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Memandang Televisi dengan Kritis

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Presentasi berjudul: "Memandang Televisi dengan Kritis"— Transcript presentasi:

1 Memandang Televisi dengan Kritis
Inaya Rakhmani Analisis Kritis terhadap Media (Massa) di Indonesia Program S1 Reguler Ilmu Komunikasi FISIP UI

2 Analisis Kritis terhadap Televisi
Ideologi (historical context) Sistem pertelevisian Kepemilikan & monopoli (ekonomi politik) Media representation (content analysis) Audience reception

3 Sistem televisi & pendekatan kritis
Orde Lama (gagasan gotong royong, ideologi Pancasila) Orde Baru (nation building) Privatisasi Reformasi (kebebasan pers)

4 Sistem Televisi Commercial Public broadcasting systems Perbedaannya:
“--The cultural and political purpose of broadcasting, and this difference is inextricably linked to a marked distinction in how each system prefers to define the institution-audience relationship” (Ang) - Funding (licence, subsidy, advertising, subscription)

5 Television & the Indonesian National Culture Project
Promotion of national unity and integration The promotion of national stability The promotion of political stability

6 Orde Baru Ideologi = Pancasila
Sistem = state owned television (TVRI) sebagai ‘media’ pembentukan identitas nasional Media representation Audience

7 Media representation Si Unyil 1. Cultural & religious difference
2. Bahasa sebagai hegemoni 3. ‘Distancing’ dari perbedaan

8 National Unity & Integration
National culture is an outcome of the thinking of all the Indonesian people. Ancient and original culture is taken as the height of regional cultures throughout Indonesia and added together as national culture. Cultural efforts must be directed toward the advancement of civilization, culture, and unity and should not reject new things from foreign cultures that can develop or enrich national culture itself and raise the humanity of the Indonesian people. (Muhammad Yamin, 1959, 44)

9 National Integration Generalisasi ‘siapa’ orang Indonesia
Pembentukan budaya baru dari budaya lama (hegemoni) Persatuan diarahkan ke modernisasi (peradaban) Infiltrasi budaya asing diizinkan, tapi budaya lokal yang ‘berbeda’ dimarjinalisasi

10 Budaya Nasional Orde Baru
Under the New Order, the national culture project can be understood as: Cultural denial (distanced itself from Guided Democracy, denigrating cultural values that contributed to disorder) Affirmation (cultural constructs) Invention (representation of historical continuity, innovation of cultural policies, practices and values, “development” --> unitary and unifying cultural identity across the country)

11 Television and its Historical Audiences (Kitley)
John Hartley (1987): Television audience is an imaginary construct of discourses that surround and institutionalise broadcast practice in particular settings Discourse brought about by those with vested interest: TV Industry, government, critical institutions, voluntary groups

12 The Indonesian Audience
Imaginary audience/imagined audiences Ien Ang (1991): the way institutions imagine their audience through a detailed analysis (ratings)

13 Institutions that plan, produce & broadcast television messages, and the institutions that shape and regulate their flow, work with a construct of the ‘invisible mass’ of the television audience, ‘onto which large-scale economic and cultural aspirations & expectations, policies and planning schemes are projected, allowing these institutions to realise their ambitions to govern and control the formal frameworks of television’s place in contemporary life” (Ang 1991, 2)

14 Kerjasama antara stasiun TV & badan regulasi (pemerintah), memanipulasi audience (massa yang mudah diatur) untuk tujuan ekonomi & pembentukan budaya Ada kebijakan & perencanaan yang hati-hati untuk mencapai tujuan mengontrol framework posisi televisi dalam kehidupan audience

15 Imagining the Indonesian Audience
The audience as nation The audience as family The audience as childlike The audience as market The audience as global citizens The audience as public citizens

16 The Audience as Nation The Indonesian audience was imagined as a revolutionary mass that needed to be guided and shaped into model citizens of a ‘socialist humanity” (Kitley) Dekrit Presiden: TV = alat komunikasi massa yang bisa digunakan untuk membentuk massa

17 The Audience as Nation (cont’d)
Nationhood (national audiencehood) can be articulated through a process of disengagement from wider sociopolitical construct: Tendency to be critical of foreign programmes as “too Western” or otherwise incompatible with indigenous values and traditions. Tendency to idealize the value of “national” films and programmes, to reify a national Indonesian culture & press for greater representation of national programmes on local TV which will be enjoed by the imagined national audience.

18 The Audience as Family Saudara Sebuah gagasan ‘a national family’
Kekeluargaan Keluarga Rahmat Pemirsa = individuated viewing experience

19 The Audience as Childlike
Harus dibimbing Institusi/pemerintah/TV harus membangun bangsa

20 The Audience as Market RCTI = evolving creature of commerce more than policy Decoders Profit oriented “for the audience’s good” vs “the audience wants” Construction of a local audience (logo Garuda)

21 The Audience as Global Citizens
RCTI gives access to foreign materials (Liga Italia) Max Havelaar, tidak wajib menayangkan upacara 30 Sept Camera work as internationally styled (Kompas) Acara popular = MacGyver, Knight Rider, Airwold, Miami Vice, dll bukan ancaman bagi budaya lokal

22 The Audience as Public Citizens
Audience tidak mau diperlakukan sebagai objek pemerintah: Rights of ownership (audience membayar) Public’s TV service should be professionally managed and not available for exploitation by commercial interests A rejection of any demeaning assumption that the audience is immature or lacking in judgement (audience is accepting about its diversity & resistant to any attempt to position it as a uniform mass)

23 Beberapa perkembangan pasca Orde Baru
RCTI sebagai alternatif monopoli TVRI Wok with Yan masak babi saat bulan Ramadan (1991, SCTV) Wonder Woman sexist, offensive, unsuitable for children (Tempo, 1991) Ada sebuah usaha dari masyarakat untuk menjadikan hubungan audience-TV dua arah (two way flow)

24 Muatan televisi & pendekatan kritis
- Berita (David Hill) - Empat Mata vs Bukan Empat Mata - Newsdotcom - Fear Factor vs Tantangan

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