1METODOLOGI RISET Penemuan Intelektual Dr. Kusrini, M.KomSTMIK AMIKOM Yogyakarta
2The Research Process Beberapa proses standar yang ada: Sequential GeneralisedCirculatoryEvolutionary
3Sequentiala series of activities are performed one after another as a ‘fixed, linear series of stages’Stages (Sharp, et al):Identify the broad area of study.Select a research topic.Decide on an approach.Plan how you will perform the research.Gather data and information.Analyse and interpret these data.Present the results and findings.
4Stages (Greenfield):Review the field – i.e., perform a literature survey.Build a theory – based on your understanding and interpretations of the field.Test the theory – does it work?Reflect and integrate – i.e., update your ideas based on your ‘tests’ and contribute your newfound knowledge to others.
5GeneralisedThe generalised research process is identical to the sequential process in that a defined sequence of activities is performed one after the other.However, the generalised model recognises that not all stages are applicable and some steps may require performing in different ways depending on the nature of the research.
6CirculatoryThe circulatory approach recognises that any research is really only part of a continuous cycle of discovery and investigation.Quite often, research will uncover more questions than it answers and, hence, the research process can begin again by attempting to answer these new found questions.Experiences of research might lead you to revisit or reinterpret earlier stages of your work (Blaxter et al., 2006: 9).The circulatory interpretation also permits the research process to be joined at any point and recognises that the process is never-ending.
8EvolutionaryThe evolutionary concept takes the circulatory interpretation one step further and recognises that research must evolve and change over time, not necessarily following a defined circulatory pattern or repeating the same forms of analysis and interpretation that were performed before.The outcomes of each evolution impact on later ones to a greater or lesser extent
9‘What am I looking for?’‘Why am I looking for it?’‘How shall I set about it?’‘Where shall I start looking?’
10merumuskan, menempatkan dan membatasi permasalahan Langkah PenelitianSeseorang merasakan adanya suatu kebutuhan yang menggoda perasaanya sehingga dia berusaha mengungkapkan kebutuhan tersebutmerumuskan, menempatkan dan membatasi permasalahanAdanya suatu kebutuhanMenetapkan masalahMenyusun hipotesisMerekam data untuk pembuktianMembuktikan hipotesis dengan eksperimen, pengujian dan merekam data di lapangan.Kesimpulan yang diyakini kebenarannyaMemformulasikan kesimpulan umumJawaban atau pemecahan masalah sementara yang masih merupakan dugaan yang dihasilkan misalnya dari pengalaman, teori dan hukum yang ada
12Inductive Reasoningstart with your observations of the world and come to general conclusions about it.build models and theories based on your interpretation of the world.will depend on the data and information you can draw from the world, the subject/problem you are studying and, importantly, what you already know and believe.
13Deductive Reasoningstart with your knowledge and understanding of the world and predict likely observations within it, even though you might not have encountered them before.affected by your theory of reality, your own personal understanding of the world and your underlying assumptions about what you are investigating.This is referred to as ontology. Different people might deduce different things as their understanding differs from your own and they see things in different ways.
14Important Arguments in Research Deduction (deduktif)Berangkat dari adanya kesimpulan/teori/hipotesis kemudian dilakukan penelitian untuk membuktikannyaInduction (induktif)Berangkat dari adanya fenomena-fenomena di lapangan kemudian dilakukan penelitian untuk mendapatkan kesimpulanFaktainduktifKesimpulanFaktadeduktif
15Another technique (Greeenfield) Random guesses.This is a similar technique to brainstorming whereby you try to solve a problem by generating a number of potential solutions at random.Hopefully one of them will make sense and work.Analogy.Is the problem similar to anything else that already has a solution or explanation?Inversion.Try to look at things from the opposite angle. For example, instead of asking ‘which computer language should I use?’ ask ‘why shouldn’t I use Java?’.Partition.Break the problem or situation down into smaller, more manageable and understandable parts.
16Classifying Research Field Approach Nature Example: computing you might identify research fields in areas such as information systems, artificial intelligence, software engineeringBerdasarkan konsentrasiApproachfor example: case study, experiment and surveyNature
17Nature Sharp: Herbert and Sanders : Pure theoretical development. Research that reviews and assesses pure theory and evaluates its potential for practical application.Applied research that has some practical application or outcomeHerbert and Sanders :Pure theory: developing theories to explain things without necessarily linking them to practice.Descriptive studies: reviewing and evaluating existing theory and knowledge in a field or describing particular situations or eventsExploratory studies: exploring a situation or a problem.Explanatory studies: explaining or clarifying something or some phenomena and identifying the relationships between things.Causal studies : assessing the effects that one or more variables have on another.
18Good Research? Open minds. Critical analysis. Generalisations. Examine data critically.Are these figures correct? Have they been affected in some way? What do these data really mean? Are alternative data available? Can these data be interpreted differently?Generalisations.llows research to be interpreted and applied to a wide variety of situations.
20Action ResearchInvolves ‘the carefully documented (and monitored) study of an attempt by you. . . to actively solve a problem and/or change a situation’ (Herbert, 1990: 29).Sometimes referred to as participant observation, it involves working on a specific problem or project with a subject or, more usually, an organisation and evaluating the results.With action research you must ensure that you do not become too obsessed with completing the action itself and neglect the real reason for doing it – i.e., evaluating it as part of your academic project
21ExperimentInvolves an investigation of causal relationships using tests controlled by yourself.Quite often quasi-experimental research will have to be performed due to problems of insufficient access to samples, ethical issues and so on. According to Saunders et al. (2007: 137),Experiments typically involve:defining a theoretical hypothesis;selecting samples from known populations;allocating samples to different experimental conditions;introducing planned changes to one or more variables;measuring a small number of variables;controlling all other variables.
22Case StudyA case study is ‘an in-depth exploration of one situation’ (Cornford and Smithson, 2006: 71).It involves the investigation of a particular situation, problem, company or group of companies.This investigation can be performed directly, for example, by interviews, observation, etc.; or indirectly by studying company reports or company documentation.Berndtsson et al. (2008: 62) point out that you should not merely report on the outcome of the case study investigation, but also attempt to ‘generalise from the specific details of the examined setting, attempting to characterise the situa tion for which the studied organisation is typical’.
23SurveyThis is usually undertaken through the use of questionnaires or interviews.It allows ‘the collection of a large amount of data from a sizable population in a highly economical way’ (Saunders et al., 2007: 138).As part of a survey you might have to identify samples and sample sizes, design questionnaires and define interviews as appropriate
24Choose a Research Project You must be capable of doing the proposed project in the time availableChoose a project that interests youConsider your personal development and choose a project that will assist you in your goalsYour project should have a serious purpose and a clear outcome that will benefit someone.Your project has a clear outcome (in terms of deliverables) that focuses your work and directionYour project links suitably with your degree course.Your project is of sufficient scope and quality to fit the requirements of your course.The resources you require for your project are available or can be obtained; for example,software, hardware, a particular client, user or organisation.
25Techniques and Information Sources Lecturers’/departmental listsPast projectsTalking with colleaguesReading around subject areasClusteringBrainstormingChapter breakdown
26Bagaimana Cara Menemukan Masalah? lewat studi literatur, baik dari paper-paper di jurnal ilmiah atau proceedings conferencelewat pengamatan lapanganpenelitian bisa juga merupakan penyempurnaan dari kelemahan penelitian orang lain cari kelemahan dari penelitian lain, lalu lakukan penyempurnaan/ penutupan terhadap kelemahan tersebut
27Literatur Penelitian Berbayar IEEE Computer Society Digital LibraryACM Digital Library bisa diakses free di AMIKOMElsevier.Com EBSCO bisa diakses free di AMIKOMScience DirectProquest bisa diakses free di AMIKOM
28Literatur Penelitian Gratis Citeseer (ribuan paper jurnal bidang computer science)Directory of Open Access JournalPubMed Central (free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences)Google Scholar (citation index, abstak dam fulltext)Mirror Scientific Data di LIPI (mirror di LIPI untuk jurnal ilmiah internasional)DBLP BibliographyLibra Academic SearchJSTOR Scholarly Journal ArchieveBiomed Central (the Open Access Publisher)Highwire Press Stanford UniversityUC Berkeley on iTunes U (Materi kuliah gratis dari UC Berkeley)MIT Opencourseware (Materi kuliah gratis dari MIT)Patent Searching (Pencarian Dokumen Paten)Ilmukomputer.Com (mulai banyak paper ilmiah yang diupload)
31Additional Consideration The ‘so what?’ testJustificationNumerating your understandingEthical issuesData protectionRecruiting participantsVulnerable groupsTraining
32TugasCari 2 calon judul penelitian yang akan dijadikan bahan untuk tesis AndaJelaskan penelitian tersebut dalam jenis apa menurut field, aproach dan nature nyaJelaskan alasan kenapa memilih judul tersebut