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Systems Analysis and Design Romi Satria Wahono WA/SMS: +6281586220090 1.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Systems Analysis and Design Romi Satria Wahono WA/SMS: +6281586220090 1."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Systems Analysis and Design Romi Satria Wahono WA/SMS:

2 Romi Satria Wahono SD Sompok Semarang (1987) SMPN 8 Semarang (1990) SMA Taruna Nusantara Magelang (1993) B.Eng, M.Eng and Ph.D in Software Engineering from Saitama University Japan ( ) Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (2014) Research Interests: Software Engineering, Intelligent Systems Founder dan Koordinator IlmuKomputer.Com Peneliti LIPI ( ) Founder dan CEO PT Brainmatics Cipta Informatika 2

3 Learning Design Pretest dan Posttest untuk Mengukur Kompetensi Kognifif Penyajian Materi dengan Model Minimalism berbasis Konsep Amati-Tiru-Modifikasi Latihan Secara Iteratif untuk Meningkatkan Kompetensi Kognitif dan Psikomotorik Penugasan berbasis Self- Contained Project dan Literatur Review 3

4 Textbook 4

5 References 1.Alan Dennis et al, Systems Analysis and Design with UML 4 th Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E Kendall, Systems Analysis and Design 8 th Edition, Prentice Hall, Hassan Gomaa, Software Modeling and Design: UML, Use Cases, Patterns, and Software Architectures, Cambridge University Press, Gary B. Shelly and Harry J. Rosenblatt, Systems Analysis and Design 9 th Edition, Course Technology, Howard Podeswa, UML for the IT Business Analyst 2 nd Edition, Course Technology, Jeffrey A. Hoffer et al, Modern Systems Analysis and Design 6 th Edition, Prentice Hall,

6 Pre-Test 1.Sebutkan tahapan pengembangan sistem atau system development life cycle (SDLC)! 2.Sebutkan beberapa metodologi pengembangan sistem yang anda ketahui! 3.Gambarkan requirement di bawah dengan use case diagram! 4.Gambarkan activity diagram, sequence diagram dan class diagram dari requirement di atas! 5.Hitung dengan metode yang anda ketahui, berapa orang dan waktu (bulan) yang dibutuhkan untuk mengembangkan sistem di atas! SISTEM ELIBRARY Sistem elibrary memungkinkan pengguna untuk melakukan registrasi dan login Setelah menjadi member, pengguna dapat memodifikasi profile, serta mencari dan mendownload koleksi buku di sistem elibrary Admin sistem elibrary melakukan approval terhadap registrasi dan menampilkan laporan aktifitas pengguna secara individual maupun total 6

7 Course Outline 1. Introduction 2. Project Planning 3. System Analysis 4. System Design 5. System Implementation 7

8 1. Introduction 1.1 Why We Learn Systems Analysis and Design 1.2 Systems Analyst and Its Roles 1.3 Systems Development Life Cycle 1.4 Systems Development Methodology 1.5 Methodology Selection Strategy 8

9 1.1 Why We Learn Systems Analysis and Design 9

10 Systems Development Projects Fail More than half of all systems development projects Fail (42% - Standish Group, 53% - General Accounting Office) Canceled before completion System is never used once finished Doesn't provide the expected benefits Most of the ones that don't fail: Are delivered late Are over budget Don't provide the features promised 10

11 Recent Significant IT Failures CompanyYearOutcome Hudson Bay (Canada)2005Inventory system problems lead to $33.3 million loss UK Inland Revenue2004/5$3.45 billion tax-credit overpayment caused by software errors Avis Europe PLC (UK)2004Enterprise resource planning (ERP) system cancelled after $54.5 million spent Ford Motor Co.2004Purchasing system abandoned after deployment costing approximately $400 M Hewlett-Packard Co.2004ERP system problems contribute to $160 million loss AT&T Wireless2004Customer relations management (CRM) system upgrade problems lead to $100M loss 11

12 Keunikan dari Software KarakteristikSoftwareHardware KompleksitasTingkat kompleksitas dari produk software tinggi, dengan kemungkinan perubahan parameter dan fungsi yang sangat beragam Tingkat kompleksitas produk lain rendah, dengan kemungkinan perubahan parameter dan fungsi tidak beragam Visibilitas Produk Produk tidak terlihat dengan kasat mata, termasuk bila ada cacat (defect) dari produk Produk terlihat dengan kasat mata, termasuk bila ada cacat (defect) dari produk 12

13 Software Errors, Faults, Failures 13

14 Analisis Kasus Suatu perusahaan PT ABC memproduksi software yang akan ditanam ke dalam suatu device Salah satu fungsi yang terdapat pada software adalah akan mematikan device secara otomatis apabila suhu ruangan lebih besar daripada 30 o celcius Programmer salah menuliskan logika menjadi: … if (suhu > 3) shutdownDevice(); … Error ini tidak pernah menyebabkan failure pada software, dan perusahaan PT ABC sampai saat ini terkenal sebagai perusahaan yang memproduksi software tanpa bug Jelaskan mengapa bisa terjadi demikian! 14

15 Warranty Lawsuits Mortenson vs. Timeberline Software (TS) (≈1993) Mortenson menggunakan software yang diproduksi TS untuk membuka tender pembangunan rumah sakit Software memiliki bug sehingga memenangkan perusahaan yang mengajukan proposal paling mahal (kerugian 2 miliar USD) TS tahu tentang bug itu, tapi tidak mengirimkan update ke Mortenson Pengadilan di Amerika Serikat memenangkan perusahaan TS Uniform Computer Information Transaction Act (UCITA) allows software manufacturers to: disclaim all liability for defects prevent the transfer of software from person to person 15

16 Disclaimer of Warranties DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES. TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, MICROSOFT AND ITS SUPPLIERS PROVIDE TO YOU THE SOFTWARE COMPONENT, AND ANY (IF ANY) SUPPORT SERVICES RELATED TO THE SOFTWARE COMPONENT ("SUPPORT SERVICES") AS IS AND WITH ALL FAULTS; AND MICROSOFT AND ITS SUPPLIERS HEREBY DISCLAIM WITH RESPECT TO THE SOFTWARE COMPONENT AND SUPPORT SERVICES ALL WARRANTIES AND CONDITIONS, WHETHER EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ANY (IF ANY) WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF OR RELATED TO: TITLE, NON- INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, LACK OF VIRUSES, ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF RESPONSES, RESULTS, LACK OF NEGLIGENCE OR LACK OF WORKMANLIKE EFFORT, QUIET ENJOYMENT, QUIET POSSESSION, AND CORRESPONDENCE TO DESCRIPTION. THE ENTIRE RISK ARISING OUT OF USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THE SOFTWARE COMPONENT AND ANY SUPPORT SERVICES REMAINS WITH YOU. 16

17 17

18 Is it Possible? 18

19 Sofware Quality? Software quality is (IEEE, 1991) : 1.The degree to which a system, component, or process meets specified requirements 2.The degree to which a system, component, or process meets customer or user needs or expectations Quality means conformance to requirements (Crosby, 1979) 19

20 1.2 Systems Analyst and Its Roles 20

21 Analyst Related Role 1.Business analyst 2.System analyst 3.Infrastructure analyst 4.Change management analyst 5.Project manager 21

22 Role in System Development Business Analyst System Analyst ProgrammerTester Project Manager 22

23 Business Analyst Focuses on business issues surrounding the system The business value of the system Improvements in business processes New business processes needed with new system Requires business skills and professional training 23

24 System Analyst The systems analyst is a key person analyzing the business, identifying opportunities for improvement, and designing information systems to implement these ideas Focuses on Information System (IS) Issues How IS can improve business processes Designs new information system Ensures IS quality standards are maintained Requires training & experience in design analysis, programming, business (to lesser degree) 24

25 Infrastructure Analyst Focuses on interfaces between new system & existing infrastructure Makes sure new system follows organizational standards Identifies required infrastructure changes Requires experience in network & database administration Requires knowledge of hardware systems 25

26 Change Management Analyst Focuses on system installation Documentation & support for users Coordinate training of users Strategies to overcome resistance Requires experience in organizational behavior Requires experience in change management 26

27 Project Manager Responsible for schedule and budget Ensures promised benefits are delivered Manages team members Responsible for project plan and reporting progress Requires project management experience 27

28 28

29 1.3 Systems Development Life Cycle 29

30 Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) 30

31 Project Phases 1.Planning : Why build the system? System request, feasibility analysis, project size estimation 2.Analysis : Who, what, when, where will the system be? Requirement gathering, business process modeling 3.Design : How will the system work? Program design, user interface design, data design 4.Implementation : System construction and delivery System construction, testing, documentation and installation 31

32 Planning 1.Identifying business value (System Request) Lower costs Increase profits 2.Analyze feasibility Technical Feasibility Economic Feasibility Organizational Feasibility ( System Proposal ) 32

33 Analysis 1.Requirement gathering by answering the questions: Who will use the system? What will the system do? When will it be used? 2.Investigate the current system 3.Identify possible improvements 4.Develop a concept for new system (System Specification) 33

34 Design 1.Program Design (UML Diagrams) What programs need to be written Exactly what each program will do 2.User Interface Design How users interact with system Forms / reports used by the system 3.Data Design (ER Diagrams) What data is to be stored What format the data will be in Where the data will be stored (System Specification) 34

35 Implementation 1.Construction New system is built and tested Often testing is the longest part 2.Testing Unit Testing Integration Testing System Testing User Acceptance Test 3.Installation Old system is turned off New system is turned on 35

36 Processes and Deliverables 36

37 SDLC and Deliverables 37

38 1.4 Systems Development Methodology (Model Process) 38

39 Software Development Methodology (Model Process) A formalized approach to implementing the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) (Dennis, 2012) A simplified representation of a software process (Sommerville, 2015) A distinct set of activities, actions, tasks, milestones, and work products required to engineer high quality software (Pressman, 2015) 39

40 Major Methodologies 1.Structured Design Waterfall method Parallel development 2.Rapid Application Development Phased Development Prototyping Throw-away Prototyping 3.Agile Development Extreme Programming (XP) Scrum Lean Development 40 (Dennis, 2012) More Prescriptive More Adaptive

41 Methodology Timeline 41

42 Activities and Artifacts Comparison 42

43 1.4.1 Structured Design 43

44 Structured Design Projects move methodically from one to the next step Generally, a step is finished before the next one begins Type of Structured Desin: 1.Waterfall Method 2.Parallel Development 44

45 Waterfall Method 45 ProsCons Identifies systems requirements long before programming Begins, it minimizes change to the requirements as the project proceed (mature) Design must be specified on paper before programming begins Long time between system proposal and delivery of new system Rework is very hard

46 Parallel Development 46 Addresses problem of time gap between proposal and delivery: Breaks project into parallel subproject Integrates them at the end

47 1.4.2 Rapid Application Development 47

48 Rapid Application Development (RAD) Type of RAD: 1.Phased development: a series of versions 2.Prototyping: System prototyping 3.Throw-away prototyping: design prototyping Critical elements to speed up the SDLC: CASE tools Visual programming languages Code generators 48

49 RAD: Phased Development 49 ProsCons Gets useful system to users quickly Initial system is intentionally incomplete Most important functions tested most System requirements expand as users see versions

50 RAD: Prototyping 50 Analysis, Design, Implementation are performed concurrently Start with a "quick-and-dirty" prototype, Provides minimal functionality Repeat process, refining the prototype each time Stop when prototype is a working system

51 RAD: Throw-Away Prototyping 51 Use prototypes only to understand requirements Example: use html to show UI Prototype is not a working design Once requirements are understood, the prototypes are thrown away

52 1.4.3 Agile Development 52

53 3. Agile Development Just a few rules that are easy to learn and follow Streamline the SDLC Eliminate much of the modeling and documentation Emphasize simple, iterative application development Type of Agile Development: 1.Extreme Programming (XP) (Kent Beck) 2.Scrum (Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland) 3.Lean Development (Mary Poppendieck and Tom Poppendieck) 4.Dynamic Systems Development Model (DSDM) (Dane Faulkner) 53

54 Extreme Programming (XP) 54

55 Scrum 55 Project members form a Scrum Team consisting of 5–9 people The goal of the Sprint is determined and the prioritized functionality is broken down into detailed tasks The team is self-organized and the members have a joint responsibility for the results Each Sprint enhances the product’s market value and adds new functions and improvements that can be delivered to the customer

56 Scrum 56

57 Iterative Scrum

58 Scrum 58

59 Scrum 59

60 Boards 60

61 61

62 XP vs Scrum vs Lean XP deals with how to work with programming Scrum deals with how the project is organized and planned Lean Development deals with which comprehensive principles should apply for the entire development organization 62

63 63

64 1.5 Methodology Selection Strategy 64

65 Selection Factors 1.Clarity of User Requirements 2.Familiarity with Technology 3.System Complexity 4.System Reliability 5.Short Time Schedules 6.Schedule Visibility 65

66 Selection Factors 66

67 Latihan Analisis Kasus: Memilih Metodologi yang Tepat Seandainya, anda adalah seorang software engineer di perusahaan PT BlackSoft, sebuah perusahaan IT yang memiliki kantor cabang di berbagai tempat di dunia PT BlackSoft ingin membangun sebuah sistem yang bisa menampilkan informasi tentang sumber daya manusia yang dimiliki, baik itu lokasi saat ini, latar belakang pendidikan, jadwal pekerjaan dan pengalaman kerja yang dimiliki Asumsikan bahwa ini adalah ide baru yang belum pernah diimplementasikan di PT BlackSoft sebelumnya PT BlackSoft memiliki jaringan internasional dimana kantor cabang di berbagai negara menggunakan hardware dan software yang berbeda Manajemen ingin agar sistem dapat selesai dikerjakan dan mulai bisa berjalan dalam satu tahun 67

68 Summary -1- The systems analyst is a key person analyzing the business, identifying opportunities for improvement, and designing information systems to implement these ideas There are five major team roles: 1.Business analyst 2.Systems analyst 3.Infrastructure analyst 4.Change management analyst 5.Project manager 68

69 Summary -2- The Systems Development Lifecycle consists of four stages: Planning, Analysis, Design, and Implementation The major development methodologies: 1.Structured design Waterfall method Parallel development 2.RAD development Phased Development Prototyping Throw-away Prototyping 3.Agile development Extreme Programming Scrum 69

70 Referensi 1.Alan Dennis et al, Systems Analysis and Design with UML 4 th Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E Kendall, Systems Analysis and Design 8 th Edition, Prentice Hall, Hassan Gomaa, Software Modeling and Design: UML, Use Cases, Patterns, and Software Architectures, Cambridge University Press, Gary B. Shelly and Harry J. Rosenblatt, Systems Analysis and Design 9 th Edition, Course Technology, Howard Podeswa, UML for the IT Business Analyst 2 nd Edition, Thomson Course Technology, Jeffrey A. Hoffer et al, Modern Systems Analysis and Design 6 th Edition, Prentice Hall,


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