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PSYCHOLOGY & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SEPT-OCR 2012.

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Presentasi berjudul: "PSYCHOLOGY & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SEPT-OCR 2012."— Transcript presentasi:

1 PSYCHOLOGY & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SEPT-OCR 2012

2 NAMA : Ira Puspitawati TTGL : Jakarta, ALAMAT : Jln. Stralaga No. 9 – Komp. Dwikora - Halim P. Jakarta PENDIDIKAN : TK Angkasa 1 – Halim SD Sekolah Indonesia Manila SMPN 5 Yogyakarta SMAN 3 Yogyakarta S1 Psikologi UGM S2 Psikologi Perkembangan UI S3 Psikologi Kekhususan Perkembangan - Laboratoire d'Etude de l'Apprentissage et du Développement (The Laboratory for Research on Learning and Development) – Université de Bourgogne (Burgundy University) – FranceThe Laboratory for Research on Learning and Development STATUS : Menikah SUAMI : Kol Pnb. Ir. Tri Bowo Budi S,MM ANAK : 1. Hafidz Bagus Prasetyo A. (16) 2. Ratriana Naila Syafira (13)

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4 PERBEDAAAN ILMU DAN TEKNOLOGI Ilmu pengetahuan pengetahuan tentang interrelasi sebab akibat, dijabarkan secara sistematik dari pengamatan, studi, dan penelitian ilmu pengetahuan dimaksudkan untuk memahami sesuatu bersifat universal

5 Teknologi * ilmu tentang penerapan ilmu pengetahuan untuk tujuan-tujuan praktis. * teknologi untuk melakukan sesuatu sehingga teknologi ditujukan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan manusia atau tepat guna. Contoh : teknologi jaman batu : teknologi jaman modern KESIMPULAN Dengan demikian dapat dipahami bahwa ilmu pengetahuan tanpa teknologi tidak bermanfaat, sedangkan teknologi yang tidak didasari ilmu pengetahuan tidak dapat diandalkan.

6 Apa dampak TEKNOLOGI?

7 Teknologi bawa dampak positif dan negatif SOLUSI TERGANTUNG DARI PENGGUNA karena efek + bersamaan dengan efek - TEKNOLOGI KOMPUTER, antara lain + : mempermudah, mempercepat - : ketergantungan, budaya instant KOMPUTER : user friendly sehingga manusia sering melupakan segi negatifnya

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11 PENGGUNA INTERNET ASIA mendominasi sebesar 44.8% dari populasi pengguna internet di dunia

12 INDONESIA menempati ranking ke-4 di ASIA

13 ECOLOGICAL, CONTEXTUAL THEORIES URIE BRONFENBRENNER

14 Human-computer interaction (HCI) is the study of interaction between people (users) and computers. It is an interdisciplinary subject, relating computer science with many other fields of study and research. Interaction between users and computers occurs at the user interface (or simply interface), which includes both hardware (i.e. peripherals and other hardware) and software (for example determining which, and how, information is presented to the user on a screen).usercomputercomputer scienceuser interfaceinterface hardwareperipheralssoftware

15 Usability is the degree to which the design of a particular user interface takes into account the human psychology and physiology of the users, and makes the process of using the system effective, efficient and satisfying. Usabilitypsychologyphysiology Kaitan dengan a. mental model,mental model b. human action cycle,human action cycle c. usability testingusability testing A mental model is an explanation in someone's thought process for how something works in the real world. It is a kind of internal symbol or representation of external reality, hypothesised to play a major part in cognition.cognition

16 The human action cycle is a psychological model which describes the steps humans take when they interact with computer systemspsychological modelhumanscomputer systems The three stages of the human action cycle (goal formation, execution and evaluation). The model is divided into three stages of seven steps in total, and is (approximately) as follows: Goal formation stage 1. Goal formation. Execution stage 2. Translation of goals into a set of (unordered) tasks required to achieve the goal. 3. Sequencing the tasks to create the action sequence. 4. Executing the action sequence. Evaluation stage 5. Perceiving the results after having executed the action sequence. 6. Interpreting the actual outcomes based on the expected outcomes. 7. Comparing what happened with what the user wished to happen.

17 Time on Task -- How long does it take people to complete basic tasks? (For example, find something to buy, create a new account, and order the item.) Accuracy -- How many mistakes did people make? (And were they fatal or Accuracy recoverable with the right information?) Recall -- How much does the person remember afterwards? Emotional Response -- How does the person feel about the tasks completed? (Confident? Stressed? Would the user recommend this system to a friend?)

18 USER INTERFACE The user interface is the aggregate of means by which people (the users) interact with a particular machine, device, computer program or other complex tool (the system). The user interface provides means of: The user interface is the aggregate of means by which people (the users) interact with a particular machine, device, computer program or other complex tool (the system). The user interface provides means of:interact machinedevicecomputer programtoolsysteminteract machinedevicecomputer programtoolsystem A. Input, allowing the users to control the system A. Input, allowing the users to control the systemInput B. Output, allowing the system to inform the users (also Output referred to as feedback) referred to as feedback)

19 What is a User Interface? UI is the basic format allowing a user to operate a program ◦ Command Line (CLI) is text-based ◦ Graphical User Interface (GUI) relies on pictures

20 UI Components Most common GUI configuration ◦ WIMP – window, icon, mouse, pointer CLI configurations can vary ◦ Scripts ◦ TUI – looks like graphic, but comprised of text characters

21 21 Two ways to look at a user interface Design aspect: how to design everything relevant to the user? Human aspect: what does the user need to understand?

22 22 Human factors Humanities ◦ Psychology: how does one perceive, learn, remember, … ◦ Organization and culture: how do people work together, … Artistic design ◦ Graphical arts: how doe shapes, color, etc affect the viewer ◦ Cinematography: which movements induce certain reactions ◦ Getting attractive solutions Ergonomics ◦ Relation between human characteristics and artifacts ◦ Especially cognitive ergonomics

23 23 Models in HCI Internal models (‘models for execution’) ◦ Mental model (model of a system held by a user) ◦ User model (model of user held by a system) External models (‘for communication’) ◦ Model of human information processing ◦ Conceptual models (such as Task Action Grammar)

24 24 Model of human information processing

25 25 Use of mental models Planning the use of technology ◦ First search by author name Finetuning user actions while executing a task ◦ Refine search in case of too many hits Evaluate results ◦ Keep the titles on software engineering Cope with events while using the system ◦ Accept slow response time in the morning

26 Viewpoints of conceptual models Psychological view: definition of all the user should know and understand about the system Linguistic view: definition of the dialog between the user and the system Design view: all that needs to be decided upon from the point of view of user interface design

27 UVM = user's virtual machine Design of the user interface

28 28 Dimensions of task knowledge

29 SE, User Interface Design, Hans van Vliet, © Gathering task knowledge (cnt’d) Cell A (individual, explicit): interviews, questionnaires, etc Cell B (individual, implicit): observations, interpretation of mental representations Cell C (group, explicit): study artifacts: documents, archives, etc Cell D (group, implicit): ethnography

30 SE, User Interface Design, Hans van Vliet, © Guidelines for user interface design Use a simple and natural dialog Speak the user’s language Minimize memory load Be consistent Provide feedback Provide clearly marked exits Provide shortcut Give good error messages

31 31 Summary Central issue: tune user’s mental model (model in memory) with the conceptual model (model created by designers) User interface design requires input from different disciplines: cognitive psychology, ethnography, arts, …

32 IKON SEBAGAI ANTARMUKA MANUSIA KOMPUTER Ikon (Yunani) = image/gambar/simbol yang merepresentasikan suatu objek -> baru kemudian berkembang menjadi tulisan Dalam HCI, ikon dimaksudkan sebagai IMAGE atau SIMBOL YANG MEREPRESENTASIKAN SUATU PERASI/PERINTAH a. Ikon Piktorial untuk merepresentasikan informasi operasi semantik dan abstrak dengan gambar b. Ikon Simbol untuk merepresentasikan informasi operasi semantik dengan beberapa karakter

33 Pertimbangan dalam menciptakan ikon KETERGANTUNGAN KULTUR/BUDAYA dan APLIKASI, gunakan simbol alami sesuai latarbelakang budaya BENTUK MUDAH DIKENAL (easy recognition), makna yang tepat akan membantu mengingat dan mengidentifikasi ikon BERBEDA DGN IKON LAIN DALAM 1 SISTEM, mudah dibedakan dan memiliki ciri yang khas dalam merefleksi- kan makna dari objek yang direpresentasikan KEUNTUNGAN DIGUNAKAN IKON SEBAGAI ANTARMUKA Operasi akan lebih cepat daripada menuliskan kata-kata perintah Untuk memahami arti semantik suatu ikon akan lebih cepat Perinath-perintah atau operasi dengan ikon dapat dilakukan secara simultan


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