice

75 Figure. Whole tumor and necrotic tissue in mice fed leaf powder then implemented with tumor cells (LP+T) and in mice implemented with tumor (T). The leaf powder decrease tumor mass but increase tumor necrotic tissue in mice

76 Figure. Percentage of necrotic tumor tissue in mice fed leaf powder then implemented with tumor cells (LP+T) and in mice implemented with tumor (T). The leaf powder increase the percentage of tumor necrotic tissue in mice

77 Figure. Percentage of T cells by rosette technique in mice fed leaf powder then implemented with tumor cells (CP), implemented with tumor without the leaf (T) and in standard control mice (SC). Feeding leaf powder increased Tcell inspite of the tumor growth. Tumor implementations without the leaf markedly reduced T cell percentage

78 Figure. Cytotoxicity of T cells from mice fed leaf powder then transplanted with tumor cells (LP+ T), with tumor alone and standard diet (SC). Slight increase in cytotoxicity in T and LP+T, indicate T cell recognition of the tumor antigen

79 Figure. Mice lymphocyte resistance to oxidative stress. H2O M did not influence cells' resistance. Prolonged tumor growth from 3 to 4 weeks markedly decrease cells’ resistance to oxidative stress

80 Figure. MDA content and SOD activity in mice fed leaf powder then implemented with tumor cells (LP+T); in mice implemented with tumor (T) and in mice fed standard diet. The leaf powder increase SOD activity in mice but reduce MDA in the liver

81 Figure. GSH content and antioxidant enzyme activity in mice fed leaf powder then implemented with tumor cells (LP+T); in mice implemented with tumor (T) and in mice fed standard diet. The leaf powder reduce liver catalase activity but did not effect the other enzyme activity in the liver.

82 CONCLUSION 1. There is no difference in the latent period of the tumor growth in mice. The leaf powder decrease tumor volume and tumor mass but increase tumor necrotic tissue up to 3 times 2. Feeding leaf powder increased Tcell inspite of the tumor growth. Slight increase in cytotoxicity in T and LP+T, indicate T cell recognition of the tumor antigen Prolonged tumor growth from 3 to 4 weeks markedly decrease cells’ resistance to oxidative stress 3. The leaf powder increase SOD activity in mice but reduce MDA in the liver Reduce liver catalase activity but did not effect the other enzyme activity in the liver.

83 Yang sudah/sedang kami teliti: Kayu manis, cacao Kumis kucing Kecombrang Lengkuas, minyak buah merah, Dll Aspek: imunomodulator, anti kanker anti obesity (baru)

84 Conclusion Potensi komoditi lokal sangat besar untuk produk pangan fungsional Bahan baku pangan tradisional mengandung komponen fungsional/bioaktif Ketersediaan bahan berlimpah Potensi untuk suplemen dari bahan baku pangan, rempah-rempah, tanaman obat Rekayasa pangan fungsional dari bahan/resep tradisional Potensi menu diet tradisional Masih banyak komoditi yang harus diteliti

85 Thank You Administration Building Bogor agricultural University Indonesia

86


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