Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

7/1/2014 1 Information Technology: Hardware Copyright 1996-98 © Dale Carnegie & Associates, Inc. by Kudang B. Seminar, PhD.

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "7/1/2014 1 Information Technology: Hardware Copyright 1996-98 © Dale Carnegie & Associates, Inc. by Kudang B. Seminar, PhD."— Transcript presentasi:

1 7/1/ Information Technology: Hardware Copyright © Dale Carnegie & Associates, Inc. by Kudang B. Seminar, PhD

2 Abacus •An abacus is a calculator used first by the Chinese since about 500 BC, for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, as well as fractions and square root. •The inventor is unknown. However, the abacus as we know it today did not appear in China until about 1200 A.D. •Contests have been held between users of the Japanese abacus and an electric calculator.For addition and subtraction the abacus user was much faster than the calculator user, but for multiplication and division the advantage of the abacus was less decisively demonstrated.

3 ABC (Atanasoff & Berry Computer) 1939, Iowa Univ. Consisting of 11 Vacuum Tubes

4 •Vacuum Tubes •Berfungsi sebagai penguat, pengubah, dan pencipta sinyal elektrik •Banyak dipakai di peralatan komunikasi seperti radio, televisi, radar, komputer, telephon network.

5 ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) 1946, Pennsylvania Univ. Consisting of 17,468 vacuum tubes

6 EDSAC (Elecronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator/Computer) 1949, Cambridge University Uses: Vacuum Tubes

7 MARK I Computer 1949 – Consisting of 1300 Vacuum Tubes I/O Devices: Saklar, pita dan pencetak •Manchester Mark I•Havard Mark I

8 UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) 1951 – Consisting of 5200 Vacuum Tubes

9 IAS Computer Developed By John Von Newmann at Princeton Univ •1 st General Purpose Computer •Consists of 23,000 vacuum tubes •Used for solving complex applications: metereology, astonomy, hydrodynamic s, atomic weapons •Consist of 3 sub-systems: main processor, Memory, I/O Devices

10 IBM 701 developed at 1952 by IBM President: Thomas J. Watson, Jr. •Known as the Defense Calculator while in development •Publically announced in •Known as IBM 701 Electronic Data Processing Machines •Consist of 3 sub- systems: main processor, Memory, I/O Devices •Key to IBM's transition from punched-card machines to electronic computers. •The first of the pioneering line of IBM 700 series computers, including the 702, 704, 705 and 709. •Uses 72 Williams Tubes

11 Generasi Komputer Dengan Rangkaian Terpadu (Integrated Circuit/IC) •Jack Kilby adalah penemu sirkuit terpadu (integrated circuit) yang sekarang digunakan untuk pembuatan mikroprosesor komputer, ketika Kilby bekerja di Texas Instruments pada tahun •Pada tahun 2000, Kilby mendapatkan penghargaan Nobel dalam bidang Fisika berkat penemuan sirkuit terpadu (integrated circuit) tersebut. •Rangkaian terpadu yang terdiri dari ratusan/ribuan/jutaan komponen elektronik semi konduktor (transistor) yang dikemas dalam bentuk yang kompak dan ringan dalam bentuk chip, disebut juga micro-circuit, microprocessor, atau slicon-chip. •Melahirkan penemuan Mikroprosesor 4004 di tahun 1971.

12 IBM’s 7000 Series – Generation of Transitorized or Chip-Based Computers •IBM high end version of IBM introduced in 1962IBM •IBM Stretch supercomputer - introduced in 1961IBM •IBM scientific - introduced in 1963IBM •IBM scientific - introduced in 1963IBM •IBM decimal - introduced in 1960IBM •IBM decimal - introduced in 1962IBM •IBM decimal - introduced in 1961; used by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service in 1962 [1]IBM Internal Revenue Service [1] •IBM commercial - introduced in 1961IBM •IBM scientific - introduced in 1959IBM •IBM scientific - introduced in 1962IBM •IBM 7094 II - scientific - introduced in 1964IBM 7094 II1964 •IBM 7090's at NASA's Project Mercury, •An IBM 7040 in operation from 1964 to 1974 at the German university Technische Hochschule Darmstadt with IBM 1401 on the right.Technische Hochschule DarmstadtIBM 1401

13 PDP (Programmed data Processor)-1 Computer •Designed by DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation) •Built using chip technology. •The entire computer occupies only 17 square feet of floor space.

14 MITS Altair 8800 Computer •It was a microcomputer designed in •Produced by Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS) •based on the Intel 8080 CPU •It is considered as 1 st PC (Personal Computer) generation.

15 Jenis Komputer •Mainframes (Super Computers) •Minicomputers •Microcomputers

16 Mainframes (Super Computer) •Large in Physical Size •Fast Computing Speed •Large Memory Capacity •Consist of Multiple Processors (CPUs) •Provides many connections to I/O devices •Mainly used for Large Scale Computer Server •First Generation: Mark I, ENIAC, UNIVAC, IBM 701, IBM 360 •Current generation: Cray-2, IBM ES/9000, IBM S/390, •IBM 360•Cray-2 •The Columbia Supercomputer at NASA's Advanced Supercomputing Facility at Ames Research Center.

17 Minicomputers •Mini physical size •Fairly fast computing speed •Fairly large memory capacity •May consists of multiple CPU/processors •Used for Library Otomation in since 1970 •First Generation: PDP-1, IBM AS/400 •Used as Computer Servers •Current Generation: midrange systems (IBM parlance), workstations (Sun Microsystems and general UNIX/Linux parlance), HoneyWell 316, GEC 4000 Series, PDP-11midrange systemsIBMworkstationsSun MicrosystemsUNIXLinux

18 Microcomputers •Micro physical size •Slower computing speed •Smaller memory capacity •Mostly consists of single or can be 2 CPU/processors •Banyak digunakan untuk layanan transaksi front- end: OPAC, sirkulasi, Cash Register, Layanan Pengguna •First Generation: PC (Personal Computer) seperti XT, AT (286,386,486) •Current Generation: Notebook, Laptop, Palmtop, PDA (personal Digital Assistant) •Used as Client Computers

19 Sistem Komputer •Kombinasi elemen-elemen fungsional secara terpadu yang mencakup piranti keras (hardware), piranti lunak (software), piranti data (dataware) dan aturan/standar (ruleware) untuk melaksanakan program/komputasi berbasis komputer. •Notes: tidak termasuk manusia (brainware) -> Berbeda dengan definisi Pusnas.

20 Komponen Sistem Komputer •Hardware: Main Processor (CPU), Memory, Input-Output (I/O). •Software: Sistem Operasi (Operating System/OS), Sofware Utilisasi, Pengembangan (Development Sofware), Software Aplikasi (Application Sofware). •Sofware mengendalikan mekanisme kerja operasional hardware.

21 7/1/ Hardware Resources •I/O (Input/Output) devices •Processor •Memory

22 7/1/ I/O Devices •I/O Devices: to exchange data between computer systems and external sources •Input Devices: to enter data into a computer system •Output Devices: to send data out of a computer system

23 7/1/ Input Devices pada Pemetaan Digital

24 7/1/ Pengolahan Citra & Digitisasi Peta

25 7/1/ Output Devices Pada Pusat Informasi Geografis

26 7/1/ Kriteria Pemilihan I/O Devices •Kecepatan (Speed) •Kemudahan (Ease of Use) •Keandalan (Reliability) •Obyektivitas & Akurasi •Kesesuaian dengan jenis data •Durasi (endurance) •Kompatibilitas

27 7/1/ Identification of Crop Canopy Area Using Camera

28 01/07/2014 Dies Natalis IPB GREENHOUSE PROTOTYPE

29 01/07/2014 Dies Natalis IPB SENSORS WITH IN GREENHOUSE

30 01/07/2014 Dies Natalis IPB Temperature & Humidity Control

31 01/07/2014 Dies Natalis IPB Light Intensity Control

32 01/07/2014 Dies Natalis IPB •Yield Monitoring Using Satellite

33 01/07/2014 Dies Natalis IPB Weed detection for site-specific weed management

34 01/07/2014 Dies Natalis IPB •HALOGEN •LAMP •CHOPPER •MONOCHROMATOR •INTEGRATING •SPHERE •MOTOR •AMP. •A/D•COMPUTER •DO •CONT. •NIR APPARATUS SYSTEM FOR THE EXPERIMENT untuk DETEKSI KEMATANGAN MANGGA

35 01/07/2014 Dies Natalis IPB BioControl Systems (BCS) •BCS development efforts utilize five different types of bioelectric signals: Electrooculogram (EOG), Electromyogram (EMG), Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrocardiogram (EKG), and Galvanic skin response (GSR) •The essence of the biocontroller interface involves three processes: (1) bioelectric signal acquisition, (2) signal processing for pattern recognition or extraction of desired elements of the biosignal, and (3) mapping the results of the signal processing algorithm to some desired output code - which controls external electronic devices.

36 7/1/ BioSensors

37 7/1/ •Sortasi dengan mesin skala besar •Teknologi •Sortasi •Digunakan pada industri besar •Komputerisasi, mata elektronik untuk mengimbangi jumlah objek yang sangat besar

38 7/1/ Processors the device unit that performs data processing •High speed: micro, mini, super computer •Multiprocessors: support processor, coupled processor, parallel processor •Execution time: microsecond, nanosecond, picosecond •Speed measures: clock speed (Hz), MIPS (Million Instructions Per Second), FLOPS (Floating Point Operations per Second) Features:

39 7/1/ Perkembangan awal Prosesor Intel

40 7/1/ Data acquisition & processing

41 7/1/

42 7/1/ Produksi Peta dengan Teknologi SIG

43 7/1/ Profil kota Profil sumber air Profil suhu permukaan bumi Profil mineral bumi

44 7/1/ Memory •Memory Internal (primary storage): Register, Buffer, Cache, RAM, ROM •Memory External (secondary storage): Hardisk, Floppy Disk, Diskettes, Drum DIsk, CD-ROM, Laser Disk, Optical Disk, Tape, MO disk, ZIP disk, USB

45 7/1/ Memory Features •Internal: higher speed, lower storage capacity, volatile, expensive, required for program execution, fully electronic •External: lower speed, higher storage capacity, non-volatile, cheaper, long-term storage, mechatronic •Measures: access speed & storage capacity (MByte, GByte, TByte)

46 7/1/ ,000 10, ,000 MBytes ” 2.5” 3.5” 5.25” 8-14” 80%/year Magnetic Disk Capacity

47 7/1/ Form factor:.5-1”  4”  5.7” Storage: 18-73GB Form factor:.4-.7”  2.7”  3.9” Storage: 4-27GB Form factor:.2-.4”  2.1”  3.4” Storage: 170MB-1GB Storage Devices

48 7/1/ Storage Hierarchy Cost $600 a chip $10 -2 per byte $10 -4 per byte $10 -8 per byte Size 2 13 bytes 2 27 bytes 2 30 bytes 2 40 bytes CPU, Reg Cache Memory Secondary Storage bits words k words


Download ppt "7/1/2014 1 Information Technology: Hardware Copyright 1996-98 © Dale Carnegie & Associates, Inc. by Kudang B. Seminar, PhD."

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google