Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

ANATOMI PERBANDINGAN VERTEBRATA Novi Febrianti. SEKILAS ANATOMI Anatomi berasal dari bahasa Yunani yang berarti memotong Istilah-istilah anatomi berasal.

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "ANATOMI PERBANDINGAN VERTEBRATA Novi Febrianti. SEKILAS ANATOMI Anatomi berasal dari bahasa Yunani yang berarti memotong Istilah-istilah anatomi berasal."— Transcript presentasi:

1 ANATOMI PERBANDINGAN VERTEBRATA Novi Febrianti

2 SEKILAS ANATOMI Anatomi berasal dari bahasa Yunani yang berarti memotong Istilah-istilah anatomi berasal dari bahasa Yunani dan Latin

3 Cabang –cabang Anatomi: Microscopic anatomy/Anatomi mikroskopis (Sitologi, Histologi) Developmental anatomy/Anatomi perkembangan (Embriologi) Comparative anatomy/Anatomi perbandingan

4 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY Mempelajari susunan tubuh hewan vertebrata Membandingkan susunan organ tubuh antar kelas pada sub phylum vertebrata Tubuh hewan terbagi menjadi : - caput / chepala : kepala - collum / cervix : leher - trunchus : badan - cauda : ekor - extremitas : anggota badan bebas ^ ant / pos ^ sup / inv

5 TERMINOLOGI Anterior – posterior (arah) Superior – inferior (arah) Dorsal : daerah punggung Ventral : daerah perut Lateral : daerah samping / sisi Cranial : daerah kepala Caudal : daerah ekor Abdominal : daerah badan Thoracal : daerah dada (dalam dada)

6 TERMINOLOGI Sinister : kiri Dexter : kanan Medial : daerah tengah Linea mediana : garis tengah tubuh Proximal : lebih kearah / dekat LM Distal : lebih menjauhi LM Origo : titik pangkal tidak bergerak Insersio :: menimbulkan gerak

7 TERMINOLOGI Organ analog Mayor = besar Minor = kecil Pectoral : dada Pelvis : punggung bawah Bilateral simetri

8 Simetri tubuh Simetri radial Simetri bilateral Dorsal Bidang simetri Ventral Anterior Ventral Dorsal Bidang simetri Posterior

9 Tiga kelompok hewan triploblastik AselomataPseudoselomata Selomata Cacing pipih Ektoderm Mesoderm (otot) Mesenkim Endoderm (usus) Cacing gilig Pseudoselom Organ internal Ektoderm Endoderm (usus) Mesoderm (otot) Cacing tanah Ektoderm Selom Endoderm (usus) Mesoderm (peritoneum) Organ internal Mesoderm (otot)

10 Sistem penyokong tubuh hewan Cangkang luar Endoskeleton Eksoskeleton Tubuh lintah dibentuk oleh cairan di dalam tubuhnya

11 Sistem tubuh pada hewan Saluran kelamin Testis Otak sederhana dengan dua ganglion Ovarium Usus bagian dari sistem saluran pencernaan Otak kecil Lambung Eksoskeleton Kelenjar pencernaan Notokorda berada di sepanjang tubuh bagian ventral Otak besar Paru-paru Ginjal Jantung Usus Pembuluh darah

12 PHYLUM CHORDATA Ciri – ciri : Adanya dorsal tubular nerve cord, pada keadaan embrio, larva atau seumur hidup. Mempunyai notochord, minimal pada fase embrio Pada dinding pharynx ada lubang- lubang/celah-celah pada keadaan larva atau seumur hidup (pharyngeal slits). Mempunyai ekor

13 Anatomy of a Chordate

14 Subphylum Urochordata sea squirts or tunicates notochord present only in free-swimming larvum notochord does not extend into head larvum is free-swimming but non-feeding adult is sessile filter feeder

15 Subphylum Urochordata sea squirts or tunicate Campbell p 631 Settle after brief free-swimming larvum existence. Attaches at anterior end. Metamorphosis begins. Body turns Tail, notochord, dorsal nerve cord, disappear.

16 Subphylum Cephalochordata “head” cord lancelet or Amphioxus notochord present throughout life – extends into head region shallow marine waters chordate characteristics developed and apparent in adult tail has blocks of muscles called myotomes adults resemble tunicate larvum

17 Anatomy of a lancelet

18 Cephalochordat a: lancelet

19 Subphylum Vertebrata General Characteristics: chordates with a backbone exhibit cephalization closed circulatory system neural crest (p. 633)

20 Subphylum Vertebrata Agnatha (without jaws) lamprey – parasitic bloodsuckers w/ rasping tongue hagfish – mainly scavengers no paired appendages larvum resembles lancelet

21 Agnatha: a sea lamprey

22 Lamprey mouth

23 Subphylum Vertebrata Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes) flexible endoskeletons of cartilage strengthened by calcium granules sharks (internal fertilization) ▫oviparous – egg laying ▫ovoviviparous – retain fertilized eggs hatch within the uterus ▫viviparous – young develop in the uterus suspension-feeders (plankton)

24 Cephalochordat a: lancelet

25 Subphylum Vertebrata Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes) Bottom feeders – mollusks & crustaceans Whiplike tail w/ venomous barbs (defense)

26 Subphylum Vertebrata Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes) Bottom feeders – mollusks & crustaceans Whiplike tail w/ venomous barbs (defense)

27 Subphylum Vertebrata Osteichthyes (bony fishes) Endoskeleton of hard calcium phosphate matrix Operculum- protective flap Swim bladder – controls buoyancy

28

29 Seahorse

30 Subphylum Vertebrata Amphibia (“two lives”) first tetrapods transition to land – still tied to water for respiration and reproduction Gills  lungs (metamorphosis) Frogs, toads, salamanders, newts

31

32

33 Subphylum Vertebrata Reptilia (Campbell, p. 644) (to creep) lizards, snakes, turtles, tortoises, Gila monsters, crocodiles, alligators first true land animal Scales, lungs, amniotic egg no feathers cold-blooded – ectotherms – (energy conservation)

34

35 Hatching reptile

36 Subphylum Vertebrata Fossil links………… Evolutionary link ?? between reptiles and birds: Archaeopteryx, a Jurassuc bird- reptile Clawed forelimbs Teeth Long tail w/ vertebrae

37 Archaeoptery x

38 Subphylum Vertebrata Aves (bird) feathered few flightless: ostrich, kiwi, emu breastbone with keel – carina – permitting flight jays, sparrows, warblers, etc

39

40 Subphylum Vertebrata Mammalia (breast) Hair or fur of keratin Active metabolism = endothermic Efficient respiration w/ diaphragm Efficient circulation w/ 4-chambered heart Layer of fat Mammary glands, tooth differentiation

41 Subphylum Vertebrata Mammalia (breast) Monotremes – egg-laying mammals (Platypuses & echidnas – spiny anteaters) Placental mammals Marsupial mammals – kangaroo, opossum

42

43 Marsupial & Placental Mammals Marsupial Placental


Download ppt "ANATOMI PERBANDINGAN VERTEBRATA Novi Febrianti. SEKILAS ANATOMI Anatomi berasal dari bahasa Yunani yang berarti memotong Istilah-istilah anatomi berasal."

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google