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 Faktor produksi adalah input yang digunakan dalam memproduksi barang dan jasa.

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Presentasi berjudul: " Faktor produksi adalah input yang digunakan dalam memproduksi barang dan jasa."— Transcript presentasi:

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2  Faktor produksi adalah input yang digunakan dalam memproduksi barang dan jasa

3  Permintaan untuk faktor produksi adalah penurunan kurva permintaan.  Sebuah permintaan perusahaan untuk faktor produksi berasal dari keputusannya untuk memproduksi barang di pasar lain

4  Pasar tenaga kerja, seperti pasar lain dalam perekonomian, yang diatur oleh kekuatan penawaran dan permintaan.

5 Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Quantity of Apples 0 Price of Apples Demand Supply Demand Supply Quantity of Apple Pickers 0 Wage of Apple Pickers (a) The Market for Apples(b) The Market for Apple Pickers P QL W

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7  Fungsi produksi menggambarkan hubungan antara kuantitas input yang digunakan dan kuantitas output yang diproduksi

8 Copyright©2004 South-Western

9 Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Production function Quantity of Apple Pickers 0 Quantity of Apples

10  Marginal Product Of Labor (MPL) adalah penambahan output yang dihasil dari penambahan satu unit tenaga kerja ◦ MPL =  Q/  L ◦ MPL = (Q 2 – Q 1 )/(L 2 – L 1 )

11  Ketika jumlah pekerja bertambah, produk marjinal tenaga kerja menurun.  Jika pekerja semakin banyak, maka setiap pekerja memberikan tambahan kontribusi untuk produksi kurang dari yang sebelumnya.  Fungsi produksi menjadi lebih datar karena jumlah pekerja meningkat.  ini disebut produk marjinal menurun.

12  Penurunan marginal product mengacu kepada marginal input yang semakin menurun akibat penambahan tenaga kerja

13 Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Production function Quantity of Apple Pickers 0 Quantity of Apples

14  Nilai marginal produk adalah marginal produk input dikalikan dengan harga barang VMPL = MPL  P

15  The value of the marginal product (also known as marginal revenue product) is measured in dollars.  It diminishes as the number of workers rises because the market price of the good is constant.

16  To maximize profit, the competitive, profit- maximizing firm hires workers up to the point where the value of the marginal product of labor equals the wage. VMPL = Wage

17  The value-of-marginal-product curve is the labor demand curve for a competitive, profit- maximizing firm.

18 Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning 0 Quantity of Apple Pickers 0 Value of the Marginal Product Value of marginal product (demand curve for labor) Market wage Profit-maximizing quantity

19  When a competitive firm hires labor up to the point at which the value of the marginal product equals the wage, it also produces up to the point at which the price equals the marginal cost.

20  Output Price  Technological Change  Supply of Other factors

21  The labor supply curve reflects how workers’ decisions about the labor-leisure tradeoff respond to changes in opportunity cost.  An upward-sloping labor supply curve means that an increase in the wages induces workers to increase the quantity of labor they supply.

22 Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Wage (price of labor) 0 Quantity of Labor Supply

23  Changes in Tastes  Changes in Alternative Opportunities  Immigration

24  The wage adjusts to balance the supply and demand for labor.  The wage equals the value of the marginal product of labor.

25 Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Wage (price of labor) 0 Quantity of Labor Supply Demand Equilibrium wage,W Equilibrium employment,L

26  Labor supply and labor demand determine the equilibrium wage.  Shifts in the supply or demand curve for labor cause the equilibrium wage to change.

27 Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Wage (price of labor) 0 Quantity of Labor Supply,S Demand reduces the wage and raises employment. 1. An increase in labor supply... S W L W L

28  An increase in the supply of labor :  Results in a surplus of labor.  Puts downward pressure on wages.  Makes it profitable for firms to hire more workers.  Results in diminishing marginal product.  Lowers the value of the marginal product.  Gives a new equilibrium.

29 Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Wage (price of labor) 0 Quantity of Labor Supply Demand,D increases the wage and increases employment. D W L W L 1. An increase in labor demand...

30  An increase in the demand for labor :  Makes it profitable for firms to hire more workers.  Puts upward pressure on wages.  Raises the value of the marginal product.  Gives a new equilibrium.

31 Copyright©2004 South-Western

32  Capital refers to the equipment and structures used to produce goods and services.  The economy’s capital represents the accumulation of goods produced in the past that are being used in the present to produce new goods and services.

33  Prices of Land and Capital  The purchase price is what a person pays to own a factor of production indefinitely.  The rental price is what a person pays to use a factor of production for a limited period of time.

34  The rental price of land and the rental price of capital are determined by supply and demand.  The firm increases the quantity hired until the value of the factor’s marginal product equals the factor’s price.

35 Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Quantity of Land 0 Rental Price of Land Demand Supply Demand Supply Quantity of Capital 0 Rental Price of Capital Q P (a) The Market for Land(b) The Market for Capital P Q

36  Each factor’s rental price must equal the value of its marginal product.  They each earn the value of their marginal contribution to the production process.

37  Factors of production are used together.  The marginal product of any one factor depends on the quantities of all factors that are available.

38  A change in the supply of one factor alters the earnings of all the factors.

39  A change in earnings of any factor can be found by analyzing the impact of the event on the value of the marginal product of that factor.


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