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KONSEP TEKNOLOGI PENGELOLAAN PENCEMARAN UDARA Oleh Sudrajat - FMIPA UNMUL - PROGRAM Magister Ilmu Lingkungan UNMUL 2005.

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Presentasi berjudul: "KONSEP TEKNOLOGI PENGELOLAAN PENCEMARAN UDARA Oleh Sudrajat - FMIPA UNMUL - PROGRAM Magister Ilmu Lingkungan UNMUL 2005."— Transcript presentasi:

1 KONSEP TEKNOLOGI PENGELOLAAN PENCEMARAN UDARA Oleh Sudrajat - FMIPA UNMUL - PROGRAM Magister Ilmu Lingkungan UNMUL 2005

2 KONTROL EMISI SO2 DARI SUMBER EMISI STATIONER : A.PREVENTIF 1.Gunakan Batubara berkadar Sulfur rendah ( Untuk pembangkit Tenaga baru) 2.Hilangkan SO 2 dari batubara 3.Konversi Batubara menjadi bentuk cair atu gas ( Liquifaction atau gasifikasi ) 4.Hilangkan Sulfur dari proses pembakaran dengan metode Fluidized-bed-combustion ( FBC) dari batubara. Dapat menghilangkan sulfur dioksida sebanyak 90 %, CO 2 20 % dan meningkatkan efisiensi energi sebanyak 5 %. 5.Penghilangan sulfur selama pembakaran dengan menggunakan suntikan kapur terus menerus ( LIMB / Limestone Injection Multiple Burning).

3 B. PEMBERSIHAN •Gunakan cerobong asap yang tinggi •Pemakaian alat untuk mengendalikan polutan dengan FLUE GAS SCRUBBER yang dapat mengurangi hingga 95 % senyawa SO 2 dan 99.9 % partikulat udara, namun tidak bagi partikel udara halus yang dapat masuk ke paru-paru. 3. Pengambilan SO 2 setelah pembakaran dg memakai scrubber organik. Dapat menyerap 95 % S0 2 dg menggunakan garam AMINE. 4. Peningkatan pajak bagi setiap unit EMISI POLUTAN UDARA

4 KONTROL EMISI NOX DARI SUMBER EMISI STATIONER : A.PREVENTIF 1.Hilangkan NOx dari proses pembakaran dengan metode Fluidized-bed-combustion ( FBC) dapat menghilangkan NOX sebanyak 50 – 75 % 2.Penghilangan sulfur selama pembakaran dengan menggunakan suntikan kapur terus menerus ( LIMB / Limestone Injection Multiple Burning). Dapat menghilangkan NOx sebanyak 50 – 60 % 3.Reduksi NOx melalui penurunan suhu pembakaran, dan dapat mengurangi produksi gas ini sebanyak %

5 B. PEMBERSIHAN •Gunakan cerobong asap yang tinggi •Pemakaian alat untuk mengendalikan polutan dengan FLUE GAS SCRUBBER dengan menambah senyawa phosphor •Peningkatan pajak bagi setiap unit EMISI POLUTAN UDARA •Pengambilan NOx setelah pembakaran dengan Pembakaran kembali ( Reburning). Dapat menyerap senyawa ini sebanyak 50 % atau lebih 5.Pengambilan NOx setelah pembakaran dengan mereaksikannya terhadap senyawa ISOCYANIC ACID ( HCNO). Dapat memecah senyawa ini hingga 99 % dan dengan merubah menjadi senyawa yg kurang bahaya dan masuk ke dalam air.

6 KONTROL EMISI PARTIKULAT DARI SUMBER EMISI STATIONER : A.PREVENTIF 1.Konversi Batubara menjadi bentuk cair atu gas ( Liquifaction atau gasifikasi ) B. PEMBERSIHAN 1. Gunakan cerobong asap yang tinggi 2. Pemakaian alat untuk mengendalikan polutan Stack/cerobong dg menggunakan elektrostatic presipitator, bag house filter, cyclone separator, wet srubber. 3. Peningkatan pajak bagi setiap unit EMISI POLUTAN UDARA

7 Control of pollutants from mobile sources Cleaner cars In response to tighter standards, manufacturers equipped new cars with even more sophisticated emission control systems. These systems generally include a "three-way" catalyst (which converts carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons to carbon dioxide and water, and also helps reduce nitrogen oxides to elemental nitrogen and oxygen), plus an on-board computer and oxygen sensor. This equipment helps optimize the efficiency of the catalytic converter. The catalytic converter is an anti-pollution device located between a vehicle's engine and tailpipe. Catalytic converters work by facilitating chemical reactions that convert exhaust pollutants such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides to normal atmospheric gases such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water. Figure: Typical Catalyst System for Exhaust Emissions

8 In diesel exhaust, the addition of a particulate filter as an anti- pollution device traps particles in the exhaust before they can escape into the atmosphere. A vapor recovery system, also an anti-pollution system, captures gasoline vapors that would otherwise escape into the atmosphere from hot vehicle engines and fuel tanks. Finally, auto makers must build some cars that use clean fuels, including alcohol, and that release less pollution from the tailpipe through advanced engine design. Electric cars, which are low- pollution vehicles, are currently being used as clean cars. Electric cars produce essentially no pollution from the tailpipe or through fuel evaporation. Car manufacturers are also beginning to sell "hybrid" vehicles that combine an electric motor with a separate gasoline or diesel engine. Hybrid vehicles can more than double the gas mileage of conventional gasoline or diesel-powered cars and can cut emissions significantly.

9 Figure: Typical Catalyst System for Exhaust Emissions

10 Source Control Technology Control of pollutants from mobile sources Cleaner fuels One way to reduce air pollution from cars and trucks is to use a gasoline that is designed to burn clean. This cleaner burning gasoline, called reformulated gasoline or RFG, is required in cities with the worst smog pollution, but other cities with smog problems may choose to use RFG. Reformulated gasoline contains less volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and will contain oxygen additives to make the fuel burn more efficiently. Also, all gasolines will have to contain detergents, which, by preventing build-up of engine deposits, keep engines working smoothly and burning fuel cleanly. Figure: Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) is the oxygen additive most commonly used by the petroleum industry to satisfy the two percent oxygen mandate in the RFG program. MTBE is used in approximately 87 percent of RFG, with ethanol being the second most commonly used additive. Oxygenates increase the combustion efficiency of gasoline, thereby reducing vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide. On the other hand, EPA encourages the development and sale of alternative fuels such as alcohols, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and natural gas in order to lower fuel emissions.

11 Figure: Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE)


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