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Bahan kajian pada MK. PSDAL

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Presentasi berjudul: "Bahan kajian pada MK. PSDAL"— Transcript presentasi:

1 Bahan kajian pada MK. PSDAL
KONSERVASI SUMBERDAYA ALAM DAN LINGKUNGAN Bahan kajian pada MK. PSDAL Diabstraksikan oleh: Soemarno, psdl-ppsub - Malang 2013

2 SUMBERDAYA ALAM Sumberdaya Alam - Sesuatu material alami yang digunakan oleh manusia atau Sumberdaya yang disediakan Bumi untuk manusia Misalnya: Air, Petroleum, Minerals, Hutan

Sumberdaya alam yang dapat diganti dengan kecepatan yang sama pada sat ia digunakan. Misalnya: Pohon, Angin, Air. Although many resources are renewable, they still can be used up before they can be renewed. TEGAKAN Jati = sumberdaya alam biologis yang dapat ditanam kembali setelah dipanen

4 Sumberdaya tidak terbarukan – Nonrenewable Resources
Sumberdaya yang terbentuk dengan kecepatan jauh lebih lambat dibandingkan dengan kecepatan penggunaannya (konsumsinya). A fossil fuel is a nonrenewable energy resource formed from the remains of plants & animals that lived long ago. Misalnya: Batubara, Petroleum (Oil), Gas Alam Sekali habis, tidak dapat diganti !!!

Untuk konservasi sumberdaya alam, anda harus mencoba untuk menggunakan sumberdaya alam secukupnya hanya kalau diperlukan 3 R: Reduce Reuse Recycle

6 PENCEMARAN TANAH How can soil be lost or damaged?
Exhausted – KEHILANGAN KESUBURAN TANAH akibat diolah dan ditanami secara TERUS MENERUS Polluted – mining, chemical spills, HUMANS Erosion – oleh air , angin Desertification – once wet area, undergoes drought conditions OR grazing animals OR cutting trees inaDesertification.jpeg

7 Bagaimana Konservasi Tanah ?
Konservasi tanah adalah pengelolaan tganah untuk mencegah degradasi/kerusakan tanah. Pengolahan tanah menurut Kontur Pergiliran Tanaman Olah Tanah Konservasi Penangkal angin Leaving soil fallow Teras bangku pada lahan miring untuk budidaya sayuran – upaya konservasi tanah dari ancaman erosi dan runoff air hujan Foto: smno – Pujon-Nop 2012

8 Contour Plowing plowing fields along curves of slopes
Farming on the contour, rows are perpendicular to the slope. Photo courtesy USDA NRCS. Diunduh dari: ……. 27/11/2012

9 Impacts of Conservation Tillage on Row Crops
Conservation Plowing dead weeds and stalks are left in the ground from year to year Impacts of Conservation Tillage on Row Crops Switching to conservation tillage on all row crops in the Southeast over the past 5 years has resulted in savings of over $100 million to growers. Diunduh dari: ……. 27/11/2012

10 Crop Rotation plant different crops in a field from year to year
The effects of crop rotation: Higher diversity in plant production and thus in human and livestock nutrition. Reduction and reduced risk of pest and weed infestations. Greater distribution of channels or biopores created by diverse roots (various forms, sizes and depths). Better distribution of water and nutrients through the soil profile. Exploration for nutrients and water of diverse strata of the soil profile by roots of many different plant species resulting in a greater use of the available nutrients and water. Increased nitrogen fixation through certain plant-soil biota symbionts and improved balance of N/P/K from both organic and mineral sources. Increased humus formation. Diunduh dari: ……. 27/11/2012

11 ALLEY CROPPING trees planted along the edge of a field
Alley cropping is the cultivation of crops grown in between rows of woody plants. Key design considerations include selecting woody plants that provide marketable products, crop timing and management, crop sunlight requirements, and size of farm equipment as it affects spacing requirements. The alley crop can be changed as tree canopy closes over time. Diunduh dari: ……. 27/11/2012

12 Prevents erosion from heavy rains on steep hills.
TERRACING Prevents erosion from heavy rains on steep hills. Bench terraces Bench terraces are a soil and water conservation measure used on sloping land with relatively deep soils to retain water and control erosion. They are normally constructed by cutting and filling to produce a series of level steps or benches. This allows water to infiltrate slowly into the soil. Bench terraces are reinforced by retaining banks of soil or stone on the forward edges. This practice is typical for rice-based cropping systems. Diunduh dari: ……. 27/11/2012

13 PENCEMARAN AIR How can water be lost or cause damage?
WATER POLLUTION Many things cause water pollution. Most water pollution is casued by humans, but some pollution is caused by nature. Things that pollute our water are: sewage drainage into our water cycle, oil from vehicles, oil spills, fertilizer from crops and garbage dumps can run into our water system when it rains, hot water dumped from factories or nuclear plants, salt water can pollute fresh water, and dust and ash from volcanoes. Diunduh dari: ……. 27/11/2012

14 WATER POLLUTION How can water be lost or cause damage?
Nonpoint-source Pollution – Pollution that comes from many sources; Reaches bodies of water as runoff EX: street gutters, fertilizers, eroded soil, drainage from mines

15 Bagaimana Air dikonservasi ?
By using only the water needed By recycling water By using drip irrigation systems. Waste water can be treated by sewage treatment plants and septic systems

16 Polusi Udara Bagaimana Udara dapat menimbulkan kerusakan dan kerugian ?
Polusi Udara – The contamination of the atmosphere by the introduction of pollutants from human and natural sources Pencemaran udara akibat transportasi di jaklan raya perkotaan. Foto: smno-Malang-Agt 2012

17 Polutan Udara Polutan Primer Polutan Sekunder Industrial emissions
Vehicle Exhaust Volcanic Ash Polutan Sekunder The formation of smog

Industrial & Indoor Air Pollution Acid Precipitation The Ozone Hole

19 Bagaimana Udara dapat dilestarikan?
Legislasi: Misalnya pengaturan Baku Mutu Udara Ambient Kota By Technology such as scrubbers - devices used to remove pollutants before they are released by smokestacks Mengubah Pola Hidup Masyarakat Integrated Assessment Unit for strategies to control emissions to the atmosphere and their environmental impacts Diunduh dari: ……. 27/11/2012

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