Beberapa proses standar yang ada: Sequential Generalised Circulatory Evolutionary
a series of activities are performed one after another as a ‘fixed, linear series of stages’ Stages (Sharp, et al): Identify the broad area of study. Select a research topic. Decide on an approach. Plan how you will perform the research. Gather data and information. Analyse and interpret these data. Present the results and findings.
Stages (Greenfield): Review the field – i.e., perform a literature survey. Build a theory – based on your understanding and interpretations of the field. Test the theory – does it work? Reflect and integrate – i.e., update your ideas based on your ‘tests’ and contribute your newfound knowledge to others.
The generalised research process is identical to the sequential process in that a defined sequence of activities is performed one after the other. However, the generalised model recognises that not all stages are applicable and some steps may require performing in different ways depending on the nature of the research.
The circulatory approach recognises that any research is really only part of a continuous cycle of discovery and investigation. Quite often, research will uncover more questions than it answers and, hence, the research process can begin again by attempting to answer these new found questions. Experiences of research might lead you to revisit or reinterpret earlier stages of your work (Blaxter et al., 2006: 9). The circulatory interpretation also permits the research process to be joined at any point and recognises that the process is never-ending.
The evolutionary concept takes the circulatory interpretation one step further and recognises that research must evolve and change over time, not necessarily following a defined circulatory pattern or repeating the same forms of analysis and interpretation that were performed before. The outcomes of each evolution impact on later ones to a greater or lesser extent
‘What am I looking for?’ ‘Why am I looking for it?’ ‘How shall I set about it?’ ‘Where shall I start looking?’
Seseorang merasakan adanya suatu kebutuhan yang menggoda perasaanya sehingga dia berusaha mengungkapkan kebutuhan tersebut Adanya suatu kebutuhan Menetapkan masalah Menyusun hipotesis Merekam data untuk pembuktian Membuktikan hipotesis dengan eksperimen, pengujian dan merekam data di lapangan. Kesimpulan yang diyakini kebenarannya Memformulasikan kesimpulan umum merumuskan, menempatkan dan membatasi permasalahan Jawaban atau pemecahan masalah sementara yang masih merupakan dugaan yang dihasilkan misalnya dari pengalaman, teori dan hukum yang ada
Inductive reasoning Deductive reasoning
start with your observations of the world and come to general conclusions about it. build models and theories based on your interpretation of the world. will depend on the data and information you can draw from the world, the subject/problem you are studying and, importantly, what you already know and believe.
start with your knowledge and understanding of the world and predict likely observations within it, even though you might not have encountered them before. affected by your theory of reality, your own personal understanding of the world and your underlying assumptions about what you are investigating. This is referred to as ontology. Different people might deduce different things as their understanding differs from your own and they see things in different ways.
induktif • Deduction (deduktif) • Berangkat dari adanya kesimpulan/teori/hipotesis kemudian dilakukan penelitian untuk membuktikannya • Induction (induktif) • Berangkat dari adanya fenomena-fenomena di lapangan kemudian dilakukan penelitian untuk mendapatkan kesimpulan Fakta Kesimpulan deduktif
Random guesses. This is a similar technique to brainstorming whereby you try to solve a problem by generating a number of potential solutions at random. Hopefully one of them will make sense and work. Analogy. Is the problem similar to anything else that already has a solution or explanation? Inversion. Try to look at things from the opposite angle. For example, instead of asking ‘which computer language should I use?’ ask ‘why shouldn’t I use Java?’. Partition. Break the problem or situation down into smaller, more manageable and understandable parts.
Field Example: ▪ computing you might identify research fields in areas such as information systems, artificial intelligence, software engineering ▪ Berdasarkan konsentrasi Approach for example: case study, experiment and survey Nature
Sharp: Pure theoretical development. Research that reviews and assesses pure theory and evaluates its potential for practical application. Applied research that has some practical application or outcome Herbert and Sanders : Pure theory: developing theories to explain things without necessarily linking them to practice. Descriptive studies: reviewing and evaluating existing theory and knowledge in a field or describing particular situations or events Exploratory studies: exploring a situation or a problem. Explanatory studies: explaining or clarifying something or some phenomena and identifying the relationships between things. Causal studies : assessing the effects that one or more variables have on another.
Open minds. Critical analysis. Examine data critically. Are these figures correct? Have they been affected in some way? What do these data really mean? Are alternative data available? Can these data be interpreted differently? Generalisations. llows research to be interpreted and applied to a wide variety of situations.
Action Research Experiment Case Study Survey
Involves ‘the carefully documented (and monitored) study of an attempt by you... to actively solve a problem and/or change a situation’ (Herbert, 1990: 29). Sometimes referred to as participant observation, it involves working on a specific problem or project with a subject or, more usually, an organisation and evaluating the results. With action research you must ensure that you do not become too obsessed with completing the action itself and neglect the real reason for doing it – i.e., evaluating it as part of your academic project
Involves an investigation of causal relationships using tests controlled by yourself. Quite often quasi-experimental research will have to be performed due to problems of insufficient access to samples, ethical issues and so on. According to Saunders et al. (2007: 137), Experiments typically involve: defining a theoretical hypothesis; selecting samples from known populations; allocating samples to different experimental conditions; introducing planned changes to one or more variables; measuring a small number of variables; controlling all other variables.
A case study is ‘an in-depth exploration of one situation’ (Cornford and Smithson, 2006: 71). It involves the investigation of a particular situation, problem, company or group of companies. This investigation can be performed directly, for example, by interviews, observation, etc.; or indirectly by studying company reports or company documentation. Berndtsson et al. (2008: 62) point out that you should not merely report on the outcome of the case study investigation, but also attempt to ‘generalise from the specific details of the examined setting, attempting to characterise the situa tion for which the studied organisation is typical’.
This is usually undertaken through the use of questionnaires or interviews. It allows ‘the collection of a large amount of data from a sizable population in a highly economical way’ (Saunders et al., 2007: 138). As part of a survey you might have to identify samples and sample sizes, design questionnaires and define interviews as appropriate
You must be capable of doing the proposed project in the time available Choose a project that interests you Consider your personal development and choose a project that will assist you in your goals Your project should have a serious purpose and a clear outcome that will benefit someone. Your project has a clear outcome (in terms of deliverables) that focuses your work and direction Your project links suitably with your degree course. Your project is of sufficient scope and quality to fit the requirements of your course. The resources you require for your project are available or can be obtained; for example, software, hardware, a particular client, user or organisation.
Lecturers’/departmental lists Past projects Talking with colleagues Reading around subject areas Clustering Brainstorming Chapter breakdown
lewat studi literatur, baik dari paper-paper di jurnal ilmiah atau proceedings conference lewat pengamatan lapangan penelitian bisa juga merupakan penyempurnaan dari kelemahan penelitian orang lain cari kelemahan dari penelitian lain, lalu lakukan penyempurnaan/ penutupan terhadap kelemahan tersebut
IEEE Computer Society Digital Library IEEE Computer Society Digital Library ACM Digital Library bisa diakses free di AMIKOM ACM Digital Library Elsevier.Com Elsevier.Com EBSCO bisa diakses free di AMIKOM EBSCO Science Direct Science Direct Proquest bisa diakses free di AMIKOM Proquest
Citeseer (ribuan paper jurnal bidang computer science) Citeseer Directory of Open Access Journal Directory of Open Access Journal PubMed Central (free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences) PubMed Central Google Scholar (citation index, abstak dam fulltext) Google Scholar Mirror Scientific Data di LIPI (mirror di LIPI untuk jurnal ilmiah internasional) Mirror Scientific Data di LIPI DBLP Bibliography DBLP Bibliography Libra Academic Search Libra Academic Search JSTOR Scholarly Journal Archieve JSTOR Scholarly Journal Archieve Biomed Central (the Open Access Publisher) Biomed Central Highwire Press Stanford University Highwire Press Stanford University UC Berkeley on iTunes U (Materi kuliah gratis dari UC Berkeley) UC Berkeley on iTunes U MIT Opencourseware (Materi kuliah gratis dari MIT) MIT Opencourseware Patent Searching (Pencarian Dokumen Paten) Patent Searching Ilmukomputer.Com (mulai banyak paper ilmiah yang diupload) Ilmukomputer.Com
The ‘so what?’ test Justification Numerating your understanding Ethical issues Data protection Recruiting participants Vulnerable groups Training
Cari 2 calon judul penelitian yang akan dijadikan bahan untuk tesis Anda Jelaskan penelitian tersebut dalam jenis apa menurut field, aproach dan nature nya Jelaskan alasan kenapa memilih judul tersebut