Presentasi berjudul: "ADVOKASI TERHADAP KORBAN & PENGALAMAN DI BEBERAPA NEGARA TOT Victimology & Victim Assistance LPSK, Bogor 27 Maret 2013 Heru Susetyo • Staf Pengajar Viktimologi,"— Transcript presentasi:
ADVOKASI TERHADAP KORBAN & PENGALAMAN DI BEBERAPA NEGARA TOT Victimology & Victim Assistance LPSK, Bogor 27 Maret 2013 Heru Susetyo • Staf Pengajar Viktimologi, HAM & Hukum Perlindungan Anak FH-UI • Executive Committee World Society of Victimology • Advokat HAM pada Pusat Advokasi Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia (PAHAM)
Three definitions of Victim 1.The crime victim 2.The universal concept of victims (Mendelsohn) 3.The victim of violations of human rights including crime (Kirchhoff & Morosawa, 2009)
Victims are Socially Constructed • Victims are socially constructed, it is not sufficient that persons claim the status of victims without sufficient social acknowledgement (social construction of reality). (Barkhuizen 2007, in Kirchhoff and Morosawa, 2009)
FACULTY OF LAW UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Ezzat Fattah on Victimology (1) (Ezzat Fattah, 2002) • Victimology, the study of crime victims, their characteristics, their relationship to, and their interactions with, their victimizers, their role and their actual contribution to the genesis of crime, offers a great promise for transforming etiological criminology from a static, one-sided study of the traits and attributes of the offender into a dynamic, situational approach that views criminal behaviour not as a unilateral action but as the outcome of dynamic processes of interaction.
FACULTY OF LAW UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Ezzat Fattah on Victimology (2) • The study of the victims is and will always remain an integral part of criminology. Any attempt to separate victimology from criminology, or to treat it as an independent or autonomous discipline is bound to fail.
FACULTY OF LAW UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA VICTIMOLOGY AND VICTIMIZATION (Shichor and Tibbets, 2002) • Victimology focused on individual victims of violent crimes committed by individual perpetrators. • Gradually, victimological studies expanded to organizations and corporations as victim and victimizers. • Victimology is in the process of delineating its focus of study, defining its key concepts, theoretical approaches, refining its data-collection methods, and generally trying to establish itself as a legitimate and independent discipline.
FACULTY OF LAW UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA VICTIMOLOGY AND VICTIMIZATION (1) • Victimology : the scientific study of the victim of human rights violation (including crime), of victimizations and of reactions to both of those. • Victimology deals with victims, with victims of human rights violation (including crime) • Victimology deals with empirically accessible social realities. (Kirchhoff, 2005).
FACULTY OF LAW UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA VICTIMOLOGY & VICTIMIZATION (2) • Victimology is interested in the process of becoming a victim (which social, group, institutional and individual conditions lead to these processes?) > victimization. • Victimology looks at reactions, reactions to victims and reactions to victimization. (Kirchhoff, 2005).
FACULTY OF LAW UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Mendelsohn & General Victimology • Beniamin Mendelsohn continued to develop his ideas about victims for crime until he arrived at the theory of general victimology. Its purpose was to help `victims of all kinds` - including victims of beyond human control (Hoffman, 1992 : 90). • Mendelsohn developed the concept of victimity : “ whole of the socio-bio-psychological characteristics, common to all victims in general, which society wishes to prevent and fight, no matter what their determinants are (criminal or others).
VICTIM SERVICES • Victim services are those activities which are applied in response to victimizations with the intention of relieving suffering and facilitating recovery. • This includes providing information, making assesments, conducting individual interventions, engaging in social advocacy, proposing public policy and working in program development. (Dussich, 2010)
VICTIM SERVICES PROVIDING INFORMATION MAKING ASSESMENT INDIVIDUAL INTERVENTIONS SOCIAL ADVOCACY PROPOSING PUBLIC POLICY WORKING IN PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT
What is advocacy? • Advocacy is speaking, acting and writing with minimal conflict of interest on behalf of the sincerely perceived interests of a disadvantaged person or group to promote, protect and defend their welfare and justice. FACULTY OF LAW UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
• Advocacy is pursuit of influencing outcomes - including public policy and resource allocation decisions within political, economic, and social systems and institutions - that directly affect people's lives. • FACULTY OF LAW UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
• Advocacy has purposeful results: 1.to enable social justice advocates to gain access and voice in the decision making of relevant institutions; 2.to change the power relationships between these institutions and the people affected by their decisions, thereby changing the institutions themselves; and 3. to bring a clear improvement in people's lives FACULTY OF LAW UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
• Advocacy consists of organized efforts and actions based on the reality of "what is." These organized actions seek to highlight critical issues that have been ignored and submerged, to influence public attitudes, and to enact and implement laws and public policies so that visions of "what should be" in a just, decent society become a reality. • FACULTY OF LAW UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
What is advocacy (3) Advocacy efforts may include : • Proposing public policy or questioning the prevailing public policies. • Lobbying for rights and services • Public demonstrations • Public and professional education through written information and programs. FACULTY OF LAW UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
TYPES OF ADVOCACY • Two main forms of advocacy : 1.Individual advocacy 2.System Advocacy FACULTY OF LAW UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
Individual Advocacy • Focuses on changing the situation of one person – to protect his or her rights or to improve individual services. • Two common forms : 1.Informal advocacy; is undertaken by individuals, their parents, brothers and sisters, relatives, friends. 2.Voluntary or not to profit community based organizations that pay staff to advocate for individuals. (www.mndaust.asn.au) FACULTY OF LAW UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
SYSTEM ADVOCACY • Works to change the situation of a whole group of people who share a similar problem, or to change a service system. System advocacy can benefit many people. It also strives to prevent problem. • System advocacy encourages changes to the law, government and service provider policies and community attitudes. FACULTY OF LAW UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
SYSTEM ADVOCACY (2) • Seeks to influence change in the broader political and social arenas because without change at this level, positive change for individuals is more difficult to achieve. • Speak out for new legislation, policies and practices. • Highlighting where policy is in place but not being implemented. • Involving in coalitions FACULTY OF LAW UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
Terminologi yang lain… • System advocacy • Structural advocacy • Structural legal aid (Indonesian) • Social advocacy? FACULTY OF LAW UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
TENTANG ADVOKASI SOSIAL : PROSES2 PEMBENTUKAN KEBIJAKAN PUBLIK 22 • PROSES2 LEGISLASI & JURISDIKSI • PROSES2 POLITIK & BIROKRASI • PROSES2 SOSIALISASI & MOBILISASI
PROSES2 LEGISLASI DAN JURISDIKSI 23 • PENGAJUAN USUL, KONSEP TANDING, DAN PEMBELAAN • Sarana : legal drafting, counter draft judicial review class action, legal standing litigasi/ jurisprudensi
PROSES2 POLITIK DAN BIROKRASI 24 • MEMPENGARUHI PEMBUAT DAN PELAKSANA PERATURAN • SARANA : • LOBBY • NEGOSIASI • MEDIASI • KOLABORASI
PEMBAGIAN KERJA ADVOKASI 25 • KERJA PENDUKUNG KERJA GARIS DEPAN • KERJA BASIS
KERJA PENDUKUNG (Supporting units) 26 • MENYEDIAKAN DANA • LOGISTIK • INFORMAS • DATA • AKSES
KERJA BASIS (ground works) 27 • ADALAH DAPUR GERAKAN ADVOKASI • MEMBANGUN BASIS MASSA • PENDIDIKAN POLITIK KADER • MEMBENTUK LINGKAR INTI • MOBILISASI AKSI
KERJA GARIS DEPAN (front liners) 28 • MELAKSANAKAN FUNGSI JURU BICARA • PERUNDING • PELOBBY • TERLIBAT DALAM PROSES LEGISLASI DAN JURISDIKSI • MENGGALANG SEKUTU
ARUS ADVOKASI TERPADU 29 • BENTUK LINGKAR INTI • KUMPULKAN DATA/ INFO • ANALISIS DATA/ INFO • DISKUSI, SEMINAR, DLL • PILIH ISSU STRATEGIS • KEMAS ISSUE SEMENARIK MUNGKIN • GALANG SEKUTU SEBANYAK MUNGKIN • PENGORGANISASIAN MASYARAKAT • PENDIDIKAN POLITIK
30 • SIAPKAN SATUAN / BARISAN PENDUKUNG • BANGUN BASIS GERAKAN • PELATIHAN TEKNIS • AJUKAN KONSEP TANDING • LAKUKAN PEMBELAAN • PENGARUHI PEMBUAT DAN PELAKSANA KEBIJAKAN
31 • PENGARUHI PENDAPAT UMUM • LANCARKAN TEKANAN PERUBAHAN KEBIJAKAN PUBLIK
32 JARINGAN KERJA ADVOKASI (Roem Toppatimasing, dkk) KERJA PENDUKUNG (Supporting units) Dana, logistik, informasi, data, akses KERJA GARIS DEPAN (Front lines) Melaksanakan fungsi juru bicara, Lobby, negosiasi, terlibat dalam Proses legislasi dan litigasi, Menggalang sekutu KERJA BASIS (Ground works) “ dapur” gerakan advokasi : Membangun basis masa, Pend. Politik kader, mbtk lingkar inti Mobilisasi aksi, kampanye
BAGAN ARUS SISTEM KERJA ADVOKASI (Roem Toppatimasang, dkk) 33 Bentuk Tim Inti Kumpulkan Informasi Analisis Data Bangun Aliansi Identifikasi Korban Siapkan Basis Gerakan Tetapkan Issue Dan tujuan Strategis Bungkus/ Kemas Issue Menyiakan Alternatif pemecahan Adakan pembelaan Pengaruhi Pendapat umum Pengaruhi Pembuat Keputusan Lancarkan Tekanan Perubahan Kebijakan Structure Culture Contrent Siapkan Sistem Pendukung Dana, logistik, Sistem informasi Monitoring dan Evaluasi Umpan balik Pengorganisasian Masyarakat Pemberdayaan Pendidikan Politik Lobby Kampanye, Jumpa pers Judicial review Legal drafting litigasi Aksi massa, Demonstrasi, boykot Seminar, diskusi, dll Studi penelitian negosiasi
34 PROSES LEGISLASI & JURISDIKSI (pengajuan usul, konsep tanding, Dan pembelaan) - legal drafting - Counter draft - Judicial review - litigasi PROSES-PROSES POLITIK BIROKRASI (Mempengaruhi pembuat & pelaksana putusan - Lobby - negosiasi - mediasi - kolaborasi PROSES-PROSES SOSIALISASI & MOBILISASI (Membentuk pendapat umum Dan tekanan politik) - kampanye, siaran pers - unjuk rasa, mogok, boykot - pengorganisasian basis - pendidikan politik TATA LAKSANA HUKUM BUDAYA HUKUK PEMBENTUKAN/ PERUBAHAN KEBIJAKAN PUBLIK ISI/NASKAH HUKUM
INDONESIAN LAW ON SOCIAL WELFARE NO. 11/ 2009 SOCIAL WELFARE SOCIAL REHABI LITATIO N SOCIAL SECURI TY SOCIAL EMPOWE RMENT SOCIAL PROTEC TION
SOCIAL PROTECTION IN LAW NO. 11/ 2009 SOCIAL ASSISTANCESOCIAL ADVOCACYLEGAL ASSISTANCE/ AID
Pasal 16 (1)Advokasi sosial dimaksudkan untuk melindungi dan membela seseorang, keluarga, kelompok, dan/ atau masyarakat yang dilanggar haknya. (2) Advokasi sosial sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (1) diberikan dalam bentuk penyadaran hak dan kewajiban, pembelaan, dan pemenuhan hak.
SOCIAL ADVOCACY (art. 16 Indonesian Law No. 11/ 2009) TO PROTECT TO DEFEND Individual/ family/ group/ community RIGHTS AWARENESS/ EDUCATION DEFEND RIGHTS FULFILMENT
Lesson Learned : Disaster Victimization (Korban Bencana Alam) & System Advocacy > Indonesia, Thailand, Japan
System Advocacy for Indonesian Disaster Victims • Triggered by Aceh/ Indian ocean earthquake – tsunami 2004 • NGOs/ NPOs played active and significant role in conducting system advocacy for disaster victims. FACULTY OF LAW UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
The Role of NGO > MPBI • Masyarakat Penanggulangan Bencana Indonesia/ Indonesian Society for Disaster Countermeasures have conducted such measures as follows : 1.Initiating the draft of Indonesian Disaster Management Act, including Presidential Decree and bylaws both in national and local level. 2.Creating a framework of Community-based disaster risk reduction management FACULTY OF LAW UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
3. Campaigning, promoting and disseminating humanitarian standard (SPHERE Project) for volunteers. 4.Conducting research, discussion, and seminar on disaster countermeasures issues. FACULTY OF LAW UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
Proposing Indonesian Disaster Management Act • Indonesia does not have Disaster Management Act until the enactment of Law No. 24 year 2007 on Disaster Management/ Countermeasures • Previously, the laws concerning disaster management are only presidential decree No. 3 year 2001 on Coordinating Board of Disaster Management.
44 Major Issues on Disaster Management LACK OF MANAGEMENT CAPACITY ON DISASTER RESPONSE • Delay in the management of emergency response • Lack of coordination in planning and programming for post-disaster recovery • Institutional framework is more focus on emergency response, rather than post-disaster recovery • Funding more emphasizes on emergency response LACK OF UNDERSTANDING IN DISASTER RISK REDUCTION • Lack of understanding in the preparation of disaster preparedness and risk reduction • Lack of institutional performance in the management of risk reduction • Lack of planning and programming for risk reduction • Lack of incorporating risk disaster mitigation into spatial plans (Hadi, 2007)
45 New Paradigm on Disaster Management (Hadi, 2007) 1.Recognizing the right for dignified life and livelihood and that the government responsible to ensure the protection from disaster, which is essence is avoidable, with no risks creation in recovery process 2.Reducing disaster risk factors from unsustainable development practices that are worsened by the impact of climate changes 3.Being accountable to the risk community and/or disaster-affected community and sensitivity to gender, participatory, equity and justice perspectives Emergency Response Risk Reduction CentralizeLocal Autonomy Participatory Proactive Government Reactive MAJOR ISSUES GUIDELINES, COORDINATION, LOCAL CAPACITY, FUNDING FRAMEWORK, LONGER-TERM RECOVERY MAJOR ISSUES COMMON PERCEPTION, INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY, FUNDING SOURCE, COMMUNITY PREPAREDNESS
Previous Changes Future •Paradigm •Approach •Institution •Governance •Paradigm •Approach •Institution •Governance Triggered by Aceh Tsunami DM Law No. 24/2007
• CONTOH-CONTOH ADVOKASI
FACULTY OF LAW UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Victim Services (1) : Legal Representation by Thai Action Committee for Democracy in Burma in the aftermath of Phuket Phang Nga- Thailand Tsunami December burmese.org/web/index.php?option=com _content&view=section&layout=blog&id= 28&Itemid=70
FACULTY OF LAW UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Victim Services (2) : Advocating Burmese Unregistered Migrant Workers who were victimized by tsunami
FACULTY OF LAW UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Disaster Victims : Sea Gypsy (Moken)
ADVOKASI KORBAN KONFLIK THAILAND SELATAN – PATTANI NGO Cross Cultural Foundation bekerja untuk pendampingan korban kekerasan di Thailand Selatan dalam bentuk : • pendampingan keluarga korban di Thailand Selatan • Observasi dan investigasi • Monitoring pengadilan dan persidangan • Menyediakan pengacara untuk tersangka • Melakukan kampanye, membuat petisi dan diseminasi issue
Advokasi thd Kekerasan di Thailand Selatan
Advokasi Korban Kekerasan Negara terhadap Pengungsi/ Pencari Suaka Rohingya asal Myanmar PIARA – Pusat Informasi & Advokasi Rohingya Arakan
Advokasi untuk Pengungsi Rohingya • Investigasi dan monitoring ke Rudenim dan tempat-tempat para pengungsi • Kampanye • Penyampaian sikap ke legislatif/ eksekutif dan Myanmar Embassy • Mendatangkan Rohingya leaders in exile untuk roadshow di Indonesia • Menyampaikan bantuan kemanusiaan
FACULTY OF LAW UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA • Arigato gozaimashita • Terima kasih banyak ! • Khob khun mak mak khrap