2 Tokoh Pejuang Wanita Indonesia Raden Adjeng Kartini21 April 1879 – 17 September 1904
3 Pemikiran Raden Adjeng Kartini Adanya keinginan untuk memperbaiki kondisi kaum wanita yang disebabkan kungkungan adat, antara lain :Dunia wanita hanya sebatas tembok rumah.Tidak bebas mendapatkan akses pendidikan.Dipingit dan dinikahkan dengan pria yang tidak dikenal.
8 Rata-rata Upah (2006) LAPANGAN PEKERJAAN PRIA WANITA SEKTOR 1 Pertanian, Kehutanan, Perburuan, Perikanan (Agriculture,Forestry,Hunting,Fishery)2Pertambangan, Penggalian (Mining and Quarrying)3Industri Pengolahan (Manufacturing Industries)4Listrik, gas dan air (Electricity, Gaz and Water)5Bangunan (Construction)6Perdagangan Besar, Rumah Makan & Hotel (Wholesale Trade,Restaurant & Hotel)7Angkutan, Pergudangan dan Komunikasi (Transportation,Storage & Communication)8Keuangan, Asuransi,Jasa Perusahaan (Financing,Insurance,Business Services)9Jasa Kemasyarakatan (Public Services)Rata-rata
9 Penduduk yang Bekerja Berdasarkan Jam Kerja Tahun 2007
11 Konsep Diskriminasi George Borjas : Differences in EARNINGS and EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES among equally skilled workers employed in the same job simply because of the worker’s race, gender, national origin, sexual orientation, or other seemingly irrelevant characteristics.
12 Konsep DiskriminasiDiscrimination means treating people differently and less favourably because of characteristics that are not related to their merit or the requirements of the job.These include race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national extraction and social origin.
14 The Discrimination Coefficient Lauched for the first timeby Gary S. BeckerThe Economics of Discrimination (1957)
15 The Discrimination Coefficient Basic Concept : Taste DiscriminationAssumption Two types of workers :White workers : wage wWBlack workers : wage wB
16 The Discrimination Coefficient If the employer is prejudiced againts black, employer gets disutility from hiring black workers.Disutility : employer will act as if costs for black worker wB (1 + d), where d is positive number and is called :The Discrimination Coefficient
17 The Discrimination Coefficient Suppose that wB = $10, and that d =0,5 ; the employer will then act as if hiring a black worker costs $ 15The greater the prejudiced, the greater is the disutility from hiring black workers, and the greater is the discrimination coefficient d.
18 The Discrimination Coefficient If these black employers prefer to hire black workers, they will act as if hiring a black worker is cheaper than it actually is.Nepotism Coefficient wB (1 – n )
21 Skill and Labor Market Outcomes (2001) WHITEBLACKHISPANICMaleFemaleHighschool Graduate or more (Percent)84.385.278.578.956.157.9Bachelor’s degree or more (Percent)29.125.416.417.511.011.2Labor Force Participation Rate (Percent)79.959.972.165.283.859.3Unemployment Rate (Percent)4.73.68.07.05.26.6Annual Earnings (in $1,000)49.829.633.526.030.822.3Annual Earnings(Full Time)55.437.138.534.328.0
23 Employer Discrimination Assumption :White Workers and Black Workers are Perfect Subtitutes in Production.Firms’s output depends on the total number of workers hired, regardless of their race have the same Marginal Product of Labor ( MPE )
24 Employer Discrimination Production function:q = f ( EW + EB )q firm’s outputEW number of white workers hiredEB number of black workers hired
26 Employment in a non Discriminatory Firm Both groups of workers have the same Value of Marginal Product, a non discriminatory firms will hire whichever group is CheaperSuppose that wW > wB , a firms that doesn’t discriminate will hire black workers up to the point wherewB = VMPE
27 The Employment Decision of a Firm That Does Not Discriminate ?Black workers wage is less than white wageVMPEDollarwB = VMPEHow many workerwill be hired..??Employment
29 Employment in a Discriminatory Firm The employer act as if black wage is not wB , but instead equal to wB (1 + d). Where d is discrimination coefficient.The employer’s hiring decision based on a comparison wW and wB (1 + d)Hire only blacks if wB (1 + d) < wWHire only white if wB (1 + d) > wW
30 Employment in a Discriminatory Firm As long as black and white workers are perfect subtitutes, firms have a segregated workforce.Employer’s who have little prejudice and hence have small discrimination coefficient, will hire only BLACKS (called “Black Firm”).Employer’s who are very prejudice and have very large discrimination coefficient, will hire only WHITES (called “White Firm”).
31 Employment in a Discriminatory Firm WHITE FIRMThe white firm hires workers up to the point where : wW = VMPEAssumption : wW > WBThe white firm is paying an excessively high price for its workers and hires relatively few workers ( )
32 The Employment Decision of a Prejudiced Firm DollarWhite FirmVMPEEmployment
33 Employment in a Discriminatory Firm BLACK FIRMNon discriminatory firms :wB = VMPE If discrimination coefficient d0 :Price of Black Labor wB ( 1 + d0 )Amount of Labor hired :wB ( 1 + d0 ) = VMPE
34 Employment in a Discriminatory Firm BLACK FIRMThe number of black workers hired, therefore, is smaller for firms that have larger discrimination coefficient.
35 The Employment Decision of a Prejudiced Firm DollarDiscrimination CoefficientBlack FirmVMPEEmployment
37 Discrimination and Profits Firms that discriminate lose on two counts :The prejudiced employer could have hired the same number of black worker at lower wage. Because black and white workers are perfect subtitutes.Discriminatory black firms are hiring too few workers ( or ) they are giving up profits in order to minimize contact with black workers.
38 Profit and Discrimination Coefficient DollarmaxMax ProfitwBlackFirmWhite FirmDiscriminationCoefficientdw
39 Discrimination and Profits The Most Profitable Firm Zero Discrimination
41 Discrimination and Profits Firm dengan Discrimination Coefficient :Rendah cenderung Black FirmTinggi cenderung White FirmAsumsi : Supply Black Worker Perfectly Inelastic sejumlah N Black person tidak terpengaruh tingkat upah.
44 Employee Discrimination Diskriminasi dilakukan oleh “Fellow Worker”Misal : White worker yang bekerja pada Black Firm dengan upah wW akan merasa mendapat upah wW (1- d).Tidak berpengaruh terhadap “Profitability of Firms” karena white worker dan black worker adalah perfect subtitutes sehingga firm membayar jumlah upah yang sama.
46 Customer Discrimination Dikemukakan oleh Harry J. Holzer dan Keith R. Ihlanfeldt (1998) research di Atlanta, Boston, Detroit dan Los Angeles.Keputusan membeli tidak ditentukan oleh Actual Price ( p ) tapi oleh The Utility-Adjusted Price p (1 + d).Employer dapat mengatur tenaga penjualan sesuai kondisi.
48 Customer Discrimination and NBA Lawrence Kahn and Peter Sherer 1998) :A study of attenance records indicates that replacing a black player with an eqqually talented white player bring in about 9,000 additional fans per year.At $50 a head (a very conservative estimate of ticket prices and concession revenues), the racial switch would increase annual team revenues by roughly $450,000
53 Measuring The Impact of Discrimination on the Wage Men’s Earning FunctionMen’s EarningDollarsMen’sEarningWomen’s Earning FunctionWomen’s EarningMeasure Discrimination :Woman’sEarningWomen’s SchoolingMen’s SchoolingSchooling
54 Trend in Female-Male Wage Ratio (USA 1930-1990)
55 Global Gender Gap 2007 INDONESIA Rank 2007 : 81 Score 2007 : ( 1 = equality )Rank 2006 : 68Score 2007 : ( 1 = equality )