Vegetasi (dari bahasa Inggris: vegetation) dalam ekologi adalah istilah untuk keseluruhan komunitas tumbuhan. Vegetasi merupakan bagian hidup yang tersusun dari tumbuhan yang menempati suatu ekosistem. Beraneka tipe hutan, kebun, padang rumput, dan tundra merupakan contoh-contoh vegetasi. Analisis vegetasi biasa dilakukan oleh ilmuwan ekologi untuk mempelajari kemelimpahan jenis serta kerapatan tumbuh tumbuhan pada suatu tempat. Diunduh dari: http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vegetasi…. 28/8/2012
STREAM BANK VEGETATION SURVEY Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012
STREAM BANK VEGETATION INFLUENCES 1.The amount of sunlight entering a stream, which controls photosynthesis and stream temperature. 2.Affect stream flow and bank erosion. 3.Important sources of organic material for aquatic organisms. Direct relationship between riparian vegetation and macroinvertebrate community. 4.Act as important buffers between upslope land use and the stream. SEMPADAN SUNGAI Sempadan sungai, terutama di daerah bantaran banjir, merupakan daerah ekologi dan sekaligus hidrologis sungai yang sangat penting. Sempadan sungai tidak dapat dipisahkan dengan badansungainya yaitu "alur sungai", karena secara ekologis dan hidrologis merupakan satu kesatuanekologi yaitu satu ekosistem sungai. Secara hidrologis sempadan sungai merupakan daerahbantaran banjir yang berfungsi "memberikan luapan air banjir ke samping kanan kiri sungai,sehingga kecepatan air ke hilir dapat dikurangi, energi air dapat diredam di sepanjang sungai,serta erosi tebing dan erosi dasar sungai dapat dikurangi secara simultan“ Diunduh dari: http://www.scribd.com/doc/40301863/2-5-Penghijauan-Bantaran-Sungai 28/8/2012 Tipe umum penampang sungai dan penentuan lebar daerah sempadan sungai (menurut Maryono 2003)
PURPOSE OF VEGETATION SURVEY Create a data set that can be used by County and State agencies to monitor riparian buffers in Baltimore County. Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012
TUJUAN SURVEI VEGETASI 1.Access the woody plant diversity of the stream bank a.Density: how many trees b.Which species are present c.Diversity Index 2.Basal Area: % of area covered by trunk of tree 3.Assess canopy closure over the stream Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012
Getting to know the plants Urban areas often have stands of trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants A transect is a designated area in which plant diversity is assessed. This makes the task of identifying all the plants more manageable A permanent transect is placed at each school that has a stream. Long term monitoring site. Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012 KOMUNITAS VEGETASI Komunitas vegetasi diklasifikasikan dalam beberapa cara menurut kepentingan dan tujuannya. Pada umumnya dan yang banyak disukai ialah klasifikasi berdasarkan: Fisiognomi; Habitat; DAN Komposisi dan dominasi spesies. Struktur Komunitas Vegetasi Studi mengenai struktur dan klasifikasi komunitas tumbuhan dapat juga disebut Fitososiologi. Analisisnya disebut analisis vegetasi, yang terdiri atas analisis kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Analisis kuantitatif komunitas tumbuhan Untuk analisis ada beberapa metode pengambilan sampel, yaitu: 1. Metode kuadrat (Quadrat methode) 2. Metode transek (Transeck methode) 3. Metode loop (Loop methode) 4. Metode titik (Point less/point methode)
Getting to know the plants Urban areas often have stands of trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants A transect is a designated area in which plant diversity is assessed. This makes the task of identifying all the plants more manageable A permanent transect is placed at each school that has a stream. Long term monitoring site. Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012 KOMUNITAS VEGETASI Metode Transek Transek adalah jalur sempit melintang lahan yang akan dipelajari/diselidiki. Tujuannya adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan perubahan vegetasi dan perubahan lingkungan; atau untuk mengetahui jenis vegetasi yang ada di suatu lahan secara cepat. Ada dua macam transek, yaitu transek sabuk dan transek garis. Belt transek merupakan jalur vegetasi yang lebarnya sama dan sangat panjang. Lebar jalur ditentukan oleh sifat-sifat vegetasinya untuk menunjukkan bagan yang sebenarnya. Lebar jalur untuk hutan antara 1-10 m. Transek 1 m digunakan jika semak dan tunas di bawah diikutkan, tetapi bila hanya pohon-pohonnya yang dewasa yang dipetakan, transek 10 m yang baik. Panjang transek tergantung tujuan penelitian. Setiap segment dipelajari vegetasinya. Line transect (transek garis). Dalam metode ini garis-garis merupakan petak contoh (plot). Tanaman yang berada tepat pada garis dicatat jenisnya dan berapa kali terdapat/dijumpai. Diunduh dari: http://fp.uns.ac.id/~hamasains/ekotan%203.htm 28/8/2012
Transect Design in relation to stream reach LeftRight 0 30 60 90 120 150 0 30 60 90 120 150 Direction of sampling 180 ft. 30 ft Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012
Dimensions of Transect 60 feet 30 feet 90 feet 30 feet 15 feet 30 feet Direction of sampling Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012
MEASURING CANOPY TREES Identify the species –Take students to site and collect leaves, fruit, pieces of bark (if you have trouble identifying) –Tree Identification guide –Any field guide to trees Measure all trees in the transect that are larger than 3 inches in diameter. Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012 How to Measure a Tree Canopy Cover By Diane Bacher, eHow Contributor Tree canopy cover is defined as the area of ground covered by the extension of plant foliage. Determining canopy cover in a forest helps determine the amount of photosynthesis from trees within the forest--which is critical to climate-change and global-warming policies. Canopy cover is also important for the basic international definition of a forest, which, according to the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization, is land measuring at least 0.5 hectares with 10 percent potential canopy cover and tree height of at least five meters.
MEASURING CANOPY TREES Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012 Instructions Measuring Tree Canopy 1.Lay out a grid of points across the forest floor. Consider whether you are going to measure along a transect line or a grid pattern. When measuring along a transect line, the percentage of canopy cover is calculated as the ratio of the line length where the canopy was measured to the entire length of the transect line. Transect lines should cover the entire plot but can be random or systematically placed. 2.Set up the Cajanus tube at predetermined sample points. A Cajanus tube looks like a periscope, but it has an internal mirror and crosshairs to ensure it points directly up at the canopy. It has a special holder so the tube can hang freely; measurements are taken in a vertical direction. This vertical perspective gives the most accurate measurement. 3.Using a Cajanus tube, make and record a measurement of tree canopy cover at each predetermined point. For each measurement, record 1 if the view is obstructed and 0 if you can view the sky. 4.Canopy cover is the estimated mean of a binomial distribution, also known as a Bernoulli distribution. This type of distribution uses a sample to determine the probability of something occurring across the entire population. In this case, the sample is the transect line or grid of measurements predicting the canopy cover over the entire forest. To arrive at probabilities with low variance, 200 - 250 sample points should be measured. Read more: How to Measure a Tree Canopy Cover | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how_5701903_measure-tree-canopy-cover.html#ixzz24rLIFh80How to Measure a Tree Canopy Cover | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how_5701903_measure-tree-canopy-cover.html#ixzz24rLIFh80
MEASURING DBH Measure diameter breast height (dbh) using the special measuring tape provided dbh is measured in inches DBH Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012 Diameter at breast height, or DBH, is a standard method of expressing the diameter of the trunk or bole of a standing tree. DBH is one of the most common dendrometric measurements. Tree trunks are measured at the height of an adult's breast, which is defined differently in different countries and situations. In continental Europe, Australia, the UK, and Canada the diameter is measured at 1.3 metres above ground. In The US, New Zealand, Burma, India, Malaysia, and South Africa, breast height diameter is measured at a height of 1.4 metres. Previously 4.5 ft (1.37 m) was used. In many cases the height makes little difference to the measured diameter. Ornamental trees are usually measured at 1.5 metres above ground. Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diameter_at_breast_height ….. 28/8/2012 DBH is used in estimating the amount of timber volume in a single tree or stand of trees utilising the allometric correlation between stem diameter, tree height and timber volume. It can also be used in the estimation of the age of veteran trees, given that diameter increment is the only, "constant non-reversible feature of tree growth",
ESTIMATING CANOPY CLOSURE OVER STREAM At the water’s edge, hold the densitometer perpendicular to the bank 1 ft. from the shoreline. Hold the densitometer as shown at right. A reading is obtained by leveling both of the densitometer’s bubble levels (centered between the two lines) and then sighting through the instrument so that the sighting marks (dot in the center circle) are aligned. Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012 Crown closure is a term used in forestry Crown closure, also known as canopy cover, crown cover, or canopy closure, is defined as the percent of canopy overlying the forest floor. Another definition of crown closure is the proportion of a stand covered by the crowns of live trees. Crown closure helps predict volume, stand density, crown width, and crown competition factor. Crown closure is often determined using aerial photographs because ground evaluations become difficult to obtain. Stands are usually placed in to different classes (1-6) after viewing the aerial photographs. Very Sparse 1-9% Sparse 10-29% Low 30-49% Medium 50-69% Dense 70-84% Very Dense 85-100% Although sometimes referred to as canopy cover and canopy closure, crown closure is different from these two concepts. Canopy cover represents the aggregate of all vertically projected tree crowns onto the ground surface, while canopy closure represents the amount of the sky obscured by the canopy from a certain point on the ground.
ESTIMATING CANOPY CLOSURE OVER STREAM At the water’s edge, hold the densitometer perpendicular to the bank 1 ft. from the shoreline. Hold the densitometer as shown at right. A reading is obtained by leveling both of the densitometer’s bubble levels (centered between the two lines) and then sighting through the instrument so that the sighting marks (dot in the center circle) are aligned. Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012 Ground measurement Each tree’s measurements are used to calculate the area projected by the crown onto the ground. Summing the crown areas for all trees measured on a fixed plot area and dividing by the ground area will give the crown closure. The "moosehorn" crown closure estimator is a device for measuring crown closure from the ground. crown Other methods for estimating crown closure include the use of line-intercept, spherical densiometer, and hemispherical photography. Exact cover measurements should be made in vertical direction, or the cover percent will be overestimated. Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crown_closure 28/8/2012
Species Species present# Ind Relative Abundance (pi)ln pipi ln pi Slippery ElmUlmus rubrum1220.37-1.0033021-0.3678774 American BeechFagus grandifolia160.10-2.3025850-0.2302585 Ohio BuckeyeAesculus glabra110.02-4.0943445-0.0682390 Tulip treeLiriodendron tulipfera190.15-1.8971199-0.2845679 Paw Asimina triloba170.12-2.1484344-0.2506506 White oakQuercus alba120.03-3.4011973-0.1133732 Green AshFraxinus pennsylvanica160.10-2.3025850-0.2302585 MusclewoodCarpinus caroliniana120.03-3.4011973-0.1133732 MapleAcer rubrum110.02-4.0943445-0.0682390 Hop HornbeamOstrya virginiana110.02-4.0943445-0.0682390 Bitternut HickoryCarya cordiformis130.05-2.9957322-0.1497866 Sums 601.00 -1.94486 Species Richness 11 Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index1.94 Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012
Results: Vegetation Sampling Santee BranchBascom RunHerbert Run BIOL 104ENVSSchmitz/Klein trees/transect614841 BA (in 2 )47.238.348.2 % canopy closure677148 Species richness111410 Diversity Index1.941.921.81 Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012
VEGETATION ANALYSIS 1.Age structure of population 2.Dominant species 3.Contribution of leaf litter to stream 4.Biomass 5.Productivity Diunduh dari: student.ccbcmd.edu/.../Riparian%20Veg%20S... … 25/8/2012
VEGETATION ANALYSIS ANALISIS VEGETASI HUTAN Analisis vegetasi adalah cara mempelajari susunan dan bentuk vegetasi. Untuk kepentingan deskripsi vegetasi ada tiga macam parameter kuantitatif vegetasi yang sangat penting yang umumnya diukur dari suatu tipe komunitas tumbuhan yaitu: 1. Kerapatan (density) Kerapatan adalah jumlah individu suatu jenis tumbuhan dalam suatu luasan tertentu, misalnya 100 individu/ha. 2. Frekwensi Frekwensi suatu jenis tumbuhan adalah jumlah petak contoh dimana ditemukannya jenis tersebut dari sejumlah petak contoh yang dibuat. Biasanya frekwensi dinyatakan dalam besaran persentase. 3. Cover (Kelindungan) Kelindungan adalah proporsi permukaan tanah yang ditutupi oleh proyeksi tajuk tumbuhan. Oleh karena itu, kelindungan selalu dinyatakan dalam satuan persen. Diunduh dari: http://www.irwantoshut.net/analisis_vegetasi_parameter_kuantitatif.html …. 28/8/2012
Vegetation analysis, phenological patterns and chorological affinities in Wadi Qena, Eastern Desert, Egypt Fawzy M. Salama, Mohamed K. Ahmed, Noha A. El-Tayeh, Sabah A. Hammad. African Journal of Ecology. Volume 50, Issue 2, pages 193–204, June 2012.Volume 50, Issue 2, Diunduh dari: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2011.01313.x/abstract …. 28/8/2012 The present study, which was conducted between 2009 and 2010, provides an analysis of the floristic composition, life forms, phenology, chorological spectrum and analysis of the vegetation in the deltaic part of Wadi Qena using multivariate analysis techniques. Twenty-five stands were sampled to represent, as much as possible, the vegetation variation in the study area. A total of 54 species (nineteen annuals and 35 perennials) belonging to 47 genera and nineteen families were recorded. The largest families were Fabaceae and Brassicaceae (nine and seven, respectively), Asteraceae and Poaceae (six for each), Chenopodiaceae (five), and Zygophyllaceae (four). Therophytes are the predominant life form (37%) followed by chamaephytes (24%), phanerophytes (18.5%), hemicryptophytes (9.29%) and cryptophytes (5.5%). Chorological analysis revealed that Saharo-Arabian (48%) and the Sudano-Zambezian (19.2%) chorotypes constitute the main bulk (67.2%) of the total flora of the studied area. The majority of the perennial species behave similarly to each other in their phenology, and usually perennials sprout at the end of February, become leafy in March, flower in April and produce fruits between April and July. Three main vegetation groups resulted from classification of the dominant vegetation. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that magnesium, potassium and pH were the most effective soil variables.
Vegetation Analysis along an Altitudinal Gradient of Juniperus indica forest in Southern Manang Valley, Nepal B.K. Ghimire, H.D. Lekhak, R.P. Chaudhary, Ole R. Vetaas IJED Winter 2008, Volume 9, Number W08. Diunduh dari: http://ceser.in/ceserp/index.php/ijed/article/view/287 …. 28/8/2012 A quantitative vegetative analysis of Juniperus indica forest was done along an altitudinal gradient on southern aspect of U-shaped Manang valley (3300-4000 m asl), during May-October 2004. The study area was divided in to three elevation ranges: 3300-3500 m, 3500-3800 m and 3800- 4000 m. Thirty five square quadrats (10 m X10 m) for tree and seventy square quadrats (5 m X 5 m) for shrub/sapling were sampled. Altogether 19 species (3 trees and 16 shrubs) were identified. J. indica was the most dominant tree species in all elevation range. Tree density and basal area showed inverse relation with elevation. Above 3700 m J. indica was found in bushy (scrubby) form so there was no measurable basal area of the tree. Diversity index did not show any specific relation with altitude. Index of dominance indicated that forest was dominated by one or two species and the value of beta diversity showed the more or less homogeneous distribution of the plants in all stands.