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PEMBAHASAN HASIL PENELITIAN MK. METODE ILMIAH.

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Presentasi berjudul: "PEMBAHASAN HASIL PENELITIAN MK. METODE ILMIAH."— Transcript presentasi:

1 PEMBAHASAN HASIL PENELITIAN MK. METODE ILMIAH

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3 Tujuan KITA MEMBAHAS hasil penelitian 1.Menjawab pertanyaan dan tujuan penelitian, serta menjawab hipotesis yang telah dirumuskan 2.Menginterpretasi hasil-hasil penelitian untuk setiap variabel dan menjelaskan kesesuaiannya dengan hipotesis yang telah diajukan (mendukung atau tidak mendukung hipotesis) 3.Menganalisis kesesuaian hasilpenelitian dengan teori-teori yang menjadi landasan penelitian (mendukung atau tidak mendukung teori) 4.Menjelaskan hasil-hasil penelitian dnegan menggunakan teori-teori yang relevan 1.Menjawab pertanyaan dan tujuan penelitian, serta menjawab hipotesis yang telah dirumuskan 2.Menginterpretasi hasil-hasil penelitian untuk setiap variabel dan menjelaskan kesesuaiannya dengan hipotesis yang telah diajukan (mendukung atau tidak mendukung hipotesis) 3.Menganalisis kesesuaian hasilpenelitian dengan teori-teori yang menjadi landasan penelitian (mendukung atau tidak mendukung teori) 4.Menjelaskan hasil-hasil penelitian dnegan menggunakan teori-teori yang relevan

4 5.Mengbandingkan atau mnejelaskan kesesuaian hasil penelitian dengan hasil-hasil penelitian yang telah dilakukan oleh para peneliti sebelumnya (mendukung atau tidak mendukung hasil- hasil penelitian para peneliti lain yg telah dipublikasi). 6.Menjelaskan hasil penelitian yang berbeda dengan teori-teori yang digunakan, atau berbeda dengan hasil-hasil riset sebelumnya.  diperlukan penjelasan secara mendalam dan logis apa saja kemungkinan faktor-faktor penyebabnya terjadinya hasil yang berbeda (anomali) tersebut dan bagaimana kemungkinan solusinya.  Adanya keterbatasan-keterbatasan yg terkait dengan variabel, data, model pengujian dan basis teoritis yang digunakan peneliti dalam penelitian sehingga menyebabkan hasil penelitian berbeda dengan teori atau hasil-hasil penelitian sebelumnya? 5.Mengbandingkan atau mnejelaskan kesesuaian hasil penelitian dengan hasil-hasil penelitian yang telah dilakukan oleh para peneliti sebelumnya (mendukung atau tidak mendukung hasil- hasil penelitian para peneliti lain yg telah dipublikasi). 6.Menjelaskan hasil penelitian yang berbeda dengan teori-teori yang digunakan, atau berbeda dengan hasil-hasil riset sebelumnya.  diperlukan penjelasan secara mendalam dan logis apa saja kemungkinan faktor-faktor penyebabnya terjadinya hasil yang berbeda (anomali) tersebut dan bagaimana kemungkinan solusinya.  Adanya keterbatasan-keterbatasan yg terkait dengan variabel, data, model pengujian dan basis teoritis yang digunakan peneliti dalam penelitian sehingga menyebabkan hasil penelitian berbeda dengan teori atau hasil-hasil penelitian sebelumnya?

5 7.Menjelaskan implikasi teoritis dari hasil penelitian dan implikasi terhadap kebijakan yang sudah ada dan praktek yang telah dilakukan. 8. Apabila hasil penelitian dinilai akurat dan sangat krusial, peneliti dapat mengajukan modifikasi teori atau model yang sudah ada atau mengajukan teori atau model baru yang relevan yang disertai dengan asumsi- asumsinya dan penalaran logis yang kuat. 7.Menjelaskan implikasi teoritis dari hasil penelitian dan implikasi terhadap kebijakan yang sudah ada dan praktek yang telah dilakukan. 8. Apabila hasil penelitian dinilai akurat dan sangat krusial, peneliti dapat mengajukan modifikasi teori atau model yang sudah ada atau mengajukan teori atau model baru yang relevan yang disertai dengan asumsi- asumsinya dan penalaran logis yang kuat.

6 Penyajian Hasil Penelitian Preskriptif 1.Riset yang bertujuan memaparkan data-data hasil penelitian yang telah diolah tanpa melalui pengujian asosiasi, relasi atau kausalitas statistikal atau ekonometrika... 2.Data yang disajikan bisa hanya bersifat statistik deskriptif (Min, Max, Mean dan Deviasi Standar) 3.Hasil analisis disajikan dalam bentuk visualisasi seperti tabel, grafik, gambar, diagram, bagan alir, dll 4.Visualisasi hasil penelitian harus diinterpretasikan dan dibahas sesuai dengan permasalahan dan tujuan penelitian, atau proposisi. 1.Riset yang bertujuan memaparkan data-data hasil penelitian yang telah diolah tanpa melalui pengujian asosiasi, relasi atau kausalitas statistikal atau ekonometrika... 2.Data yang disajikan bisa hanya bersifat statistik deskriptif (Min, Max, Mean dan Deviasi Standar) 3.Hasil analisis disajikan dalam bentuk visualisasi seperti tabel, grafik, gambar, diagram, bagan alir, dll 4.Visualisasi hasil penelitian harus diinterpretasikan dan dibahas sesuai dengan permasalahan dan tujuan penelitian, atau proposisi.

7 Contoh: Pembahasan Hasil Penelitian 1.Nilai PDRB Jateng terus meningkat selama 10 tahun terakhir sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa tren kinerja perekonomian Jateng terus meningkat 2.Kecuali sektor pertambangan dan penggalian, listrik, gas dan air, dan sektor keuangan dan real estat yang berfluktuasi nilainya, nilai dari enam sektor usaha lainnya terus meningkat dari tahun ke tahun. 3.Sektor Industri pengolahan, PHR dan Pertanian memberi kontribusi terbesar dalam pembentukan PDRB Jateng dari tahun ke tahun, disusul sektor jasa

8 4. Semua sektor usaha mengalami tren pertumbuhan positif di atas 4% per tahun. Sektor Pertanian terindikasi mengalami siklus tren kenaikan/penurunan dalam 4 tahunan 5. Kecuali pada tahun terjadinya krisis ekonomi, tren kinerja perekonomian dan pertumbuhan ekonomi Jateng cenderung meningkat dalam 10 tahun terakhir

9 6. Tren kinerja perekonomian dan pertumbuhan ekonomi yang terus meningkat berdampak positif menurunkan kemiskinan dan pengangguran terbuka 7. Tren kinerja dan pertumbuhan ekonomi yang cenderung meningkat ternyata meningkatkan kesenjangan ekonomi antarkelompok masyarakat di Jateng.

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11 1.Dalam penelitian empiris yang menguji atau menganalisis pengaruh atau dampak dari variabel-variabel tertentu yang secara teoritis diprediksikan berpengaruh positif/negatif terhadap suatu variabel dependen, fokus pembahasannya terutama diarahkan pada nilai koefisien Beta (  ) variabel, setelah itu baru dilihat nilai signifikansinya.  Perumusan hipotesis, pembahasan dan pengambilan kesimpulan menerima/menolak suatu hipotesis mesti didasarkan pada arah dari nilai koefisien  (positif atau negatif) yang dihasilkan, setelah itu baru dikaitkan dengan tingkat signifikansinya. Misalnya: Ha1 Gizi yang terjamin sejak kecil berpengaruh positif terhadap indeks prestasi siswa. Ha2 : Gizi yang kurang terjamin sejak anak-anak masih kecil berpengaruh negatif terhadap tingkat prestasi mahasiswa 1.Dalam penelitian empiris yang menguji atau menganalisis pengaruh atau dampak dari variabel-variabel tertentu yang secara teoritis diprediksikan berpengaruh positif/negatif terhadap suatu variabel dependen, fokus pembahasannya terutama diarahkan pada nilai koefisien Beta (  ) variabel, setelah itu baru dilihat nilai signifikansinya.  Perumusan hipotesis, pembahasan dan pengambilan kesimpulan menerima/menolak suatu hipotesis mesti didasarkan pada arah dari nilai koefisien  (positif atau negatif) yang dihasilkan, setelah itu baru dikaitkan dengan tingkat signifikansinya. Misalnya: Ha1 Gizi yang terjamin sejak kecil berpengaruh positif terhadap indeks prestasi siswa. Ha2 : Gizi yang kurang terjamin sejak anak-anak masih kecil berpengaruh negatif terhadap tingkat prestasi mahasiswa

12 2. Dalam penelitian empiris yang menguji atau menganalisis pengaruh atau dampak dari variabel-variabel tertentu yang secara regulasi/kebijakan dan praktik diprediksikan berpengaruh positif/negatif secara signifikan terhadap suatu variabel dependen, fokus pembahasannya terutama diarahkan pada nilai koefisien Beta (  ) variabel dan tingkat signifikansinya.  Perumusan hipotesis, pembahasan dan pengambilan kesimpulan menerima/menolak suatu hipotesis mesti didasarkan pada arah dari nilai koefisien  (positif atau negatif) dan tingkat signifikansinya. Misalnya: Ha1 Kenaikan dana bantuan sosial (Bansos) dan penanggulangan kemiskinan berpengaruh positif secara signifikan menurunkan jumlah penduduk miskin dan tingkat keparahan kemiskinan 2. Dalam penelitian empiris yang menguji atau menganalisis pengaruh atau dampak dari variabel-variabel tertentu yang secara regulasi/kebijakan dan praktik diprediksikan berpengaruh positif/negatif secara signifikan terhadap suatu variabel dependen, fokus pembahasannya terutama diarahkan pada nilai koefisien Beta (  ) variabel dan tingkat signifikansinya.  Perumusan hipotesis, pembahasan dan pengambilan kesimpulan menerima/menolak suatu hipotesis mesti didasarkan pada arah dari nilai koefisien  (positif atau negatif) dan tingkat signifikansinya. Misalnya: Ha1 Kenaikan dana bantuan sosial (Bansos) dan penanggulangan kemiskinan berpengaruh positif secara signifikan menurunkan jumlah penduduk miskin dan tingkat keparahan kemiskinan

13 3. Dalam menginterpretasikan hasil penelitian dan pembahasannya, yang harus dicermati peneliti adalah arah (sign) dari nilai koefisien  variabel (positif/negatif) dan level signifikansinya. Suatu variabel penelitian dikatakan berpengaruh signifikan apabila nilai p-value atau Sig.-nya berada pada level 0,01, 0,05 atau 0,1. Apabila nilai Sig- nya lebih besar dari level itu, maka tidak signifikan. Salah kaprah: 1.Seringkali banyak peneliti tidak membaca besaran nilai koefisien variabel, tapi langsung melihat nilai Sig dari variabel, sehingga kesimpulkan yang diambil seringkali salah 2.Seringkali banyak peneliti menggunakan tolok ukur tingkat signifikansi dengan  = 0,05 atau 5%. Akibatnya, bila tingkat signifikansi variabel di atas 0,05, misalnya, 0,06 maka dikatakan tidak signifikan. Akibatnya, kesimpulan salah. Harus disadari bahwa  = 0,05 merupakan level of confidence atau tingkat keyakinan yang moderat terhadap data yang digunakan dalam penelitian, bukan merupakan tolok ukur level signifikansi (Sig.) variabel 3. Dalam menginterpretasikan hasil penelitian dan pembahasannya, yang harus dicermati peneliti adalah arah (sign) dari nilai koefisien  variabel (positif/negatif) dan level signifikansinya. Suatu variabel penelitian dikatakan berpengaruh signifikan apabila nilai p-value atau Sig.-nya berada pada level 0,01, 0,05 atau 0,1. Apabila nilai Sig- nya lebih besar dari level itu, maka tidak signifikan. Salah kaprah: 1.Seringkali banyak peneliti tidak membaca besaran nilai koefisien variabel, tapi langsung melihat nilai Sig dari variabel, sehingga kesimpulkan yang diambil seringkali salah 2.Seringkali banyak peneliti menggunakan tolok ukur tingkat signifikansi dengan  = 0,05 atau 5%. Akibatnya, bila tingkat signifikansi variabel di atas 0,05, misalnya, 0,06 maka dikatakan tidak signifikan. Akibatnya, kesimpulan salah. Harus disadari bahwa  = 0,05 merupakan level of confidence atau tingkat keyakinan yang moderat terhadap data yang digunakan dalam penelitian, bukan merupakan tolok ukur level signifikansi (Sig.) variabel

14 4.Apabila hasil pengujian hipotesis ditolak atau tidak didukung secara empiris, maka perlu dicermati secara mendalam apakah terjadi kekeliruan dalam:  Perumusan hipotesis  Penggunaan teori-DASAR atau grand theory  Proses sampling dan normalitas data  Penggunaan variabel penelitian yang tidak tepat  Penggunaan instrumen penelitian yang tidak realiabel  Penggunaan model penelitian, alat uji serta tolok ukur pengujian hipotesis yang tidak tepat  Ketidaktepatan peneliti dalam membaca dan menginterpretasikan hasil penelitian 4.Apabila hasil pengujian hipotesis ditolak atau tidak didukung secara empiris, maka perlu dicermati secara mendalam apakah terjadi kekeliruan dalam:  Perumusan hipotesis  Penggunaan teori-DASAR atau grand theory  Proses sampling dan normalitas data  Penggunaan variabel penelitian yang tidak tepat  Penggunaan instrumen penelitian yang tidak realiabel  Penggunaan model penelitian, alat uji serta tolok ukur pengujian hipotesis yang tidak tepat  Ketidaktepatan peneliti dalam membaca dan menginterpretasikan hasil penelitian

15 PEMBAHASAN HASIL PENELITIAN Discussion— Why these results could be significant (what the reasons might be for the patterns found or not found)

16 PEMBAHASAN HASIL PENELITIAN (http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1565) Discussion In this section you discuss your results. What aspect you choose to focus on depends on your results and on the main questions addressed by them. For example, if you were testing a new technique, you will want to discuss how useful this technique is: how well did it work, what are the benefits and drawbacks, etc. If you are presenting data that appear to refute or support earlier research, you will want to analyze both your own data and the earlier data--what conditions are different? how much difference is due to a change in the study design, and how much to a new property in the study subject? You may discuss the implication of your research--particularly if it has a direct bearing on a practical issue, such as conservation or public health.

17 PEMBAHASAN HASIL PENELITIAN (http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1565) Discussion This section centers on speculation. However, this does not free you to present wild and haphazard guesses. Focus your discussion around a particular question or hypothesis. Use subheadings to organize your thoughts, if necessary. This section depends on a logical organization so readers can see the connection between your study question and your results. One typical approach is to make a list of all the ideas that you will discuss and to work out the logical relationships between them--what idea is most important? or, what point is most clearly made by your data? what ideas are subordinate to the main idea? what are the connections between ideas?

18 Achieving the Scientific Voice (http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1565) Eight tips will help you match your style for most scientific publications. 1.Develop a precise vocabulary: read the literature to become fluent, or at least familiar with, the sort of language that is standard to describe what you're trying to describe. 2.Be as precise as possible: limit language. 1.Once you've labeled an activity, a condition, or a period of time, use that label consistently throughout the paper. Consistency is more important than creativity. 2.Define your terms and your assumptions. 3.Be honest about the limitations of your knowledge or your research: give the reader enough information to come to the same conclusions that you did (or to come to different conclusions) 1.Include all the information the reader needs to interpret your data. 2.Remember, the key to all scientific discourse is that it be reproducible. Have you presented enough information clearly enough that the reader could reproduce your experiment, your research, or your investigation? 4.When describing an activity, break it down into elements that can be described and labeled, and then present them in the order they occurred. 5.When you use numbers, use them effectively. Don't present them so that they cause more work for the reader. 6.Include details before conclusions, but only include those details you have been able to observe by the methods you have described. Do not include your feelings, attitudes, impressions, or opinions. 7.Research your format and citations: do these match what have been used in current relevant journals? 8.Run a spellcheck and proofread carefully. Read your paper out loud, and/ or have a friend look over it for misspelled words, missing words, etc.

19 TWO TIPS FOR SENTENCE CLARITY First, the verb should follow the subject as soon as possible. 1.Really Hard to Read: "The smallest of the URF's (URFA6L), a 207- nucleotide (nt) reading frame overlapping out of phase the NH2- terminal portion of the adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) subunit 6 gene has been identified as the animal equivalent of the recently discovered yeast H+-ATPase subunit gene." 2.Less Hard to Read: "The smallest of the UR-F's is URFA6L, a 207- nucleotide (nt) reading frame overlapping out of phase the NH2- terminal portion of the adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) subunit 6 gene; it has been identified as the animal equivalent of the recently discovered yeast H+-ATPase subunit 8 gene.“ SUMBER: (http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1565)

20 TWO TIPS FOR SENTENCE CLARITY Second, place familiar information first in a clause, a sentence, or a paragraph, and put the new and unfamiliar information later. 1.More confusing: The epidermis, the dermis, and the subcutaneous layer are the three layers of the skin. A layer of dead skin cells makes up the epidermis, which forms the body's shield against the world. Blood vessels, carrying nourishment, and nerve endings, which relay information about the outside world, are found in the dermis. Sweat glands and fat cells make up the third layer, the subcutaneous layer. 2.Less confusing: The skin consists of three layers: the epidermis, the dermis, and the subcutaneous layer. The epidermis is made up of dead skin cells, and forms a protective shield between the body and the world. The dermis contains the blood vessels and nerve endings that nourish the skin and make it receptive to outside stimuli. The subcutaneous layer contains the sweat glands and fat cells which perform other functions of the skin. SUMBER: (http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1565)

21 PENYAJIAN HASIL PENELITIAN Each table column has four attributes: 1.Name: String of up to 19 characters, case insensitive. Similar names differing only in the use of upper or lower case are indistinguishable. 2.Data type: Real, double, integer, boolean, or text. 3.Display format: The specification for printing the contents of the column, used only for printed listings. Note that this is related to but distinct from the internal data type. That is, a double-precision column may be printed with limited precision although any computations using that column would be carried out in full precision. 4.Units: A string of up to 19 characters. May be used by some tasks, for example, to distinguish between right ascension in hours or degrees. The default is null. SUMBER:

22 PENYAJIAN HASIL PENELITIAN Tables in APA Format Tables are a great way to display a great deal of information in a concise, clear and easy to read format. In APA format papers, tables are generally used to describe the results of statistical analysis and other pertinent quantitative data. However, it is important to note that tables are not simply used to replicate data that has already been presented in the text of the paper and not all data should be presented in a table. If you have little numeric information to present, it should be described in the text of your paper. SUMBER:

23 Tables in APA Format Basic Rules for Tables in APA Format 1.All tables should be numbered (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, Table 3). 2.Each table should have an individual title, italicized and presented with each word capitalized (except and, in, of, with, etc.). For example: Correlations Between Age and Test Scores 3.Each table should begin on a separate page. 4.Horizontal lines can be used to separate information and make it clearer. Do not use vertical lines in an APA format table. 5.All elements of the table should be double spaced. 6.All tables should be referenced in the text of the paper. 7.Tables should be last, after your reference list and appendixes. SUMBER:

24 Tables in APA Format Table Headings 1.Table headings should be located flush right. 2.Each column should be identified using a descriptive heading. 3.The first letter of each heading should be capitalized. 4.Abbreviations for standard terms (e.g. M, SD, etc.) can be used without explanation. Uncommon definitions should be explained in a note below the table. SUMBER:

25 Tables in APA Format Additional Notes to an APA Format Table If additional explanation is needed, a note can be added below the table. There are three kinds of notes: General notes, specific notes, and probability notes. General notes refer to some aspect of the entire table; specific notes refer to a particular column or row; probability notes specify the probability-level. SUMBER:

26 PENYAJIAN HASIL PENELITIAN Tables Tables present lists of numbers or text in columns, each column having a title or label. Do not use a table when you wish to show a trend or a pattern of relationship between sets of values - these are better presented in a Figure. For instance, if you needed to present population sizes and sex ratios for your study organism at a series of sites, and you planned to focus on the differences among individual sites according to (say) habitat type, you would use a table. However, if you wanted to show us that sex ratio was related to population size, you would use a Figure. SUMBER:

27 PENYAJIAN HASIL PENELITIAN Figures: Figures are visual presentations of results, including graphs, diagrams, photos, drawings, schematics, maps, etc. Graphs are the most common type of figure and will be discussed in detail; examples of other types of figures are included at the end of this section. Graphs show trends or patterns of relationship. SUMBER:

28 PENYAJIAN HASIL PENELITIAN Placement of Figures and Tables within the Paper: In manuscripts (e.g. lab papers, drafts), Tables and Figures are usually put on separate pages from text material. In consideration of your readers, place each Table or Figure as near as possible to the place where you first refer to it (e.g., the next page). It is permissable to place all the illustrative material at the end of the Results section so as to avoid interrupting the flow of text. The Figures and Tables may be embedded in the text, but avoid breaking up the text into small blocks; it is better to have whole pages of text with Figures and Tables on their own pages. SUMBER:

29 PENYAJIAN HASIL PENELITIAN The Anatomy of a Table Tables are most easily constructed using your word processor's table function or a spread sheet such as Excel. Gridlines or boxes, commonly invoked by word processors, are helpful for setting cell and column alignments, but should be eliminated from the printed version. Tables formatted with cell boundaries showing are unlikely to be permitted in a journal. SUMBER:

30 PENYAJIAN HASIL PENELITIAN SUMBER:

31 PENYAJIAN HASIL PENELITIAN SUMBER:

32 PENYAJIAN HASIL PENELITIAN SUMBER:

33 PENYAJIAN HASIL PENELITIAN In these examples notice several things: 1.the presence of a period after "Table #"; 2.the legend (sometimes called the caption) goes above the Table; 3.units are specified in column headings wherever appropriate; 4.lines of demarcation are used to set legend, headers, data, and footnotes apart from one another. 5.footnotes are used to clarify points in the table, or to convey repetitive information about entries; 6.footnotes may also be used to denote statistical differences among groups. SUMBER:

34 PENYAJIAN HASIL PENELITIAN The Anatomy of a Figure The sections below show when and how to use the four most common Figure types (bar graph, frequency histogram, XY scatterplot, XY line graph.) The final section gives examples of other, less common, types of Figures. Parts of a Graph: Below are example figures (typical line and bar graphs) with the various component parts labeled in red. Refer back to these examples if you encounter an unfamiliar term as you read the following sections. SUMBER:

35 PENYAJIAN HASIL PENELITIAN SUMBER:

36 PENYAJIAN HASIL PENELITIAN SUMBER:

37 PENYAJIAN HASIL PENELITIAN Some general considerations about Figures: 1.Big or little? For course-related papers, a good rule of thumb is to size your figures to fill about one-half of a page. Readers should not have to reach for a magnifying glass to make out the details. Compound figures may require a full page. 2.Color or no color? Most often black and white is preferred. The rationale is that if you need to photocopy or fax your paper, any information conveyed by colors will be lost to the reader. However, for a poster presentation or a talk with projected images, color can be helpful in distinguishing different data sets. Every aspect of your Figure should convey information; never use color simply because it is pretty. 3.Title or no title? Never use a title for Figures included in a paper; the legend conveys all the necessary information and the title just takes up extra space. However, for posters or projected images, where people may have a harder time reading the small print of a legend, a larger font title is very helpful. 4.Offset axes or not? Elect to offset the axes only when data points will be obscured by being printed over the Y axis. 5.Error bars or not? Always include error bars (SD or SEM) when plotting means. In some courses you may be asked to plot other measures associated with the mean, such as confidence intervals. 6.Tick marks - Use common sense when deciding on major (numbered) versus minor ticks. Major ticks should be used to reasonably break up the range of values plotted into integer values. Within the major intervals, it is usually necessary to add minor interval ticks that further subdivide the scale into logical units (i.e., a interval that is a factor of the major tick interval). For example, when using major tick intervals of 10, minor tick intervals of 1,2, or 5 might be used, but not 4. SUMBER:

38 Bar Graph Bar graphs are used when you wish to compare the value of a single variable (usually a summary value such as a mean) among several groups. For example, a bar graph is appropriate to show the mean sizes of plants harvested from plots that received 4 different fertilizer treatments. (Note that although a bar graph might be used to show differences between only 2 groups, especially for pedagogical purposes, editors of many journals would prefer that you save space by presenting such information in the text.) SUMBER:

39 BAR GRAPH SUMBER:

40 In this example notice that: 1.legend goes below the figure; 2.a period follows "Figure 1" and the legend itself; "Figure" is not abbreviated ; 3.the measured variable is labelled on the Y axis. In most cases units are given here as well (see next example); 4.the categorical variable (habitat) is labelled on the X axis, and each category is designated; 5.a second categorical variable (year) within habitat has been designated by different bar fill color. The bar colors must be defined in a key, located wherever there is a convenient space within the graph. 6.error bars are included, extending +1 SD or SEM above the mean. 7.statistical differences may be indicated by a system of letters above the bars, with an accompanying note in the caption indicating the test and the significance level used. SUMBER: BAR GRAPH

41 Notice here: 1.the completeness of the legend, which in this case requires over 3 lines just to describe the treatments used and variable measured. 2.axis labels, with units; 3.treatment group (pH) levels specified on X axis; 4.error bars and group sample sizes accompany each bar, and each of these is well-defined in legend; 5.statistical differences in this case are indicated by lines drawn over the bars, and the statistical test and significance level are identified in the legend. SUMBER: BAR GRAPH

42 FREQUENCY HISTOGRAMS Frequency histograms (also called frequency distributions) are bar- type graphs that show how the measured individuals are distributed along an axis of the measured variable. Frequency (the Y axis) can be absolute (i.e. number of counts) or relative (i.e. percent or proportion of the sample.) A familiar example would be a histogram of exam scores, showing the number of students who achieved each possible score. Frequency histograms are important in describing populations, e.g. size and age distributions. SUMBER:

43 FREQUENCY HISTOGRAMS

44 Notice several things about this example: 1.the Y axis includes a clear indication ("%") that relative frequencies are used. (Some examples of an absolute frequencies: "Number of stems", "Number of birds observed") 2.the measured variable (X axis) has been divided into categories ("bins") of appropriate width to visualize the population distribution. In this case, bins of 0.2 cm broke the population into 7 columns of varying heights. Setting the bin size at 0.5 cm would have yielded only 3 columns, not enough to visualize a pattern. Conversely, setting the bin size too small (0.05 cm) would have yielded very short columns scattered along a long axis, again obscuring the pattern. 3.the values labeled on the X axis are the bin centers; 4.sample size is clearly indicated, either in the legend or (in this case) the graph itself; 5.the Y axis includes numbered and minor ticks to allow easy determination of bar values. SUMBER: FREQUENCY HISTOGRAMS

45 These are plots of X,Y coordinates showing each individual's or sample's score on two variables. When plotting data this way we are usually interested in knowing whether the two variables show a "relationship", i.e. do they change in value together in a consistent way? SUMBER: X,Y Scatterplot

46 SUMBER: X,Y Scatterplot

47 Note in this example that: 1.each axis is labeled (including units where appropriate) and includes numbered and minor ticks to allow easy determination of the values of plotted points; 2.sample size is included in the legend or the body of the graph; 3.if the data have been analyzed statistically and a relationship between the variables exists, it may be indicated by plotting the regression line on the graph, and by giving the equation of the regression and its statistical significance in the legend or body of the figure; 4.the range of each axis has been carefully selected to maximize the spread of the points and to minimize wasted blank space where no points fall. For instance, the X axis is truncated below 50 g because no plants smaller than 52 g were measured. The ranges selected also result in labeled ticks that are easy to read (50, 100, 150…, rather than 48, 96, 144…) SUMBER: X,Y Scatterplot

48 Line graphs plot a series of related values that depict a change in Y as a function of X. Two common examples are a growth curve for an individual or population over time, and a dose-response curve showing effects of increasing doses of a drug or treatment. When to connect the dots? If each point in the series is obtained from the same source and is dependent on the previous values (e.g. a plot of a baby's weight over the course of a year, or of muscle strength on successive contractions as a muscle fatigues), then the points should be connected by a line in a dot-to-dot fashion. If, however, the series represents independent measurements of a variable to show a trend (e.g. mean price of computer memory over time; a standard curve of optical density vs. solute concentration), then the trend or relationship can be modeled by calculating the best-fit line or curve by regression analysis. Do not connect the dots when the measurements were made independently. SUMBER: X,Y Line Graph

49 SUMBER: X,Y Line Graph

50 SUMBER: X,Y Line Graph

51 SUMBER: X,Y Line Graph In this example notice: 1.a different symbol is used for each group (species), and the key to the symbols is placed in the body of the graph where space permits. Symbols are large enough to be easily recognizable in the final graph size; 2.each point represents a mean value, and this is stated in the legend. Error bars are therefore plotted for each point and defined in the legend as well. 3.because measurements were taken on independent groups for each species, the points are NOT connected dot-to-dot; instead a curve is fitted to the data to show the trend.

52 SUMBER: X,Y Line Graph

53 SUMBER: X,Y Line Graph Notice here that: 1.this time the dots ARE connected dot-to-dot within each treatment, because cumulative percent germination was measured within the same set of seeds each day, and thus is dependent on the measurements of the prior days; 2.a different symbol is used for each treatment, and symbols are large enough (and connecting lines fine enough) so that all can be easily read at the final graph size; 3.in addition to the key to symbols, two other kinds of helpful information are supplied in the body of the figure: the values of the highest and lowest final cumulative percents, and a dashed line (baseline) showing the lowest cumulative % germination achieved. This baseline is defined in the legend.

54 Photographs SUMBER: Notice here that: A photograph is a figure. Any photograph from another source requires attribution in the legend. Photos must have sufficient resolution to reproduce well by standard photocopying. Figure 9. Aerial photo of the study site ca and in 1998 (inset) showing the regeneration of the forest. Photos courtesy of the USDA Field Office, Auburn, Maine.


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