Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Fertilization Fertilization – fusion of egg and sperm into a single diploid cell, the zygote. Fertilization – fusion of egg and sperm into a single diploid.

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "Fertilization Fertilization – fusion of egg and sperm into a single diploid cell, the zygote. Fertilization – fusion of egg and sperm into a single diploid."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Fertilization Fertilization – fusion of egg and sperm into a single diploid cell, the zygote. Fertilization – fusion of egg and sperm into a single diploid cell, the zygote. –External –Internal

2 External Fertilization –Sperm spread over egg cells Requires water Requires water Most aquatic animals Most aquatic animals –Examples: most fish, corals, starfish Inefficient Inefficient –Spermatophore – sperm packaged into capsule Some terrestrial animals Some terrestrial animals –Examples: salamanders, scorpions, octopus

3 Internal Fertilization Requires copulation Requires copulation Most common method for terrestrial animals Most common method for terrestrial animals Less sperm and eggs needed Less sperm and eggs needed

4 The Process - sperm capacitation capacitation hyperactivation hyperactivation zona binding zona binding acrosome reaction acrosome reaction zona penetration zona penetration sperm-oocyte membrane fusion sperm-oocyte membrane fusion decondensation of sperm nucleus decondensation of sperm nucleus formation of male pronucleus formation of male pronucleus

5 The Process - Egg Ovulation Ovulation Sperm-egg membrane fusion Sperm-egg membrane fusion Egg activation Egg activation –increase in Ca++ –cortical reaction - zona block –completion of meiosis (2nd PB) formation of female pronucleus formation of female pronucleus Syngamy - fusion of both pronuclei Syngamy - fusion of both pronuclei

6 Capacitation process of sperm becoming fertile process of sperm becoming fertile occurs in uterus occurs in uterus must be removed from seminal fluid must be removed from seminal fluid –in vitro, wash sperm capacitated sperm have the ability to fertilize the egg capacitated sperm have the ability to fertilize the egg

7 Hyperactivation facilitates sperm-oocyte contact facilitates sperm-oocyte contact occurs in oviduct occurs in oviduct motility pattern becomes frenzied motility pattern becomes frenzied

8 Zona Binding Zona proteins: ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 Zona proteins: ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 Sperm bind ZP3 specifically Sperm bind ZP3 specifically Initiates acrosome reaction Initiates acrosome reaction

9 Acrosome Reaction Fusion of two membranes Fusion of two membranes –spermatazoal plasma membrane –outer acrosomal membrane Acrosin released Acrosin released –allows sperm to penetrate zona Exposes equatorial segment Exposes equatorial segment – for fusion with egg

10 Sperm-Egg Fusion Equatorial segment of sperm Equatorial segment of sperm Plasma membrane of egg Plasma membrane of egg Initiates egg activation Initiates egg activation

11 Egg Activation Cortical Reaction Cortical Reaction –exocytosis of cortical granules Zona block Zona block –biochemical changes eliminates sperm binding

12 PHASES OF FERTLIZATION 1. Passage of sperm through the corona radiata of the oocytes by the use of hyaluronidase which is released by the acrosome of the sperm and movement of the tail 2. Penetration of Zona Pellucida- helped by the enzymes esterase, acrosin, and neuraminidase Once penetration occurs there is a biochemical zona reaction that causes the egg to become impermeable to other sperm. Once penetration occurs there is a biochemical zona reaction that causes the egg to become impermeable to other sperm.

13 PHASES OF FERTLIZATION 3. Fusion of the plasma membranes of the oocyte and sperm 4. Completion of second meiotic division of the oocyte and formation of the female pronucleus 5. Formation of the male pronucleus

14 PHASES OF FERTLIZATION 6. Breakdown of pronuclear membranes, condensation of chromosomes, and arrangement of chromosomes for mitotic cell division

15

16

17 Figure 7.8(1) Events Leading to the Fusion of Egg and Sperm Plasma Membranes Recognition of egg and sperm; 1. Chemoattraction of the sperm to the egg by soluble molecules 2. The exocytosis of the acrosomal vesicle to release its enzyme 3. The binding of the sperm to the extracellular envelop of the egg 4. The passage of the sperm through this envelop 5. Fusion of egg and sperm cell membrane

18

19 The Entry of Sperm into Sea Urchin Eggs Entry of Sperm into Golden Hamster Egg Gamete fusion

20 Entry of Sperm into Golden Hamster Egg

21 Fertilization  Fertilization  The prevention of polyspermy 1. Acrosome discharges enzymes to digest zona pellucida 2. Once single sperm enters egg 3. Egg releases enzymes that harden zona pellucida preventing other sperm from entering 4. Sperm nucleus enters egg and fuses with egg nucleus

22 The prevention of polyspermy Zona block A fast reaction / Zona block –biochemical changes eliminates sperm binding Cortical Reaction  The slow block to polyspermy / Cortical Reaction  Cortical granule fuse with egg cell membrane –exocytosis of cortical granules

23

24

25 Entry of Sperm

26

27 Abnormal Sperm Motility

28 JUST RIGHT! With just the right number of sperm all of the eggs get fertilized and development occurs normally.

29 NORMAL FERTILIZATION The sperm enters and binds to the egg surface. This induces a calcium wave that causes the cortical granules, white, to fuse with the plasma membrane, releasing their contents and causing the fertilization membrane to rise. The sperm is then pulled into the egg where it moves to the egg nucleus and fuses. DNA synthesis occurs along with duplication of the centrosome, black. Nuclear envelope breakdown and chromosome condensation leads to the metaphase plate. Anaphase leads to telophase and cell division. The process is repeated. The sperm enters and binds to the egg surface. This induces a calcium wave that causes the cortical granules, white, to fuse with the plasma membrane, releasing their contents and causing the fertilization membrane to rise. The sperm is then pulled into the egg where it moves to the egg nucleus and fuses. DNA synthesis occurs along with duplication of the centrosome, black. Nuclear envelope breakdown and chromosome condensation leads to the metaphase plate. Anaphase leads to telophase and cell division. The process is repeated.

30 NUCLEAR MIGRATION This time-lapse video shows the female pronucleus moving to the center of the embryo where it will fuse with the male pronucleus. The numbers in the lower left corner are minutes after fertilization. Species is Lytichinus pictus at about 18C. This time-lapse video shows the female pronucleus moving to the center of the embryo where it will fuse with the male pronucleus. The numbers in the lower left corner are minutes after fertilization. Species is Lytichinus pictus at about 18C. Red arrow points to the nucleus. Red arrow points to the nucleus.

31

32 TOO FEW! Too few and the eggs will not be fertilized

33 TOO MANY! Too many and the embryos will be polyspermic and die. Too many and the embryos will be polyspermic and die.

34 POLYSPERMY If two or more sperm make it into the egg polyspermy occurs. In this case some of the genetic material condensed into chromosome is attracted to the extra sperm causing abnormal development and ultimately the death of the embryo. Too many sperm and toxic conditions can lead to polyspermy.

35

36 From single cell to 4 cell

37 Pembelahan 4 sel - Morula

38 Fertilisasi Landak Laut (Sea Urchin)

39 Landak Laut / Sea Urchin

40 Struktur Anatomi Landak Laut

41 Notice how the needle goes into the soft part between the teeth and shell, on the opposite side from the syringe. This "squirts" the potassium chloride onto the gonads causing them to contract and expel the gametes. contract

42 A milliliter of 3.7% potassium chloride is injected into each side of the sea urchin. (Smaller amounts for smaller sea urchins. A Lytichinus pictus would only need a tenth of a milliliter per side.) Smaller gauge, 25-30, needles work best. A milliliter of 3.7% potassium chloride is injected into each side of the sea urchin. (Smaller amounts for smaller sea urchins. A Lytichinus pictus would only need a tenth of a milliliter per side.) Smaller gauge, 25-30, needles work best.

43 HOW TO SPAWN AN URCHIN A 2cc syringe filled with 0.5M potassium chloride is inserted into the sea urchin between the teeth and the hard outer shell. A small amount of potassium chloride is injected into the urchin on each side (amount varies with size of urchin, 0.1cc/inch/side). This induces the urchin to spawn IF it has any eggs or sperm left. A 2cc syringe filled with 0.5M potassium chloride is inserted into the sea urchin between the teeth and the hard outer shell. A small amount of potassium chloride is injected into the urchin on each side (amount varies with size of urchin, 0.1cc/inch/side). This induces the urchin to spawn IF it has any eggs or sperm left.

44 Orange indicates a female in most species (can be redish in others). Invert the sea urchin over a beaker of seawater and fill to the rim with seawater by pouring seawater over the sea urchin. Let the eggs drop to the bottom of the beaker.. Female S. purpuratus

45 HOW TO COLLECT EGGS The injected female urchin is placed mouth side up over a beaker filled with sea water. The eggs will then be shed into the sea water and settle down to the bottom of the beaker. Store the eggs at the same temperature as would be best for development in this urchin. The injected female urchin is placed mouth side up over a beaker filled with sea water. The eggs will then be shed into the sea water and settle down to the bottom of the beaker. Store the eggs at the same temperature as would be best for development in this urchin.

46 Males can be collected "dry" by sucking up the sperm from the top of the sea urchin (white) with a pipette and collecting the sperm into a small centrifuge tube or test tube. Sperm may be stored at 4C in a refrigerator for up to a week.

47 HOW TO COLLECT SPERM The injected male urchin is placed on a dry surface mouth side down. The sperm are collected with a glass or plastic pipet and stored in a test tube at 4C for later use. The injected male urchin is placed on a dry surface mouth side down. The sperm are collected with a glass or plastic pipet and stored in a test tube at 4C for later use.

48

49 Terima Kasih Sukses selalu

50 PROSES FERTILISASI TERDIRI DARI 2 ASPEK: EMBRIOLOGIS EMBRIOLOGIS –PENGAKTIFAN SEL TELUR GENETIS GENETIS –PENURUNAN UNSUR KEBAKAAN (DNA) DARI PEJANTAN UNSUR-UNSUR YANG BERPERAN: –SEL TELUR YANG MATANG –SPERMA DEWASA

51 TEMPAT: KAUDA AMPULA (1/3 TF) TEMPAT: KAUDA AMPULA (1/3 TF) WAKTU: TERGANTUNG SPESIES WAKTU: TERGANTUNG SPESIES SEL TELUR TERDIRI DARI: INTI. INTI. SITOPLASMA (PROTEIN, BUTIR- BUTIR LEMAK, ENZIM). SITOPLASMA (PROTEIN, BUTIR- BUTIR LEMAK, ENZIM). MEMBRAN PLASMA (MENGATUR ALIRAN ION-ION, TERUTAMA WAKTU FERTILISASI). MEMBRAN PLASMA (MENGATUR ALIRAN ION-ION, TERUTAMA WAKTU FERTILISASI).

52 SPERMATOZOA : KEPALA  INTI, AKROSOM KEPALA  INTI, AKROSOM LEHER  CENTRIOLE LEHER  CENTRIOLE EKOR EKOR KAPASITASI : SERANGKAIAN PERUBAHAN YANG TERJADI GUNA MEMPERSIAPKAN SPERMA UNTUK BERTEMU DAN BERINTERAKSI DENGAN OVUM PADA SAAT FERTILISASI. TEMPAT : DI BAGIAN BAWAH ISMUS TEMPAT : DI BAGIAN BAWAH ISMUS

53 KAPASITASI PENTING, KARENA : MENGEMBANGKAN MOTILITAS YG HIPERAKTIF MENGEMBANGKAN MOTILITAS YG HIPERAKTIF MENGANTARKAN PENETRASI SPERMA KE CUMULUS OOPHORUS MENGANTARKAN PENETRASI SPERMA KE CUMULUS OOPHORUS MEMPERSIAPKAN SPERMA MENJALANI REAKSI AKROSOME MEMPERSIAPKAN SPERMA MENJALANI REAKSI AKROSOME REAKSI AKROSOME : TERJADI PERUBAHAN MEMBRAN KEPALA SPERMA  STRUKTUR LIPID TERJADI PERUBAHAN MEMBRAN KEPALA SPERMA  STRUKTUR LIPID ALBUMIN  COATING FACTOR ALBUMIN  COATING FACTOR

54 ASPEK-ASPEK DALAM PROSES KAPASITASI : MORFOLOGIS MORFOLOGIS FISIOLOGIS FISIOLOGIS BIOKIMIA BIOKIMIA –PERUBAHAN LIPID –PERUBAHAN PROTEIN REGULASI ION-ION  Ca2+ >> REGULASI ION-ION  Ca2+ >>

55 JALUR JELAJAH SPERMATOZOA DALAM SALURAN KELAMIN JANTAN : TUB. SEM (SPERMA INMOTIL)  RETE TESTIS  DUKT. EFEREN  EPIDIDIMIS (KAPUT, KORPUS, KAUDA (PENDEWASAAN) : - [ ] - [ ] - MENGKERUT DUKT. DEF- AKROSOM < - MOTIL URETRA EJAKULASI  SEMEN (SPERMA + PLASMA SEMEN) (SPERMA + PLASMA SEMEN)

56 DALAM SALURAN KELAMIN BETINA VAGINA : MAMALIA SERVIK : BABI SERVIK : BABI UTERUS : KUDA UTERUS : KUDA TRANSPOR : 1. AKTIF  GERAKAN SPERMA 2. PASIF  KONTRAKSI OTOT UTERUS UTJ  BARRIER  MENGHALANGI PERJALANAN SPERMA KE TEMPAT FERTILISASI

57 LAPISAN SEL TELUR YANG HARUS DILEWATI SPERMA : 1. SEL-SEL KUMULUS  EZM. HYALORONIDASE 2. ZONA PELUSIDA  ZONA LIZIN 3. SELAPUT VITELIN

58 AKTIVITAS UTAMA YANG TERJADI PADA PROSES FERTILISASI : 1. PENGENALAN SPERMA DAN SEL TELUR –TERJADI PERLEKATAN KEPALA SPERMA DAN SEL TELUR  RESEPTOR Z. P. –MENCEGAH PERLEKATAN  ANTIBODI ANTI ZONA / TRYPSIN –SPERMA : ANTIBODI ANTI SPERMA 2. PENETRASI SPERMA KE DALAM SEL TELUR - KAPASITASI  REAKSI AKROSOME : -ZONALYSIN / AKROSIN -ZONALYSIN / AKROSIN -MOTILITAS SPERMA -MOTILITAS SPERMA

59 3. FUSI GAMET SPERMA  MENEMBUS Z. P. KEPALA KONTAK M. VITELIN ROTASI FUSI MEMBRAN M. PLASMA SPERMA LEPAS INTI : DEKONDENSASI  PRONUKLEUS JANTAN PRONUKLEUS JANTAN

60 SPERMA  M. VITELIN  REDUKSI II  PB II 1. POLY SPERMA BLOCK : PERUBAHAN RESEPTOR ZONA PELUSIDA  SPERMA MENEMBUS Z. P.  RESEPTOR MODIFIKASI  Z. P. BERUBAH  TIDAK DIKENALI SPERMA LAIN PERUBAHAN RESEPTOR ZONA PELUSIDA  SPERMA MENEMBUS Z. P.  RESEPTOR MODIFIKASI  Z. P. BERUBAH  TIDAK DIKENALI SPERMA LAIN 2. SLOW BLOCK POLYSPERMA/REAKSI KORTEKS M. VITELIN  BUTIR KORTEK  LEPAS  RONGGA PERIVITELIN M. VITELIN  BUTIR KORTEK  LEPAS  RONGGA PERIVITELIN


Download ppt "Fertilization Fertilization – fusion of egg and sperm into a single diploid cell, the zygote. Fertilization – fusion of egg and sperm into a single diploid."

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google