2Tokoh Pejuang Wanita Indonesia Raden Adjeng Kartini21 April 1879 – 17 September 1904
3Pemikiran Raden Adjeng Kartini Adanya keinginan untuk memperbaiki kondisi kaum wanita yang disebabkan kungkungan adat, antara lain :Dunia wanita hanya sebatas tembok rumah.Tidak bebas mendapatkan akses pendidikan.Dipingit dan dinikahkan dengan pria yang tidak dikenal.
8Rata-rata Upah (2006) LAPANGAN PEKERJAAN PRIA WANITA SEKTOR 1 Pertanian, Kehutanan, Perburuan, Perikanan (Agriculture,Forestry,Hunting,Fishery)2Pertambangan, Penggalian (Mining and Quarrying)3Industri Pengolahan (Manufacturing Industries)4Listrik, gas dan air (Electricity, Gaz and Water)5Bangunan (Construction)6Perdagangan Besar, Rumah Makan & Hotel (Wholesale Trade,Restaurant & Hotel)7Angkutan, Pergudangan dan Komunikasi (Transportation,Storage & Communication)8Keuangan, Asuransi,Jasa Perusahaan (Financing,Insurance,Business Services)9Jasa Kemasyarakatan (Public Services)Rata-rata
9Penduduk yang Bekerja Berdasarkan Jam Kerja Tahun 2007
11Konsep Diskriminasi George Borjas : Differences in EARNINGS and EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES among equally skilled workers employed in the same job simply because of the worker’s race, gender, national origin, sexual orientation, or other seemingly irrelevant characteristics.
12Konsep DiskriminasiDiscrimination means treating people differently and less favourably because of characteristics that are not related to their merit or the requirements of the job.These include race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national extraction and social origin.
16The Discrimination Coefficient If the employer is prejudiced againts black, employer gets disutility from hiring black workers.Disutility : employer will act as if costs for black worker wB (1 + d), where d is positive number and is called :The Discrimination Coefficient
17The Discrimination Coefficient Suppose that wB = $10, and that d =0,5 ; the employer will then act as if hiring a black worker costs $ 15The greater the prejudiced, the greater is the disutility from hiring black workers, and the greater is the discrimination coefficient d.
18The Discrimination Coefficient If these black employers prefer to hire black workers, they will act as if hiring a black worker is cheaper than it actually is.Nepotism Coefficient wB (1 – n )
21Skill and Labor Market Outcomes (2001) WHITEBLACKHISPANICMaleFemaleHighschool Graduate or more (Percent)84.385.278.578.956.157.9Bachelor’s degree or more (Percent)29.125.416.417.511.011.2Labor Force Participation Rate (Percent)79.959.972.165.283.859.3Unemployment Rate (Percent)4.73.68.07.05.26.6Annual Earnings (in $1,000)49.829.633.526.030.822.3Annual Earnings(Full Time)55.437.138.534.328.0
23Employer Discrimination Assumption :White Workers and Black Workers are Perfect Subtitutes in Production.Firms’s output depends on the total number of workers hired, regardless of their race have the same Marginal Product of Labor ( MPE )
24Employer Discrimination Production function:q = f ( EW + EB )q firm’s outputEW number of white workers hiredEB number of black workers hired
26Employment in a non Discriminatory Firm Both groups of workers have the same Value of Marginal Product, a non discriminatory firms will hire whichever group is CheaperSuppose that wW > wB , a firms that doesn’t discriminate will hire black workers up to the point wherewB = VMPE
27The Employment Decision of a Firm That Does Not Discriminate ?Black workers wage is less than white wageVMPEDollarwB = VMPEHow many workerwill be hired..??Employment
29Employment in a Discriminatory Firm The employer act as if black wage is not wB , but instead equal to wB (1 + d). Where d is discrimination coefficient.The employer’s hiring decision based on a comparison wW and wB (1 + d)Hire only blacks if wB (1 + d) < wWHire only white if wB (1 + d) > wW
30Employment in a Discriminatory Firm As long as black and white workers are perfect subtitutes, firms have a segregated workforce.Employer’s who have little prejudice and hence have small discrimination coefficient, will hire only BLACKS (called “Black Firm”).Employer’s who are very prejudice and have very large discrimination coefficient, will hire only WHITES (called “White Firm”).
31Employment in a Discriminatory Firm WHITE FIRMThe white firm hires workers up to the point where : wW = VMPEAssumption : wW > WBThe white firm is paying an excessively high price for its workers and hires relatively few workers ( )
32The Employment Decision of a Prejudiced Firm DollarWhite FirmVMPEEmployment
33Employment in a Discriminatory Firm BLACK FIRMNon discriminatory firms :wB = VMPE If discrimination coefficient d0 :Price of Black Labor wB ( 1 + d0 )Amount of Labor hired :wB ( 1 + d0 ) = VMPE
34Employment in a Discriminatory Firm BLACK FIRMThe number of black workers hired, therefore, is smaller for firms that have larger discrimination coefficient.
35The Employment Decision of a Prejudiced Firm DollarDiscrimination CoefficientBlack FirmVMPEEmployment
37Discrimination and Profits Firms that discriminate lose on two counts :The prejudiced employer could have hired the same number of black worker at lower wage. Because black and white workers are perfect subtitutes.Discriminatory black firms are hiring too few workers ( or ) they are giving up profits in order to minimize contact with black workers.
38Profit and Discrimination Coefficient DollarmaxMax ProfitwBlackFirmWhite FirmDiscriminationCoefficientdw
39Discrimination and Profits The Most Profitable Firm Zero Discrimination
41Discrimination and Profits Firm dengan Discrimination Coefficient :Rendah cenderung Black FirmTinggi cenderung White FirmAsumsi : Supply Black Worker Perfectly Inelastic sejumlah N Black person tidak terpengaruh tingkat upah.
44Employee Discrimination Diskriminasi dilakukan oleh “Fellow Worker”Misal : White worker yang bekerja pada Black Firm dengan upah wW akan merasa mendapat upah wW (1- d).Tidak berpengaruh terhadap “Profitability of Firms” karena white worker dan black worker adalah perfect subtitutes sehingga firm membayar jumlah upah yang sama.
46Customer Discrimination Dikemukakan oleh Harry J. Holzer dan Keith R. Ihlanfeldt (1998) research di Atlanta, Boston, Detroit dan Los Angeles.Keputusan membeli tidak ditentukan oleh Actual Price ( p ) tapi oleh The Utility-Adjusted Price p (1 + d).Employer dapat mengatur tenaga penjualan sesuai kondisi.
48Customer Discrimination and NBA Lawrence Kahn and Peter Sherer 1998) :A study of attenance records indicates that replacing a black player with an eqqually talented white player bring in about 9,000 additional fans per year.At $50 a head (a very conservative estimate of ticket prices and concession revenues), the racial switch would increase annual team revenues by roughly $450,000
53Measuring The Impact of Discrimination on the Wage Men’s Earning FunctionMen’s EarningDollarsMen’sEarningWomen’s Earning FunctionWomen’s EarningMeasure Discrimination :Woman’sEarningWomen’s SchoolingMen’s SchoolingSchooling