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I Nyoman P. Aryantha SITH - ITB.  Materials used as food for growing microorganisms, part of the culture medium along with chemicals and other trace.

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Presentasi berjudul: "I Nyoman P. Aryantha SITH - ITB.  Materials used as food for growing microorganisms, part of the culture medium along with chemicals and other trace."— Transcript presentasi:

1 I Nyoman P. Aryantha SITH - ITB

2  Materials used as food for growing microorganisms, part of the culture medium along with chemicals and other trace materials that facilitate fermentation.

3  Materials, the place of microbial growth which facilitate the niche of colonization to achieve quorum sensing status

4  Energy Source  Phototroph  Uses light as an energy source  Chemotroph  Uses energy from the oxidation of reduced chemical compounds  Cell component source  Metabolite raw material

5  Carbon  Nitrogen

6  Micronutrient  Vitamins

7  Autotroph  Can use CO 2 as a sole carbon source (Carbon fixation)  Heterotroph  Requires an organic carbon source; cannot use CO 2 as a carbon source

8  Organic nitrogen  Primarily from the catabolism of amino acids  Oxidized forms of inorganic nitrogen  Nitrate (NO 3 2- ) and nitrite (NO 2 - )  Reduced inorganic nitrogen  Ammonium (NH 4 + )  Dissolved nitrogen gas (N 2 ) (Nitrogen fixation)

9  Organic phosphate  Inorganic phosphate (H 2 PO 4 - and HPO 4 2- )

10  Organic sulfur  Oxidized inorganic sulfur  Sulfate (SO 4 2- )  Reduced inorganic sulfur  Sulfide (S 2- or H 2 S)  Elemental sulfur (S o )

11  Liquid  Submerged (liquid) fermentation  Solid  Surface (solid) fermentation

12  Substrat (bahan baku) merupakan produk samping  Industri mikrobiologis  Makanan  Pertanian  Perkebunan  Perikanan

13  Molase  Malt extract  Tapioka  Sulfite liquor  Selulosa  Whey

14  65.3 total sugars,  0.90 N  0.07 P  1.15 Ca  0.61 Mg  0.10 Na  5.19 K  2.98 Cl  0.73 S  10.7 ppm Cu  11.6 ppm Zn  247 ppm Fe  82 ppm Mn  2.7 ppm Co Nutrient composition of molasses (%)

15 Composition and Nutrient Content of Molasses Item Cane Beet Citrus Starch Specific Gravity Total Sugars (%) Crude Protein (%) Ash (%) Calcium, (%) Phosphorus, (%) Potassium, ( %) Sodium, (%) Chlorine, (%) Sulfur, (%)

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20  Pada sebuah pabrik kelapa sawit (PKS) berkapasitas 60 ton tandan/jam dapat menghasilkan limbah 100 ton/hari.  Di Indonesia, terdapat 470 pabrik pengolahan kelapa sawit. Limbahnya mencapai 28,7 juta ton dalam bentuk cairan dan 15,2 juta ton limbah padat per tahun.

21  Tandan kosong kelapa sawit, masing-masing mengandung 45% selulosadan 26% hemiselulosa.  Tingginya kadar selulosa pada polisakarida tersebut dapat dihidrolisis menjadi gula sederhana dan selanjutnya difermentasi menjadi etanol.

22  Dep artemen Pertanian melaporkan rata-rata limbah kakao 1,5 juta ton per tahun  Departemen Perkebunan melaporkan limbah kopi 101 ton per tahun  5 Juta Ha sawah ….. Lebih dari 25 juta ton jerami per panen  Berapa juta ton : Sabut kelapa, Tongkol jagung, Bagas, Serbuk kayu, Ampas kopi, Sekam, Ampas teh, Cangkang kacang tanah ???

23  Ekstrak ragi (Yeast ekstract)  Pepton  Corn steep liquor  Soy meal  Tepung ikan  Tepung darah  Tepung biji kapas  Tepung biji lamtoro  Tepung kacang-kacangan  Bekatul (padi, gandum) dll…

24  Selection  Sorting  Sizing  Drying  Stocking  Hidrolisis  Formulation  Sterilizing


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