4 Problem Identification The problem that the GIS will address must be identified There are 2 techniques that can be used to assist problem identification : creating a rich picture or developing a root definition. Both these 2 techniques are drawn from the soft system approach (Checkland, 1981; Wood-Harper et al., 1995) to system design. Lihat Buku Referensi Utama halaman
5 Rich Picture Schematic view of the problem a project will address. It presents the main components of the problem, as well as any interactions that exist. Adopted from Avison & Wood-Harper (1991), Reeve (1996), and Skidmore & Wroe (1998) These include the use of : a. Crossed Swords : expresses conflict b. Eyes : represent external observers c. Speech Bubbles : personal or group opinions (See a sample in the next picture)
6 Rich Picture (2) Lihat Buku Referensi Utama halaman 236
7 Root Definition (1) * A statement of an individual's or group's perspective on the problem. * Different users have different views of a problem. In the house-hunting GIS,the views of groups involved in the design process might be quite different and lead to a degree of conflict. * For example, home buyers may see the GIS as "a system to help identify and rank possible homes", whereas the estate agents may see it as"a system to help maximize house sales".
8 Root Definition (2) These two statements are the root definitions of these particular groups. The system developer must get these two groups to agree on a common root definition. * For example, "a system that identifies properties for sale which meet the requirements of individual home buyers".
9 Problem Identification : Questions What is the problem you wish to address with GIS ? Is the problem structured or un structured ? Can the problem be summarized in a rich picture ? Does the rich picture include the views of all those who will use the GIS and all those who will be affected by it ? Can a single root definition be defined for the problem ? Is this root definition acceptable to all potential users and those who will be affected by the GIS ? Can the problem be tackled within the resources available ? Would it be better to break the problem into smaller component parts and tackle one of these first ?
10 Penutup Mahasiswa diharapkan telah mampu merumuskan kebutuhan-kebutuhan atas Sistem Informasi Geografis dengan menggunakan Rich Pictures & Root Definition.